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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469336

RESUMO

Abstract Naturally occurring mutations in morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are associated with decreased ovulation rate (OR), litter size (LS), and sterility. It is of a great interest to elucidate BMP15 gene in Cholistani sheep breed to uplift socio-economic status and the knowledge of Cholistani sheep breeding in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. In our study, a total of 50 infertile Cholistani sheep aged between 2-6 years and having no blood relation were screened for BMP15 mutations. For this purpose, a high-quality DNA was extracted from the blood of sheep followed by primer designing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification, DNA sequencing, and in silico analyses. Out of total 50 samples, 9 samples including case 1 (T3), case 2 (T8), case 3 (T17), case 4 (T22), case 5 (T25), case 6 (T33), case 7 (T40), case 8 (T44), and case 9 (T47) were found positive for a variety of already reported and novel BMP15 mutations. Further in silico analyses of the observed mutations have shown the functional impact of these mutations on different characteristics (molecular weight, theoretical PI, estimated half-life, instability index, sub-cellular localization, and 3D confirmation) of the encoded proteins, possibly altering the normal functionality. In a nutshell, findings of this study have confirmed the possible essential role of the BMP15 mutations in the infertility of the Cholistani sheep.


Resumo Mutações de ocorrência natural na proteína morfogenética 15 (BMP15) estão associadas à diminuição da taxa de ovulação (TO), tamanho da ninhada (TN) e esterilidade. Estudar a BMP15 na raça Cholistani para elevar o status socioeconômico e o conhecimento da criação de ovinos Cholistani no sul de Punjab, Paquistão. Em nosso estudo, 50 ovelhas Cholistani inférteis sem parentesco sanguíneo foram rastreadas para mutações BMP15. Para tanto, um DNA de alta qualidade foi extraído do sangue dessas ovelhas, seguido de concepção do primer, amplificação da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), sequenciamento de DNA e análises in silico. Do total de 50 amostras, 9, incluindo caso 1 (T3), caso 2 (T8), caso 3 (T17), caso 4 (T22), caso 5 (T25), caso 6 (T33), caso 7 (T40), caso 8 (T44) e caso 9 (T47), foram consideradas positivas para uma variedade de mutações BMP15 novas e já relatadas. Mais análises in silico das mutações observadas mostraram o impacto funcional dessas mutações em diferentes características (peso molecular, PI teórico, meia-vida estimada, índice de instabilidade, localização subcelular e confirmação 3D) das proteínas codificadas, possivelmente alterando a funcionalidade normal. Nossos achados confirmaram o possível papel essencial das mutações BMP15 na infertilidade de ovelhas Cholistani.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256923, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360219

RESUMO

Naturally occurring mutations in morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are associated with decreased ovulation rate (OR), litter size (LS), and sterility. It is of a great interest to elucidate BMP15 gene in Cholistani sheep breed to uplift socio-economic status and the knowledge of Cholistani sheep breeding in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. In our study, a total of 50 infertile Cholistani sheep aged between 2-6 years and having no blood relation were screened for BMP15 mutations. For this purpose, a high-quality DNA was extracted from the blood of sheep followed by primer designing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification, DNA sequencing, and in silico analyses. Out of total 50 samples, 9 samples including case 1 (T3), case 2 (T8), case 3 (T17), case 4 (T22), case 5 (T25), case 6 (T33), case 7 (T40), case 8 (T44), and case 9 (T47) were found positive for a variety of already reported and novel BMP15 mutations. Further in silico analyses of the observed mutations have shown the functional impact of these mutations on different characteristics (molecular weight, theoretical PI, estimated half-life, instability index, sub-cellular localization, and 3D confirmation) of the encoded proteins, possibly altering the normal functionality. In a nutshell, findings of this study have confirmed the possible essential role of the BMP15 mutations in the infertility of the Cholistani sheep.


