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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e48793, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People seeking abortion in early pregnancy have the choice between medication and procedural options for care. The choice is preference-sensitive-there is no clinically superior option and the choice depends on what matters most to the individual patient. Patient decision aids (PtDAs) are shared decision-making tools that support people in making informed, values-aligned health care choices. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop and evaluate the usability of a web-based PtDA for the Canadian context, where abortion care is publicly funded and available without legal restriction. METHODS: We used a systematic, user-centered design approach guided by principles of integrated knowledge translation. We first developed a prototype using available evidence for abortion seekers' decisional needs and the risks, benefits, and consequences of each option. We then refined the prototype through think-aloud interviews with participants at risk of unintended pregnancy ("patient" participants). Interviews were audio-recorded and documented through field notes. Finally, we conducted a web-based survey of patients and health care professionals involved with abortion care, which included the System Usability Scale. We used content analysis to identify usability issues described in the field notes and open-ended survey questions, and descriptive statistics to summarize participant characteristics and close-ended survey responses. RESULTS: A total of 61 individuals participated in this study. Further, 11 patients participated in think-aloud interviews. Overall, the response to the PtDA was positive; however, the content analysis identified issues related to the design, language, and information about the process and experience of obtaining abortion care. In response, we adapted the PtDA into an interactive website and revised it to include consistent and plain language, additional information (eg, pain experience narratives), and links to additional resources on how to find an abortion health care professional. In total, 25 patients and 25 health care professionals completed the survey. The mean System Usability Scale score met the threshold for good usability among both patient and health care professional participants. Most participants felt that the PtDA was user-friendly (patients: n=25, 100%; health care professionals: n=22, 88%), was not missing information (patients: n=21, 84%; health care professionals: n=18, 72%), and that it was appropriate for patients to complete the PtDA before a consultation (patients: n=23, 92%; health care professionals: n=23, 92%). Open-ended responses focused on improving usability by reducing the length of the PtDA and making the website more mobile-friendly. CONCLUSIONS: We systematically designed the PtDA to address an unmet need to support informed, values-aligned decision-making about the method of abortion. The design process responded to a need identified by potential users and addressed unique sensitivities related to reproductive health decision-making.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, access to prenatal care was lower among some socio-demographic groups. This pandemic caused disruptions to routine preventative care, which could have increased inequalities. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if the COVID-19 pandemic increased inequalities in access to prenatal care among those who are younger, live in rural areas, have a lower socio-economic situation (SES) and are recent immigrants. METHODS: We used linked administrative datasets from ICES to identify a population-based cohort of 455,245 deliveries in Ontario from January 2018 to December 2021. Our outcomes were first-trimester prenatal visits, first-trimester ultrasound and adequacy of prenatal care. We used joinpoint analysis to examine outcome time trends and identify trend change points. We stratified analyses by age, rural residence, SES and recent immigration, and examined risk differences (RD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) between groups at the beginning and end of the study period. RESULTS: For all outcomes, we noted disruptions to care beginning in March or April 2020 and returning to previous trends by November 2020. Inequalities were stable across groups, except recent immigrants. In July 2017, 65.0% and 69.8% of recent immigrants and non-immigrants, respectively, received ultrasounds in the first trimester (RD -4.8%, 95% CI -8.0, -1.5). By October 2020, this had increased to 75.4%, with no difference with non-immigrants (RD 0.4%, 95% CI -2.4, 3.2). Adequacy of prenatal care showed more intensive care as of November 2020, reflecting a higher number of visits. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that inequalities between socio-economic groups that existed prior to the pandemic worsened after March 2020. The pandemic may be associated with increased access to care for recent immigrants. The introduction of virtual visits may have resulted in a higher number of prenatal care visits.

