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Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 58(3): 207-226, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38140961


OBJECTIVE: Heterogeneous brief non-pharmacological interventions and guidelines exist to treat the burgeoning presentations to both emergency department and inpatient settings, for those in a crisis of mental ill-health. We systematically reviewed the literature to create a taxonomy of these brief non-pharmacological interventions, and review their evaluation methods and effectiveness. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review across Cochrane, CINAHL, DARE, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO databases. Studies meeting quality criteria, using Joanna Briggs Institute tools, were eligible. Interventions were categorised, and outcomes synthesised. RESULTS: Thirty-nine studies were included: 8 randomised controlled trials, 17 quasi-experimental, 11 qualitative studies, and 3 file audits. Taxonomy produced six coherent intervention types: Skills-focussed, Environment-focussed, Special Observation, Psychoeducation, Multicomponent Group and Multicomponent Individual. Despite this, a broad and inconsistent range of outcome measures reflected different outcome priorities and prevented systematic comparison of different types of intervention or meta-analysis. Few brief non-pharmacological interventions had consistent evidential support: sensory modulation rooms consistently improved distress in inpatient settings. Short admissions may reduce suicide attempts and readmission, if accompanied by psychotherapy. Suicide-specific interventions in emergency departments may improve depressive symptoms, but not suicide attempt rates. There was evidence that brief non-pharmacological interventions did not reduce incidence of self-harm on inpatient wards. We found no evidence for frequently used interventions such as no-suicide contracting, special observation or inpatient self-harm interventions. CONCLUSION: Categorising brief non-pharmacological interventions is feasible, but an evidence base for many is severely limited if not missing. Even when there is evidence, the inconsistency in outcomes often precludes clinicians from making inferences, although some interventions show promise.

Intervenção na Crise , Pacientes Internados , Humanos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Tentativa de Suicídio , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
Prog Neurobiol ; 98(1): 99-143, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22609700


As the population ages, the economic and societal impacts of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders are expected to rise sharply. Like dementia, late-life depressive disorders are common and are linked to increased disability, high healthcare utilisation, cognitive decline and premature mortality. Considerable heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of major depression across the life cycle may reflect unique pathophysiological pathways to illness; differentiating those with earlier onset who have grown older (early-onset depression), from those with illness onset after the age of 50 or 60 years (late-onset depression). The last two decades have witnessed significant advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of early- and late-onset depression, and has shown that disturbances of fronto-subcortical functioning are implicated. New biomedical models extend well beyond perturbations of traditional monoamine systems to include altered neurotrophins, endocrinologic and immunologic system dysfunction, inflammatory processes and gene expression alterations. This more recent research has highlighted that a range of illness-specific, neurodegenerative and vascular factors appear to contribute to the various phenotypic presentations. This review highlights the major features of late-life depression, with specific reference to its associated aetiological, clinical, cognitive, neuroimaging, neuropathological, inflammatory and genetic correlates. Data examining the efficacy of pharmacological, non-pharmacological and novel treatments for depression are discussed. Ultimately, future research must aim to evaluate whether basic biomedical knowledge can be successfully translated into enhanced health outcomes via the implementation of early intervention paradigms.

Envelhecimento , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Depressão/patologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Demência/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Neurônios/imunologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fatores de Risco
Int Psychogeriatr ; 23(3): 413-24, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20670460


BACKGROUND: Multifactorial strategies that prevent or delay the onset or progress of cognitive decline and dementia are needed, and should include education regarding recognized risk factors. The current study sought to investigate whether older adults "at risk" of cognitive decline benefit from psychoeducation targeting healthy brain aging. METHODS: 65 participants (mean age 64.8 years, SD 9.6) with a lifetime history of major depression; vascular risk as evidenced by at least one vascular risk factor; and/or subjective or objective memory impairment were allocated to weekly psychoeducation sessions or a waitlist control group. The small group sessions were conducted over ten weeks by a team of medical and allied health professionals with expertise in late-life depression and cognition. Sessions focused on modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline including vascular risk, diet, exercise, depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance, as well as providing practical strategies for memory and cognition. Both the psychoeducation and waitlist group completed a 20-item knowledge test at baseline and follow-up. Participants in the psychoeducation group were asked to complete follow-up self-report satisfaction questionnaires. RESULTS: Repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant interaction effect depicting improvements in knowledge associated with psychoeducation, corresponding to an improvement of 15% from baseline. Satisfaction data additionally showed that 92.3% of participants rated the program as "good" to "excellent", and over 90% suggested they would recommend it to others. CONCLUSIONS: A group-based psychoeducation program targeting healthy brain aging is effective in improving knowledge. Additionally, it is acceptable and rated highly by participants.

Demência/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Satisfação do Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 19(3): 240-8, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20808114


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a multifactorial cognitive training (CT) program for older people with a lifetime history of depressive disorder. METHODS: This was a single-blinded waitlist control design. The study was conducted in the Healthy Brain Ageing Clinic, a specialist outpatient clinic at the Brain & Mind Research Institute, Sydney, Australia. Forty-one participants (mean age = 64.8 years, sd = 8.5) with a lifetime history of major depression were included. They were stabilized on medication and had depressive symptoms in the normal to mild range. The intervention encompassed both psychoeducation and CT. Each component was 1-hour in duration and was delivered in a group format over a 10-week period. Psychoeducation was multifactorial, was delivered by health professionals and targeted cognitive strategies, as well depression, anxiety, sleep, vascular risk factors, diet and exercise. CT was computer-based and was conducted by Clinical Neuropsychologists. Baseline and follow-up neuropsychological assessments were conducted by Psychologists who were blinded to group allocation. The primary outcome was memory whilst secondary outcomes included other aspects of cognition and disability. RESULTS: CT was associated with significant improvements in visual and verbal memory corresponding to medium to large effect sizes. CONCLUSION: CT may be a viable secondary prevention technique for late-life depression, a group who are at risk of further cognitive decline and progression to dementia.

Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Método Simples-Cego , Listas de Espera
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; 23(2): 123-30, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20354239


While literature suggests that sleep is important for cognition and mood, and that sleep disturbance is a prominent feature of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, these relationships have not yet been examined in older people ''at risk" of dementia. In this study, 15 older people with the nonamnestic subtype of mild cognitive impairment ([MCI] mean age = 66.7 years, SD = 8.7) underwent psychiatric and neuropsychological assessment. Participants completed sleep diaries, questionnaires, and 2 weeks of actigraphy. Key outcome data during the rest interval were time spent ''awake" or wake after sleep onset (WASO) and the number of arousals/wake bouts. Results showed that even after controlling for age, greater WASO was associated with reduced attention and executive functioning and increased arousals were related to poorer nonverbal learning and problem solving. This preliminary data suggests that sleep-wake disturbance in nonamnestic forms of MCI is related to cognitive functioning and may be indicative of shared neurobiological underpinnings.

Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/epidemiologia , Sono , Pensamento , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comunicação não Verbal , Polissonografia , Resolução de Problemas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/diagnóstico