Mutações de ocorrência natural na proteína morfogenética 15 (BMP15) estão associadas à diminuição da taxa de ovulação (TO), tamanho da ninhada (TN) e esterilidade. Estudar a BMP15 na raça Cholistani para elevar o status socioeconômico e o conhecimento da criação de ovinos Cholistani no sul de Punjab, Paquistão. Em nosso estudo, 50 ovelhas Cholistani inférteis sem parentesco sanguíneo foram rastreadas para mutações BMP15. Para tanto, um DNA de alta qualidade foi extraído do sangue dessas ovelhas, seguido de concepção do primer, amplificação da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), sequenciamento de DNA e análises in silico. Do total de 50 amostras, 9, incluindo caso 1 (T3), caso 2 (T8), caso 3 (T17), caso 4 (T22), caso 5 (T25), caso 6 (T33), caso 7 (T40), caso 8 (T44) e caso 9 (T47), foram consideradas positivas para uma variedade de mutações BMP15 novas e já relatadas. Mais análises in silico das mutações observadas mostraram o impacto funcional dessas mutações em diferentes características (peso molecular, PI teórico, meia-vida estimada, índice de instabilidade, localização subcelular e confirmação 3D) das proteínas codificadas, possivelmente alterando a funcionalidade normal. Nossos achados confirmaram o possível papel essencial das mutações BMP15 na infertilidade de ovelhas Cholistani.


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos , Infertilidade , Mutação/genética
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(19): 9169-9182, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37843331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The growing bacterial resistance towards classical antibiotics demands the development of novel approaches for the effective treatment of potentially fatal bacterial infections in humans. Proteostasis is crucial for the survival of every living cell, as several important physiological functions depend on well-regulated proteostasis. Within bacteria, the regulation of proteostasis relies on AAA+ (Adenosine 5'-triphosphatases associated with diverse cellular activities), ATPases, such as the HslVU complex (heat shock locus gene products U and V), along with other proteases. The HslVU protease/chaperon complex is thought to be the progenitor of the eukaryotic proteasome that regulates proteostasis mostly in prokaryotes. This study aimed to determine the inhibitory potential of 3-substituted coumarin derivatives against Escherichia coli heat shock locus V (HslV) protease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, twenty-three derivatives of 3-substituted coumarin were assessed for their inhibitory potential against E. coli HslV protease using both in-vitro and in-silico techniques. RESULTS: Among all the tested compounds, US-I-64, US-I-66, US-I-67, and US-I-68 displayed notable inhibitory potential against the HslV protease, showing IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values ranging from 0.2 to 0.73 µM. Additionally, the inhibitory potential of these compounds against the eukaryotic proteasome was also evaluated using a separate in-silico study. It was found that these compounds did not bind with the proteasomal active site, suggesting no apparent side effects of these lead molecules. CONCLUSIONS: These identified HslV protease inhibitors can be used for the development of novel and safer anti-bacterial drugs.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Humanos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteases Dependentes de ATP/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico
4.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e272413, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37255178

RESUMO

The present study aimed to produce a monosex population of all male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) using 17α-methyl testosterone and common carp testes (as a source of natural androgen). Trial was conducted into two consecutive phases, the first was fry (4-5 days old)administration with negative control (without hormone) and positive control (with hormone) feed viz., MT1:60mg/kg, MT2:70mg/kg (17α-MT), carp testis CT1:70% and CT2:80% for 30 days to reverse the sex of male fish and the second phase was nursing the fingerlings for two months on control diet (32% Crude protein).Results revealed a significant growth rate (P<0.05) in the control group where final weight (4.8±0.34ab) and weight gained was recorded as 0.66±0.03ac. In proximate chemical composition of body meat, CT2 treatment showed maximum retention of crude protein, crude fat, and ash whereas dry matter showed maximum retention in MT2 and CT1 treatments. Morphological and histological examination revealed significant difference (p<0.05) in phenotypic males of Nile tilapia fed with the highest percent in MT-treated diet (MT2) of 95±0.58a while MT1, CT2 and CT1 had males of 85±6.0b, 70±5.0b and 65±6.5b, respectively. It was concluded that synthetic androgen (17αMT) was more effective for masculinization but natural androgen scan be an alternative method to produce male tilapia population in an environment-friendly manner as they are inexpensive, eco-friendly, and radially available. These results suggested that synthetic and natural androgen supplementation in the diet plays a significant role in improving growth performance and body composition.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Tilápia , Animais , Masculino , Androgênios/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Congêneres da Testosterona
5.
Poult Sci ; 102(3): 102420, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584421