3.
Med J Aust ; 220(3): 138-144, 2024 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of a history of induced abortion among women who gave birth in Victoria during 2010-2019; to assess the association of socio-demographic factors with a history of induced abortion. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study; analysis of cross-sectional perinatal data in the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection (VPDC). SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: All women who gave birth (live or stillborn) in Victoria, 1 January 2010 - 31 December 2019. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported induced abortions prior to the index birth; outcome of the most recent pregnancy preceding the index pregnancy. RESULTS: Of the 766 488 women who gave birth during 2010-2019, 93 251 reported induced abortions (12.2%), including 36 938 of 338 547 nulliparous women (10.9%). Women living in inner regional (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.96) or outer regional/remote/very remote areas (aOR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83-0.89) were less likely than women in major cities to report induced abortions. The likelihood increased steadily with age at the index birth and with parity, and was also higher for women without partners at the index birth (aOR, 2.20; 95% CI, 2.16-2.25) and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.25-1.40). The likelihood was lower for women born in most areas outside Australia than for those born in Australia. The likelihood of a history of induced abortion declined across the study period overall (2019 v 2010: 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.96) and for women in major cities (0.88; 95% CI, 0.84-0.91); rises in inner regional and outer regional/remote/very remote areas were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Access to abortion care in Victoria improved during 2010-2019, but the complex interplay between contraceptive use, unintended pregnancy, and induced abortion requires further exploration by remoteness of residence. Robust information about numbers of unintended pregnancies and access to reproductive health services are needed to guide national sexual and reproductive health policy and practice.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Vitória/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
JMIR Form Res ; 8: e46284, 2024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Canada, 1 in 3 women and people of gestational age undergo an abortion in their lifetime. Despite the liberal legal context, barriers continue to exist for women and people who can become pregnant to access this service. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to (1) conduct a pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of myPostCare to support follow-up care after a procedural abortion; (2) use the findings to understand whether myPostCare has the potential to improve contraceptive behavior and knowledge, emotional well-being, and sexual health knowledge; and (3) develop a better understanding of how innovative mobile solutions can support integrative health programs in British Columbia with the goal of expanding to other sites across Canada. METHODS: People of gestational age (aged 14-45 y) who underwent a procedural abortion were recruited from 2 urban abortion facilities in British Columbia. The participants completed a baseline quantitative survey and were provided access to myPostCare for up to 30 days. A follow-up quantitative survey was sent via email on day 30. Qualitative interviews were conducted to explore user satisfaction and usability of myPostCare. Responses to the survey questions were summarized using descriptive statistics, and the system usability scale (SUS) was scored according to the instructions. A secure analytics platform was implemented to obtain data on the overall use of the website by users. Qualitative analysis was conducted with NVivo using a thematic analysis approach. This study was approved by the Women's and Children's Research Ethics Board. RESULTS: Overall, 62 participants were recruited (average age 30 y); 40% (25/62) of the participants completed the exit surveys, and 24% (6/25) consented to participate in the semistructured interviews; 40 participants had undergone an immediate postabortion intrauterine device (IUD) insertion, and 22 did not have an IUD inserted. Participants were satisfied with myPostCare. The SUS average score was 81.5 (SD 9.7; median 82.5, IQR 77.5-87.5), indicating high usability of the tool. Overall, 88% (22/25) of the participants changed their contraceptive method to an IUD. Web-based analytics demonstrated that there were 61 unique visitors to the site, and the top pages visited were Postprocedure Care, Emotional Well-Being, and Contraception Explorer. The longest time spent on the website was 56 minutes. The overall email open rate was 80%, with a click rate of 36%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that communities and individuals are important collaborators in developing a mobile innovation that facilitates access to high-quality patient-centered abortion care. Through the cocreation process, a digital platform such as myPostCare highlighted a gap in abortion care in Canada, particularly around follow-up support after a procedural abortion.

