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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495157

RESUMO

Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais , RNA Ribossômico 16S
2.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(3): 589-603, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215404

RESUMO

Emergency medicine clinicians are mandated reporters, legally, which obligates clinicians to report any behavior suspicious for child maltreatment to local authorities. Pediatric patients often present to the emergency department with concern for physical injury and other pervasive complaints. In some cases, these injuries are nonaccidental. To appropriately advocate and protect children from further physical and emotional trauma, it is important for clinicians to recognize the signs and symptoms of child maltreatment and sexual abuse.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Cuidadores , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Notificação de Abuso , Anamnese , Síndrome de Munchausen Causada por Terceiro/diagnóstico , Exame Físico , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Tempo para o Tratamento
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 176: 424-436, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581202

RESUMO

Several research in the organisms of marine invertebrates to assess the medicinal ability of its bio-active molecules have yielded very positive results in recent times. Jellyfish secreted venoms are rich sources of toxins intended to catch prey or deter predators among invertebrate species, but they may also have harmful effects on humans. The nematocyst, a complex intracellular system that injects a venomous mixture into prey or predators that come into contact with the tentacles or other parts of the body of cnidarians, determines the venomous existence of cnidarians. Nematocyst venoms are mixtures of peptides, proteins and other components that in laboratory animals can induce cytotoxicity, blockade of ion channels, membrane pore formation, in vivo cardiovascular failure and lethal effects. There are also valuable pharmacological and biological aspects of jellyfish venoms. In the present review, overviews of the variety of possible toxin families in cnidarian venoms are addressed in this analysis and these potential toxins are surveyed with those from other cnidarians that offer insight into their potential functions such as anti-oxidant, anti-cancer activity and much more. This research review will provide awareness of the growing repertoire of jellyfish venom proteins and will help to further isolate and classify particular proteins to understand its structure and functional relationship.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Venenos de Cnidários , Cifozoários/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Venenos de Cnidários/química , Venenos de Cnidários/uso terapêutico , Humanos
5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 171: 104717, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357567

RESUMO

The rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, a major pest of stored commodities, has developed very high levels (>1000×) of resistance to the fumigant phosphine. Resistance in this species is remarkably stronger than reported in any other stored product pests demanding the need to understand the molecular basis of this trait. Previous genetic studies in other grain insect pests identified specific variants in two major genes, rph1 and rph2 in conferring the strong resistance trait. However, in C. ferrugineus, although the gene, rph1 was identified as cytochrome-b5-fatty acid desaturase, the rph2 gene has not been reported so far. We tested the candidate gene for rph2, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (dld) using the recently published transcriptome of C. ferrugineus and identified three variants, L73N and A355G + D360H, a haplotype, conferring resistance in this species. Our sequence analysis in resistant strain and phosphine selected resistant survivors indicates that these variants occur either alone as a homozygote or a mixture of heterozygotes (i.e complex heterozygotes) both conferring strong resistance. We also found that one of the three variants, possibly L73N expressing "dominant" trait at low frequency in resistant insects. Comparison of dld sequences between Australian and Chinese resistant strain of this species confirmed that the identified variants are highly conserved. Our fitness analysis indicated that resistant insects may not incur significant biological costs in the absence of phosphine selection for 19 generations. Thus, we propose that the observed high levels of resistance in C. ferrugineus could be primarily due to the characteristics of three unique variants, L73N and A355G + D360H within dld.


Assuntos
Besouros , Inseticidas , Fosfinas , Animais , Austrália , Besouros/genética , Di-Hidrolipoamida Desidrogenase/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Fosfinas/farmacologia
6.
J Emerg Med ; 54(1): 127-128, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239762
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 144(15): 3166-3169, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27477637

RESUMO

There is some suggestion that infection with pandemic influenza may increase long-term mortality risks. Therefore we aimed to determine if exposure to a severe outbreak of pandemic influenza on a troopship in 1918 impacted on lifespan in the survivors. The troopship with the outbreak cohort had 1107 personnel and the comparison cohort was from two contemporaneous troopships (1108 randomly selected personnel). Data were collected from online individual military files. The main finding was that there was no statistically significant difference in the lifespan of the outbreak cohort and the comparison cohort (means of 71·5 and 71·0 years, respectively). Indeed, the outbreak cohort was actually more likely to survive into the period from 1950 onwards (P = 0·036) and to participate in the Second World War (P = 0·043). There were no significant differences between the cohorts in terms of occupational class, but the comparison cohort had a higher proportion of rural occupations (33·3% vs. 27·0%, P < 0·001) and was very slightly older in mid-1918 (27·8 vs. 27·2 years, P = 0·028). In conclusion, this study found no support for the hypothesis that exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic adversely impacted on the lifespan in the survivors, at least in this male and military-age population.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
8.
Indian J Pharm Sci ; 74(4): 375-9, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23626397

RESUMO

Pistacia integerrima Stew. ex Brand (Anacardiaceae) is an ethanobotanically important plant species traditionally used in the treatment of chronic wounds, jaundice, dysentery, etc. The crude extract from Pistacia integerrima and its fractions were tested for cytotoxic activity against Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 human breast cancer cell line. We have also investigated that crude stem extract of this plant also exhibits the antitumour as well as antifungal potential activities. Moreover, we have also studied that the crude extract inhibited Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner; the poor toxicity (1.6%) at 10 µg/ml to moderate toxicity (55.4%) at 100 µg/ml. The IC50 values calculated were 90.9 µg/ml. The ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions at a concentration of 200 µg/ml showed ~100 and 97.4% inhibition against Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 cell line, respectively. The crude methanol extract also showed good antitumour (IC50 125 ppm) activity, but weak antifungal activity. These findings reveal that the ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of Pistacia integerrima are potent cytotoxic fractions, and could be an alternate candidate for the development of novel biologically active compounds.

9.
J Toxicol ; 2011: 494168, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21776261

RESUMO

Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH(3)), the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N) and arsenic (As), which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH(3) and AsH(3). The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

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