RESUMO

This study examined how selenium-supplemented diets affected the performance of naked neck chickens. The birds were fed both organic and inorganic selenium at 0.30 ppm, while the control diet did not include any additional selenium. A total of 225 one-day-old naked neck chicks were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups, each of which was replicated 5 times (replicates) and contained 15 birds. This was done using a completely randomized design. The data was collected after growth, meat quality, and blood profile parameters were assessed. The findings showed that the birds fed inorganic selenium in the diet displayed increased (P < 0.05) feed intake followed by those administered organic selenium and the control diet. On the other hand, birds fed organic selenium in the diet showed enhanced body weight gain and better feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05). Similarly, organic selenium supplementation increased (P < 0.05) breast and thigh weight compared to inorganic selenium, but no other metrics, such as dressing percentage, drumstick weight, liver weight, gizzard weight, heart weight, or wing weight, significantly differed between treatments (P > 0.05). When compared to birds fed inorganic Se and control diet, the birds fed organic Se had greater (P < 0.05) blood levels of total protein and globulin. Additionally, it was discovered that organic Se-fed birds had greater (P < 0.05) blood Se concentrations than control and inorganic Se-fed birds. However, no differences between treatments were found in albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, or uric acid (P > 0.05). In conclusion, adding Se-enriched yeast, as an organic selenium source, to diets may enhance the poor growth and slaughter characteristics of naked neck chicks without negatively affecting blood chemistry.


Assuntos
Selênio , Animais , Selênio/metabolismo , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(24): 11734-11745, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38164836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to clone and express the hepatitis B surface antigen gene (HBsAg) in Escherichia coli (E. coli), thereby aiming to develop potential local therapeutics for combating Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the Pakistani community by producing HBsAg in E. coli. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood serum samples were collected from hepatitis B-infected patients, and their genomic DNA was extracted. Real-time and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the HBsAg gene. The gene of interest was cloned into the pET20b expression vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) using Isopropyl ß-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction. The gene's precise size was confirmed with gene-specific external and internal primers (681 bp and 400 bp, respectively). RESULTS: The HBsAg gene was successfully sequenced and submitted to GenBank, exhibiting 98% homology with targeted HBV sequences worldwide. The expression of HBsAg protein was confirmed through silver staining, Coomassie staining, western blot, and dot blot analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The expressed protein clones are now available for further development as a local recombinant DNA vaccine to prevent hepatitis B viral infection in the local community.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Humanos , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Viral/genética
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-6, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468892

RESUMO

A ninety days nutritional trial was directed to explore the effects of dietary chromium on body composition, gut enzyme activity and physiological status of Cirrhinus mrigala by using G & NG corn. Six experimental diets were prepared by using different levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, each with G & NG corn). For this experimental trial, 480 fingerlings, irrespective of sex were distributed in six aquariums each with replicate. Results revealed that gelatinized corn along with increasing level of Cr2Cl3.6H2O have a positive impact upon body composition of fish. Hematology was positively correlated with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation in gelatinized corn. Amylase gut enzyme also showed significant (P<0.05) increase in group fed with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplemented diet (G corn). However, corn with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation did not revealed any significant impact on gut protease enzyme activity. From these results it can be concluded that both chromium chloride hexahydrate and gelatinized corn in fish feed are very beneficial to improve body composition, enzymes activity and physiological health status of fish.