5.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e081730, 2024 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38238058

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prenatal education is associated with positive health behaviours, including optimal weight gain, attendance at prenatal care, acceptance of routine screening tests, smoking cessation, decreased alcohol consumption and breast feeding. Adoption of these behaviours has been associated with reduced rates of caesarean birth, preterm birth and low birth weight. Barriers to prenatal class attendance faced by parents in Canada include geography, socioeconomic status, age, education, and, among Indigenous peoples and other equity-deserving groups, stigma. To address the need for easily accessible and reliable information, we created 'SmartMom', Canada's first prenatal education programme delivered by short message service text messaging. SmartMom provides evidence-based information timed to be relevant to each week of pregnancy. The overall goal of SmartMom is to motivate the adoption of positive prenatal health behaviours with the ultimate goal of improving health outcomes among women and their newborns. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a two-arm single-blinded randomised controlled trial. Blinding of participants to trial intervention will not be possible as they will be aware of receiving the intervention, but data analysts will be blinded. Our primary research questions are to determine if women experiencing uncomplicated pregnancies randomly assigned to receive SmartMom messages versus messages addressing general topics related to pregnancy but without direction for behaviour change, have higher rates of: (1) weight gain within ranges recommended for prepregnancy body mass index and (2) adherence to Canadian guidelines regarding attendance at prenatal care appointments. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been granted a Certificate of Approval, number H22-00603, by the University of British Columbia Research Ethics Board. To disseminate our findings, we are undertaking both integrated and end-of-grant knowledge translation, which will proactively involve potential end-users and stakeholders at every phase of our project. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05793944.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Gravidez , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Canadá , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Aumento de Peso , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 45(12): 102188, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37558165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore the workforce and clinical care of first and second-trimester surgical abortion (FTSA, STSA) providers following the publication of the updated Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) surgical abortion guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a national, cross-sectional, online, self-administered survey of physicians who provided abortion care in 2019. This anonymized survey collected participant demographics, types of abortion services, and characteristics of FTSA and STSA clinical care. Through healthcare organizations using a modified Dillman technique, we recruited from July to December 2020. Descriptive statistics were generated by R Statistical Software. RESULTS: We present the data of 222 surgical abortion provider respondents, of whom 219 provided FTSA, 109 STSA, and 106 both. Respondents practiced in every Canadian province and territory. Most were obstetrician-gynaecologists (56.8%) and family physicians (36.0%). The majority of FTSA and STSA respondents were located in urban settings, 64.8% and 79.8%, respectively, and more than 80% practiced in hospitals. More than 1 in 4 respondents reported <5 years' experience with surgical abortion care and 93.2% followed SOGC guidelines. Noted guideline deviations included that prophylactic antibiotic use was not universal, and more than half of respondents used sharp curettage in addition to suction. Fewer than 5% of STSA respondents used mifepristone for cervical preparation. CONCLUSION: The surgical abortion workforce is multidisciplinary and rejuvenating. Education, training, and practice support, including SOGC guideline implementation, are required to optimize care and to ensure equitable FTSA and STSA access in both rural and urban regions. GESTATIONAL AGE NOTATION: weeks, weeks' gestation, gestational age (GA), e.g., 116 weeks.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Mifepristona , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez
7.
Womens Health Issues ; 33(6): 592-599, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37407397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2015, mifepristone in combination with misoprostol, the international gold standard for medication abortion, was approved for use in Canada. By 2019, all Canadian provinces had included the medication as a publicly insured health benefit. METHODS: Our content analysis of Canadian newspaper coverage describes arguments in favor of or against medication abortion and the evolving regulatory framework for mifepristone from 6 months before regulatory approval until the last significant regulatory barrier to use was removed (2015-2019). RESULTS: Our study found an exceptionally high level of support for the approval of, introduction of, and removal of regulatory barriers to mifepristone for medication abortion. Of 402 pieces, 67% were pro-medication abortion, 25% presented balanced or neutral coverage, and only 8% presented solely anti-medication abortion viewpoints. Of the 761 individuals quoted, more than 90% made positive or neutral statements about medication abortion. Most pieces discussed medication abortion as a health issue and described how liberalization of the regulatory framework would improve abortion availability (68%), accessibility (87%), acceptability (34%), and quality (28%). CONCLUSIONS: Rather than formal balance, which presents contrasting arguments as equally valid even when the scientific evidence for one vastly outweighs the other, our study identified evidentiary balance, in which coverage aligned with the weight of evidence and expert opinion. Our results differ from analyses in other high-income countries (United Kingdom, United States) where media outlets frame abortion in relation to morality or electoral politics rather than as a health issue. The Canadian print media presented overwhelmingly favorable arguments toward the expansion of mifepristone medication abortion and framed the introduction and universal coverage of medication abortion as advancing the "Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability, and Quality" (AAAQ) Right to Health Framework that establishes international human rights standards for health information, facilities, goods, and services.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Misoprostol , Direito à Saúde , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Canadá , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico
8.
Can Pharm J (Ott) ; 156(4): 204-214, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37435503