Um ensaio nutricional de 90 dias foi dirigido para explorar os efeitos do cromo dietético na composição corporal, atividade enzimática intestinal e estado fisiológico de Cirrhinus mrigala usando milho G & NG. Seis dietas experimentais foram preparadas usando diferentes níveis de cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado (0, 0,2, 0,4 mg/kg, cada um com milho G e NG). Para este ensaio experimental, 480 alevinos, independentemente do sexo, foram distribuídos em seis aquários, cada um com réplicas. Os resultados revelaram que o milho gelatinizado, juntamente com o aumento do nível de Cr2Cl3.6H2O, tem um impacto positivo na composição corporal dos peixes. A hematologia foi positivamente correlacionada com a suplementação de cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado em milho gelatinizado. A enzima amilase intestinal também apresentou aumento significativo (P <0,05) no grupo alimentado com dieta suplementada com cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado (milho G). No entanto, o milho com suplementação de hexahidrato de cloreto de cromo não revelou nenhum impacto significativo na atividade da enzima protease intestinal. Desses resultados, pode-se concluir que tanto o cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado quanto o milho gelatinizado na alimentação de peixes são muito benéficos para melhorar a composição corporal, a atividade de enzimas e o estado fisiológico de saúde dos peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cromo/administração & dosagem , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/sangue , Zea mays
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468915

RESUMO

Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence [...].


Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S [...].


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Ração Animal/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-5, 2023. map, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468922

RESUMO

Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Muito pouco se sabe sobre a malacofauna no distrito de Swat, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, situada na parte norte do Paquistão. O vale do Swat possui uma variedade de condições ambientais adequadas, proporcionando diferentes tipos de habitats para a flora e a fauna. Levando em consideração esses pontos, o presente estudo foi conduzido para explorar a diversidade dos caracóis terrestres em campos agrícolas e não agrícolas no vale inferior de Swat. Um total de 417 conchas foram coletadas em três locais: Kokarai, Kanju Township e Deolai. Com base em características concológicas, três famílias: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae e Zonitidae foram identificadas usando diferentes chaves de caramujos terrestres. Em Kokarai e Deolai, conchas de membros de todas as famílias mencionadas acima foram encontradas em campos agrícolas. No município de Kanju, foram encontradas conchas de membros da família Bradybaenidae e Zonitidae. A partir dessas constatações, concluiu-se que o distrito de Swat possui uma malacofauna significativa que antes era inexplorada e ajudava mais a literatura existente sobre a malacofauna. Também apoia a ideia de que o agroecossistema é rico em diversidade de espécies. Recomenda-se a realização de um estudo mais aprofundado e extenso para uma taxonomia detalhada das famílias de gastrópodes terrestres descritas.


Assuntos
Animais , Biodiversidade , Caramujos/classificação
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469108

RESUMO

Abstract A ninety days nutritional trial was directed to explore the effects of dietary chromium on body composition, gut enzyme activity and physiological status of Cirrhinus mrigala by using G & NG corn. Six experimental diets were prepared by using different levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, each with G & NG corn). For this experimental trial, 480 fingerlings, irrespective of sex were distributed in six aquariums each with replicate. Results revealed that gelatinized corn along with increasing level of Cr2Cl3.6H2O have a positive impact upon body composition of fish. Hematology was positively correlated with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation in gelatinized corn. Amylase gut enzyme also showed significant (P 0.05) increase in group fed with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplemented diet (G corn). However, corn with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation did not revealed any significant impact on gut protease enzyme activity. From these results it can be concluded that both chromium chloride hexahydrate and gelatinized corn in fish feed are very beneficial to improve body composition, enzymes activity and physiological health status of fish.


Resumo Um ensaio nutricional de 90 dias foi dirigido para explorar os efeitos do cromo dietético na composição corporal, atividade enzimática intestinal e estado fisiológico de Cirrhinus mrigala usando milho G & NG. Seis dietas experimentais foram preparadas usando diferentes níveis de cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado (0, 0,2, 0,4 mg/kg, cada um com milho G e NG). Para este ensaio experimental, 480 alevinos, independentemente do sexo, foram distribuídos em seis aquários, cada um com réplicas. Os resultados revelaram que o milho gelatinizado, juntamente com o aumento do nível de Cr2Cl3.6H2O, tem um impacto positivo na composição corporal dos peixes. A hematologia foi positivamente correlacionada com a suplementação de cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado em milho gelatinizado. A enzima amilase intestinal também apresentou aumento significativo (P 0,05) no grupo alimentado com dieta suplementada com cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado (milho G). No entanto, o milho com suplementação de hexahidrato de cloreto de cromo não revelou nenhum impacto significativo na atividade da enzima protease intestinal. Desses resultados, pode-se concluir que tanto o cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado quanto o milho gelatinizado na alimentação de peixes são muito benéficos para melhorar a composição corporal, a atividade de enzimas e o estado fisiológico de saúde dos peixes.