RESUMO

Background: Mifepristone for medical abortion was first dispensed by community pharmacists in Canada directly to patients in January 2017. We asked about pharmacists' experiences over their first year dispensing mifepristone in order to evaluate the frequency of the new practice and assess availability in urban/rural pharmacies. Methods: From August to December 2019, we invited 433 community pharmacists who had completed a baseline survey at least 1 year prior to participate in a follow-up online survey. We summarized categorical data using counts and proportions and conducted a qualitative thematic analysis of open-ended responses. Results: Among 122 participants, 67.2% had dispensed the product, and 48.4% routinely stocked mifepristone. Pharmacists reported a mean of 26 and median of 3 (interquartile range, 1, 8) mifepristone prescriptions filled in their pharmacies in the previous year. Participants perceived that the benefits of making mifepristone available in pharmacies included increased abortion access for patients (n = 115; 94.3%), reduced pressure on the health care system (n = 104; 85.3%), increased rural and remote abortion access (n = 103; 84.4%) and increased interprofessional collaborations (n = 48; 39.3%). Few participants reported challenges to maintaining adequate stock of mifepristone, but these challenges included low demand (n = 24; 19.7%), short expiry dating (n = 12; 9.8%) and drug shortages (n = 8; 6.6%). The overwhelming majority, 96.7%, reported that their communities did not resist the provision of mifepristone by their pharmacy. Interpretation: Participating pharmacists reported many benefits and very few barriers to stocking and dispensing mifepristone. Both urban and rural communities responded positively to enhanced access to mifepristone in their community. Conclusions: Mifepristone is well accepted by pharmacists within the primary care system in Canada.

9.
Contraception ; 124: 110083, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37263373

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a national survey to assess the experiences of stigma and harassment among physicians and nurse practitioners providing abortions and abortion service administrators in Canada. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional, national, anonymized, online survey between July and December 2020. Subsections of the survey explored stigma and harassment experienced by respondents, including the 35-item Revised Abortion Providers Stigma Scale and open-ended responses. We analyzed the quantitative data to generate descriptive statistics and employed a reflexive thematic analysis to interpret open-ended responses. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-four participants started the stigma and harassment section of the survey. Among low-volume clinicians (<30 abortions/year, 60%, n = 180) 8% reported harassment; 21% among higher volume clinicians (≥30 abortions/year, 40%, n = 119) and 47% among administrators (n = 39), most commonly picketing. The mean stigma score was 67.8 (standard deviation 17.2; maximum score 175). Our qualitative analysis identified five themes characterizing perceptions of stigma and harassment: concerns related to harassment from picketing, protestors, and the public; wanting protestor "bubble zones"; aiming to be anonymous to avoid being a target; not providing an abortion service; but also witnessing a safe and positive practice environment. CONCLUSIONS: Being a low-volume clinician compared to higher volume clinician and administrator appears to be associated with less harassment. Clinicians providing abortion care in Canada reported mid-range abortion-related stigma scores, and expressed strong concerns that stigma interfered with their abortion provision. Our results indicate that further de-stigmatization and protection of abortion providers in Canada is needed through policy and practice interventions including bubble zones. IMPLICATIONS: While Canadian abortion care clinicians and administrators reported relatively low incidence of harassment, our results indicate that they are concerned about stigma and harassment. However, as this was an exploratory survey, these data may not be representative of all Canadian abortion providers. Our data identify a need to support abortion clinicians and to bolster protections for dedicated abortion services.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 47(3): 100046, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37085430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated socio-demographic and health-related factors among a national cohort of young Australian women. METHODS: Secondary analysis of three waves (2013-2015) of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health new young cohort. Women born between 1989 and 1995 were recruited through internet and traditional media, and peer referral. Respondents completed a baseline web-based survey in 2013 (n=17,010) on their health and healthcare use and were followed up annually. This analysis uses data from women reporting ever having vaginal sex in waves 2 (n=9,726/11,344) and 3 (n=6,848/8,961). We assessed correlates of lifetime and recent unintended pregnancy using multivariable regression models. RESULTS: At wave 2, among women aged 19-24, lifetime prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 12.6%, rising to 81.0% among ever pregnant women. Pregnancy outcomes among women with a history of unintended pregnancy differed by geographical residence. Disparities in odds of unintended pregnancy were seen by relationship and educational status, contraceptive use, sexual coercion and risky alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: Unintended pregnancy among young Australians is disproportionally experienced by women with structural disadvantages and exposure to sexual coercion. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Service improvements to achieve equitable distribution of contraception and abortion services must be integrated with initiatives responding to sexual coercion.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Gravidez não Planejada , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Longitudinais , Austrália/epidemiologia
12.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 12: e45389, 2023 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36947124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canada is one of the world's most ethnically diverse countries, with over 7 million individuals out of a population of 38 million being born in a foreign country. Immigrant adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years) make up a substantial proportion of newcomers to Canada. Religious and cultural practices can influence adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviors, as well as the uptake of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services among this population. Adolescence is a time to establish lifelong healthy behaviors. Research indicates an alarming gap in adolescents' SRH knowledge, yet there is limited research on the SRH needs of immigrant adolescents in Canada. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to actively engage with immigrant adolescents to develop, implement, and evaluate a mobile health (mHealth) intervention (ie, mobile app). The interactive mobile app will aim to deliver accurate and evidence-based SRH information to adolescents. METHODS: We will use community-based participatory action research to guide our study. This research project will be conducted in 4 stages based on user-centered co-design principles. In Stage 1 (Empathize), we will recruit and convene 3 adolescent advisory groups in Edmonton, Toronto, and Vancouver. Members will be engaged as coresearchers and receive training in qualitative and quantitative methodologies, sexual health, and the social determinants of health. In Stage 2 (Define and Ideate), we will explore SRH information and service needs through focus group discussions with immigrant adolescents. In Stage 3 (Prototype), we will collaborate with mobile developers to build and iteratively design the app with support from the adolescent advisory groups. Finally, in Stage 4 (Test), we will return to focus group settings to share the app prototype, gather feedback on usability, and refine and release the app. RESULTS: Recruitment and data collection will be completed by February 2023, and mobile app development will begin in March 2023. The mHealth app will be our core output and is expected to be released in the spring of 2024. CONCLUSIONS: Our study will advance the limited knowledge base on SRH and the information needs of immigrant adolescents in Canada as well as the science underpinning participatory action research methods with immigrant adolescents. This study will address gaps by exploring SRH priorities, health information needs, and innovative strategies to improve the SRH of immigrant adolescents. Engaging adolescents throughout the study will increase their involvement in SRH care decision-making, expand efficiencies in SRH care utilization, and ultimately improve adolescents' SRH outcomes. The app we develop will be transferable to all adolescent groups, is scalable in international contexts, and simultaneously leverages significant economies of scale. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/45389.

13.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e065137, 2023 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36948556

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women living in rural and regional Australia often experience difficulties in accessing long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) and medical abortion services. Nurse-led models of care can improve access to these services but have not been evaluated in Australian general practice. The primary aim of the ORIENT trial (ImprOving Rural and regIonal accEss to long acting reversible contraceptioN and medical abortion through nurse-led models of care, Tasksharing and telehealth) is to assess the effectiveness of a nurse-led model of care in general practice at increasing uptake of LARC and improving access to medical abortion in rural and regional areas. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: ORIENT is a stepped-wedge pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial. We will enrol 32 general practices (clusters) in rural or regional Australia, that have at least two general practitioners, one practice nurse and one practice manager. The nurse-led model of care (the intervention) will be codesigned with key women's health stakeholders. Clusters will be randomised to implement the model sequentially, with the comparator being usual care. Clusters will receive implementation support through clinical upskilling, educational outreach and engagement in an online community of practice. The primary outcome is the change in the rate of LARC prescribing comparing control and intervention phases; secondary outcomes include change in the rate of medical abortion prescribing and provision of related telehealth services. A within-trial economic analysis will determine the relative costs and benefits of the model on the prescribing rates of LARC and medical abortion compared with usual care. A realist evaluation will provide contextual information regarding model implementation informing considerations for scale-up. Supporting nurses to work to their full scope of practice has the potential to increase LARC and medical abortion access in rural and regional Australia. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (Project ID: 29476). Findings will be disseminated via multiple avenues including a knowledge exchange workshop, policy briefs, conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12622000086763).