11.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469131

RESUMO

Abstract Many soil microorganisms i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados para controlar o crescimento microbiano.

12.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469138

RESUMO

Abstract Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Resumo Muito pouco se sabe sobre a malacofauna no distrito de Swat, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, situada na parte norte do Paquistão. O vale do Swat possui uma variedade de condições ambientais adequadas, proporcionando diferentes tipos de habitats para a flora e a fauna. Levando em consideração esses pontos, o presente estudo foi conduzido para explorar a diversidade dos caracóis terrestres em campos agrícolas e não agrícolas no vale inferior de Swat. Um total de 417 conchas foram coletadas em três locais: Kokarai, Kanju Township e Deolai. Com base em características concológicas, três famílias: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae e Zonitidae foram identificadas usando diferentes chaves de caramujos terrestres. Em Kokarai e Deolai, conchas de membros de todas as famílias mencionadas acima foram encontradas em campos agrícolas. No município de Kanju, foram encontradas conchas de membros da família Bradybaenidae e Zonitidae. A partir dessas constatações, concluiu-se que o distrito de Swat possui uma malacofauna significativa que antes era inexplorada e ajudava mais a literatura existente sobre a malacofauna. Também apoia a ideia de que o agroecossistema é rico em diversidade de espécies. Recomenda-se a realização de um estudo mais aprofundado e extenso para uma taxonomia detalhada das famílias de gastrópodes terrestres descritas.

13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248420, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339367

RESUMO

Abstract Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Resumo Muito pouco se sabe sobre a malacofauna no distrito de Swat, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, situada na parte norte do Paquistão. O vale do Swat possui uma variedade de condições ambientais adequadas, proporcionando diferentes tipos de habitats para a flora e a fauna. Levando em consideração esses pontos, o presente estudo foi conduzido para explorar a diversidade dos caracóis terrestres em campos agrícolas e não agrícolas no vale inferior de Swat. Um total de 417 conchas foram coletadas em três locais: Kokarai, Kanju Township e Deolai. Com base em características concológicas, três famílias: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae e Zonitidae foram identificadas usando diferentes chaves de caramujos terrestres. Em Kokarai e Deolai, conchas de membros de todas as famílias mencionadas acima foram encontradas em campos agrícolas. No município de Kanju, foram encontradas conchas de membros da família Bradybaenidae e Zonitidae. A partir dessas constatações, concluiu-se que o distrito de Swat possui uma malacofauna significativa que antes era inexplorada e ajudava mais a literatura existente sobre a malacofauna. Também apoia a ideia de que o agroecossistema é rico em diversidade de espécies. Recomenda-se a realização de um estudo mais aprofundado e extenso para uma taxonomia detalhada das famílias de gastrópodes terrestres descritas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Agricultura , Paquistão , Caramujos
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339413

RESUMO

Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.


Assuntos
Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Resíduos Industriais , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Extratos Vegetais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Escherichia coli , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
15.
J Patient Exp ; 9: 23743735221112583, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836777

RESUMO

Physician communication is integral for improving patients' experience and clinical outcomes. Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores are used by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to assess the quality of care provided to the patients. We conducted a prospective pre-post-intervention study from March 2018 to March 2020 and included patients and residents of the community-based university-affiliated Internal Medicine Residency Program. Residents' communication was evaluated through resident surveys and results were shared with them and attending physicians within 48 h. To correlate with the effect over a 4-year period, 839 HCAHPS surveys were obtained for attending physicians as an outcome measure. The mean overall HCAHPS score and doctor's communication scores increased by 8.52 and 6.06 points post-intervention. The doctor's performance score for respect increased by 6.18 points, listening increased by 3.12 points, and explanation increased by 8.23 points. This study demonstrates that timely, structured, and individualized resident feedback in an academic medicine service can result in a sustainable increase in the attendings' overall HCAHPS and doctor's communication scores.