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Medicina Geral , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo , Telemedicina , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Austrália , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 9(1): 49, 2023 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36959670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial changes in abortion care regulations, available medications and national clinical practice guidelines have occurred since a 2012 national Canadian Abortion Provider Survey (CAPS). We developed and piloted the CAPS 2019 survey instrument to explore changes of the abortion provider workforce, their clinical care as well as experiences with stigma and harassment. METHODS: We undertook development and piloting in three phases: (1) development of the preliminary survey sections and questions based on the 2012 survey instrument, (2) content validation and feasibility of including certain content aspects via a modified Delphi Method with panels of clinical and research experts, and (3) pilot testing of the draft survey for face validity and clarity of language; assessing usability of the web-based Research Electronic Data Capture platform including the feasibility of complex skip pattern functionality. We performed content analysis of phase 2 results and used a general inductive approach to identify necessary survey modifications. RESULTS: In phase 1, we generated a survey draft that reflected the changes in Canadian abortion care regulations and guidelines and included questions for clinicians and administrators providing first and second trimester surgical and medical abortion. In phase 2, we held 6 expert panel meetings of 5-8 participants each representing clinicians, administrators and researchers to provide feedback on the initial survey draft. Due to the complexity of certain identified aspects, such as interdisciplinary collaboration and interprovincial care delivery differences, we revised the survey sections through an iterative process of meetings and revisions until we reached consensus on constructs and questions to include versus exclude for not being feasible. In phase 3, we made minor revisions based on pilot testing of the bilingual, web-based survey among additional experts chosen to be widely representative of the study population. Demonstrating its feasibility, we included complex branching and skip pattern logic so each respondent only viewed applicable questions based on their prior responses. CONCLUSIONS: We developed and piloted the CAPS 2019 survey instrument suitable to explore characteristics of a complex multidisciplinary workforce, their care and experience with stigma on a national level, and that can be adapted to other countries.

15.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e070904, 2023 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36863736

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is little to no evidence in Canada on the barriers that youth face when accessing contraception. We seek to identify the contraception access, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and needs of youth in Canada, from the perspectives of youth and youth service providers. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective, mixed-methods, integrated knowledge mobilisation study, the Ask Us project, will involve a national sample of youth, healthcare and social service providers, and policy makers recruited via a novel relational mapping and outreach approach led by youth. Phase I will centre the voices of youth and their service providers through in-depth one-on-one interviews. We will explore the factors influencing youth access to contraception, theoretically guided by Levesque's Access to Care framework. Phase II will focus on the cocreation and evaluation of knowledge translation products (youth stories) with youth, service providers, and policy makers. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was received from the University of British Columbia's Research Ethics Board (H21-01091). Full open-access publication of the work will be sought in an international peer-reviewed journal. Findings will be disseminated to youth and service providers through social media, newsletters, and communities of practice, and to policy makers through invited evidence briefs and face-to-face presentations.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Anticoncepção , Humanos , Adolescente , Estudos Prospectivos , Canadá , Ética em Pesquisa
16.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280757, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36701296

RESUMO

In this study we explored nurse practitioner-provided medication abortion in Canada and identified barriers and enablers to uptake and implementation. Between 2020-2021, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews with 20 healthcare stakeholders and 23 nurse practitioners who both provided and did not provide medication abortion. Data were analyzed using interpretive description. We identified five overarching themes: 1) Access and use of ultrasound for gestational dating; 2) Advertising and anonymity of services; 3) Abortion as specialized or primary care; 4) Location and proximity to services; and 5) Education, mentorship, and peer support. Under certain conditions, ultrasound is not required for medication abortion, supporting nurse practitioner provision in the absence of access to this technology. Nurse practitioners felt a conflict between wanting to advertise their abortion services while also protecting their anonymity and that of their patients. Some nurse practitioners perceived medication abortion to be a low-resource, easy-to-provide service, while some not providing medication abortion continued to refer patients to specialized clinics. Some participants in rural areas felt unable to provide this service because they were too far from emergency services in the event of complications. Most nurse practitioners did not have any training in abortion care during their education and desired the support of a mentor experienced in abortion provision. Addressing factors that influence nurse practitioner provision of medication abortion will help to broaden access. Nurse practitioners are well-suited to provide medication abortion care but face multiple ongoing barriers to provision. We recommend the integration of medication abortion training into nurse practitioner education. Further, widespread communication from nursing organizations could inform nurse practitioners that medication abortion is within their scope of practice and facilitate public outreach campaigns to inform the public that this service exists and can be provided by nurse practitioners.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Aborto Induzido/educação , Canadá , Atenção à Saúde , Profissionais de Enfermagem/educação
17.
Can Fam Physician ; 69(1): 36-44, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate practices among first-trimester surgical abortion facilities and providers in Canada in 2012 and examine the characteristics of the surgical abortion work force. DESIGN: Self-administered paper or electronic survey adapted from a survey previously fielded in the United States. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Facility administrators and physicians. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Descriptive statistics on reported first-trimester surgical abortion practice and provider demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Eighty-three percent of identified facilities (78 of 94) and 178 physicians responded. Of the respondents, 99% of facilities and 96% of physicians provided first-trimester surgical abortions. Responding facilities provided 68,154 first-trimester surgical abortions in 2012. This represented 96% of their reported total (combined medical and surgical) first-trimester abortions. More than half (55%) of responding facilities were community based, while 45% were hospital affiliated. Most physician providers were female (68%) and were family doctors (59%). Preoperatively, 96% of physicians routinely used ultrasound and 89% gave perioperative antibiotics. Almost half (48%) used manual vacuum aspiration, but less than 35% did so beyond 9 weeks after the last menstrual period. At most facilities, most procedures were performed under combined local anesthesia and intravenous sedation (73%); only 7% indicated deep sedation or general anesthesia were used exclusively. Postoperatively, 81% of physicians performed immediate tissue examination and 96% offered postabortion contraception on the same day as the abortion. Other assessed outcomes included medication regimens and cervical preparation, with a high degree of consistency among facilities and physicians. CONCLUSION: First-trimester surgical abortion providers are mostly family physicians and most are female. Practices across Canada were mostly uniform and followed evidence-based guidelines. Uptake of the most recent Canadian practice guidelines may help further standardize patient care and improve routine perioperative antibiotic use and immediate tissue examination.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Masculino , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Canadá , Médicos de Família , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Telemed J E Health ; 29(5): 686-695, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126299

RESUMO

Introduction: Telemedicine has the potential to improve abortion access disparities in Canada. We aimed to explore the provision of telemedicine for first-trimester medical abortion and related barriers in 2019. Methods: We conducted a national, cross-sectional, anonymized, web-based survey of clinicians who provided abortion care in 2019 in Canada. We distributed our survey through professional health organizations to maximize identification of possible eligible respondents and used a modified Dillman technique to foster responses. Questions elicited provider demographics, clinical characteristics, including telemedicine first-trimester medical abortion and perceived related barriers. Descriptive statistics were analyzed using R software. Results: Among 465 respondents, 388 reported providing first-trimester medical abortion across Canada; 44.0% reported experience using telemedicine for some components of care: 49.3% of primary care clinicians and 28.7% of specialists. Telemedicine was used for initial consultation (86.0%), prescription (82.2%), or follow-up (92.2%). The median percentage of telemedicine providers' patients who underwent a dating ultrasound was 90.0. The majority usually followed up with patients through quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (84.2%). Seventy-eight percent perceived barriers to telemedicine; the most common being inability to confirm gestational age with ultrasound (43.0%), and lack of provincial telemedicine abortion fee code to pay practitioners (30.2%), timely access to serum hCG testing (24.6%), and nearby emergency services (23.3%). Discussion: In 2019, fewer than half of respondents reported providing some aspects of first-trimester medical abortion through telemedicine and the majority perceived barriers. Our results can inform knowledge translation activities to reduce barriers and increase telemedicine abortion care in Canada.