16.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(8)2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448732

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for innovative strategies to raise the performance of environmentally stressed plants. The seeds of single-cross yellow Zea mays (L.) hybrid Giza-168 were soaked in Cis-(c-Z-Ck) or trans-zeatin-type cytokinin (t-Z-Ck) solutions at a concentration of 50 or 40 µM, respectively. Salinity stress was imposed at 0, 75 or 150 mM NaCl in the Hoagland nutrient solution (full strength) used for irrigation. The total carotenoids content was negatively affected by only 150 mM NaCl, while both 75 and 150 mM NaCl negatively affected the growth and yield components, relative water content, membrane stability index, photochemical activity, gas exchange, K+ and chlorophyll contents, K+/Na+ ratio, and photosynthetic efficiency. However, all of these traits were significantly improved by c-Z-Ck pretreatment and further enhanced by t-Z-Ck pretreatment compared with the corresponding controls. Furthermore, the contents of proline, soluble sugars, ascorbate, and glutathione, as well as enzymatic antioxidant activities, were significantly elevated by both salt stress concentrations and increased more by both biostimulators compared to the control. Compared to c-Z-Ck, t-Z-Ck was superior in mitigating the harmful effects of the high H2O2 levels caused by salt stress on the levels of malondialdehyde and ion leakage compared to the control. Under normal or stress conditions, t-Z-Ck pretreatment was better than c-Z-Ck pretreatment, while both positively affected maize hormonal contents. As a result, t-Z-Ck is recommended to enhance the growth and productivity of maize plants by suppressing the effects of oxidative stress caused by saline water irrigation.

17.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260355, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475994

RESUMO

Bioaccumulation of toxic heavy metals in the human body can give rise to adverse health effects, the severity of which depends upon their dosage and duration of exposure. In this study, yearlings of two different species of edible fish, i.e., Tor putitora (Mahseer) and Ctenopharyngodon Idella (grass carp), were exposed to different concentrations of lead nitrate in a controlled environment of aquarium for three different lengths of duration (14, 28, and 60 days). The bioaccumulation of lead in different organs, including gills, skin, muscles, liver, intestine, and swim bladder of the fish, was assessed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Generally, the highest lead concentration was observed in the gills and lowest in the muscles for both species at each experimental dosage and duration. In 14-days exposure, the relative pattern of bioaccumulation in different organs was observed as gill > liver > skin > intestine > swim bladder > muscle for both fish species. Similarly, the pattern of bioaccumulation observed in 28-days exposure was as: gill > liver > intestine > skin > swim bladder > muscle in both species. Whereas, pattern in 60-days exposure was observed as gill > liver > intestine > swim bladder > muscle > skin. The data shows that grass carp had stored higher concentrations of lead than Mahseer, which may be attributed to the fact that they are omnivorous. Furthermore, the lowest bioaccumulation was recorded in the muscles until the 56th day of the exposure, after which the concentration steadily increased in the muscles. The observed pattern highlights the importance of exposure's duration to lead; chronic exposure could result in its bioaccumulation at toxic concentrations in the muscles, which is particularly of concern because the fish muscles are heavily consumed as food worldwide.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e252526, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416847

RESUMO

Acacia modesta (AM) and Opuntia monocantha (OM) are distributed in Pakistan, Afghanistan and India. Both of these plants have different pharmacological properties. This study was designed to evaluate anticancer potential of Acacia modesta (AM) and Opuntia monocantha (OM). Liver cancer cell line HepG2 was used for assessment of anticancer activity. For the evaluation of anti-proliferative effects, cell viability and cell death in all groups of cells were evaluated via MTT, crystal violet and trypan blue assays. For the evaluation of apoptosis ELISA of p53 performed. Furthermore, LDH assay to find out the ability of malignant cells to metabolize pyruvate to lactate and antioxidant enzymes activity (GSH, CAT and SOD) at the end HPLC was performed to find active compound of AM and OM. Cytotoxicity (MTT), Viability assays (trypan blue, crystal viability, MUSE analysis) showed more dead, less live cells in plant treated groups with increase of concentration. Scratch assay for the anti-migratory effect of these plants showed treated groups have not ability to heal scratch/wound. ELISA of p53 for cellular apoptosis showed more release of p53 in treated groups. Antioxidant assay via glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) showed less anti-oxidative potential in treated cancer groups. LDH assay showed more lactate dehydrogenase release in treated groups compared with untreated. HPLC analysis showed the presence of phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinone and amino acids in AM and OM plant extracts. Based on all these findings, it can be concluded that ethanolic extracts of Acacia modesta and Opuntia monocantha have promising anti-cancer potential.