Assuntos
Telemedicina , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Canadá
19.
BMJ Sex Reprod Health ; 49(2): 87-96, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Across most of Australia, the role of community pharmacists in contraceptive care has been unchanged since 2004. To understand their current scope of practice and potential for practice advancements, we examined community pharmacists' contraceptive knowledge and their attitudes, practices and perceived barriers to and benefits of contraceptive counselling provision. METHODS: A nationwide postal survey was conducted between September and December 2020. We contacted a state/territory-stratified sample of 2149 community pharmacies and limited eligibility to one pharmacist per pharmacy. Summary statistics of respondent characteristics and parametric (χ2, linear regression) and non-parametric (Mann-Whitney, logistic regression) tests were computed for the outcomes: practices, knowledge (reported and tested), confidence, attitudes, barriers and benefits. RESULTS: Eligible responses were received from 366 pharmacies (19%). Pharmacists' median age was 34. Most (85% of) pharmacists agreed that contraceptive counselling fits within their current professional activities and emphasised benefits to their patients, including improved access to contraceptive decision support (80%), as being key motivators of counselling. A lack of payment mechanisms (66%), training opportunities (55%) and technical assistance tools (54%) were the most important barriers. Self-rated knowledge and confidence were highest for combined oral contraceptive pills and lowest for the copper intrauterine device (IUD). When tested, pharmacists were very knowledgeable about method, dosage, frequencies and costs, and relatively less knowledgeable about side-effects and IUD suitability for adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Community pharmacists provide contraceptive information and counselling but lack the necessary resources and support to be able to consistently provide quality, person-centred care. Remuneration mechanisms, training opportunities and pharmacy-specific professional resources need to be explored.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Farmácias , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto , Farmacêuticos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Anticoncepcionais , Austrália , Aconselhamento
20.
J Adv Nurs ; 79(2): 686-697, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369652

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore nurse practitioners' experiences of medication abortion implementation in Canada and to identify ways to further support the implementation of medication abortion by nurse practitioners in Canada. DESIGN: A qualitative approach informed by feminist theory and integrated knowledge translation. METHODS: Qualitative interviews with stakeholders and nurse practitioners between January 2020 and May 2021. Data were analysed using critical feminist theory. RESULTS: Participants included 20 stakeholders, 16 nurse practitioner abortion providers, and seven nurse practitioners who did not provide abortions. We found that nurse practitioners conduct educational, communication and networking activities in the implementation of medication abortion in their communities. Nurse practitioners navigated resistance to abortion care in the health system from employers, colleagues and funders. Participants valued making abortion care more accessible to their patients and indicated that normalizing medication abortion in primary care was important to them. CONCLUSION: When trained in abortion care and supported by employers, nurse practitioners are leaders of abortion care in their communities and want to provide accessible, inclusive services to their patients. We recommend nursing curricula integrate abortion services in education, and that policymakers and health administrators partner with nurses, physicians, midwives, social workers and pharmacists, for comprehensive provincial/territorial sexual and reproductive health strategies for primary care. IMPACT: The findings from this study may inform future policy, health administration and curriculum decisions related to reproductive health, and raise awareness about the crucial role of nurse practitioners in abortion care and contributions to reproductive health equity. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: This study focused on provider experiences. In-kind support was provided by Action Canada for Sexual Health & Rights, an organization that provides direct support and resources to the public and is committed to advocating on behalf of patients and the public seeking sexual and reproductive health services.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Canadá , Assistência ao Paciente , Reprodução , Profissionais de Enfermagem/educação
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