Assuntos
Acacia , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Opuntia , Extratos Vegetais , Acacia/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Opuntia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Azul Tripano , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53
19.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e256923, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137843

RESUMO

Naturally occurring mutations in morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are associated with decreased ovulation rate (OR), litter size (LS), and sterility. It is of a great interest to elucidate BMP15 gene in Cholistani sheep breed to uplift socio-economic status and the knowledge of Cholistani sheep breeding in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. In our study, a total of 50 infertile Cholistani sheep aged between 2-6 years and having no blood relation were screened for BMP15 mutations. For this purpose, a high-quality DNA was extracted from the blood of sheep followed by primer designing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification, DNA sequencing, and in silico analyses. Out of total 50 samples, 9 samples including case 1 (T3), case 2 (T8), case 3 (T17), case 4 (T22), case 5 (T25), case 6 (T33), case 7 (T40), case 8 (T44), and case 9 (T47) were found positive for a variety of already reported and novel BMP15 mutations. Further in silico analyses of the observed mutations have shown the functional impact of these mutations on different characteristics (molecular weight, theoretical PI, estimated half-life, instability index, sub-cellular localization, and 3D confirmation) of the encoded proteins, possibly altering the normal functionality. In a nutshell, findings of this study have confirmed the possible essential role of the BMP15 mutations in the infertility of the Cholistani sheep.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 15 , Infertilidade , Ovinos , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 15/genética , Feminino , Infertilidade/veterinária , Mutação , Ovulação , Paquistão , Ovinos/genética
20.
Plants (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36616192

RESUMO

Bee-honey solution (BHS) is considered a plant growth multi-biostimulator because it is rich in osmoprotectants, antioxidants, vitamins, and mineral nutrients that can promote drought stress (DtS) resistance in common bean plants. As a novel strategy, BHS has been used in a few studies, which shows that the application of BHS can overcome the stress effects on plant productivity and can contribute significantly to bridging the gap between agricultural production and the steady increase in population under climate changes. Under sufficient watering (SW (100% of crop evapotranspiration; ETc) and DtS (60% of ETc)), the enhancing impacts of foliar application with BHS (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) on growth, productivity, yield quality, physiological-biochemical indices, antioxidative defense ingredients, and nutrient status were examined in common bean plants (cultivar Bronco). DtS considerably decreased growth and yield traits, green pod quality, and water use efficiency (WUE); however, application of BHS at all concentrations significantly increased all of these parameters under normal or DtS conditions. Membrane stability index, relative water content, nutrient contents, SPAD (chlorophyll content), and PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm, photochemical activity, and performance index) were markedly reduced under DtS; however, they increased significantly under normal or DtS conditions by foliar spraying of BHS at all concentrations. The negative impacts of DtS were due to increased oxidants [hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2•-)], electrolyte leakage (EL), and malondialdehyde (MDA). As a result, the activity of the antioxidant system (ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, α-tocopherol, glutathione, and ascorbate) and levels of osmoprotectants (soluble protein, soluble sugars, glycine betaine, and proline) were increased. However, all BHS concentrations further increased osmoprotectant and antioxidant capacity, along with decreased MDA and EL under DtS. What is interesting in this study was that a BHS concentration of 1.0% gave the best results under SW, while a BHS concentration of 1.5% gave the best results under DtS. Therefore, a BHS concentration of 1.5% could be a viable strategy to mitigate the DtS impairment in common beans to achieve satisfactory growth, productivity, and green pod quality under DtS.

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