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Policy Polit Nurs Pract ; 25(1): 6-13, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38116640


Due to a growing physician shortage, patients have difficulty accessing primary care. In an effort to expand access and support patient health, many states are reducing barriers for advanced practice registered nurses to provide primary care without physician collaboration. Maryland provides an interesting case study. We leverage Maryland's policy change to explore the effects of full practice authority (FPA), focusing on the number of professionals and health outcomes for patients. Employing a border county comparison between Maryland and Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of FPA. Our analysis of health outcomes focuses on three county-level health outcomes: poor or fair health, poor mental health days, and preventable hospital stays. We find that FPA is associated with increases in the number of certified nurse midwives by 0.6 per 100,000 residents and nurse practitioners by 22.4 per 100,000 residents. We also find evidence of an association of FPA with reductions in the share of residents who report being in poor or fair health by 2.8 percentage points and poor mental health days per month by 0.354 days per person. Combined, our results provide suggestive evidence that moving to FPA improves access to care and leads to improved health outcomes for Maryland residents. Removing regulatory barriers that prevent certified nurse midwives and nurse practitioners from working to the full extent of their training may increase access to primary care and improve patient outcomes.

Profissionais de Enfermagem , Médicos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
J Patient Exp ; 10: 23743735231179060, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37275768


As a result of a shortage of primary care physicians, considerable portion of patients in the US have difficulty accessing primary care. Telemedicine allows healthcare professionals to reach patients in shortage areas, but state-based occupational licensing laws make interstate practice difficult. The Nurse Licensure Compact (NLC) was designed to improve interstate practice for Registered Nurses (RNs), including telemedicine. Our preliminary analysis does not find evidence that the NLC is able to significantly increase telemedicine usage from out-of-state providers. Policymakers cannot rely on just the NLC to encourage the adoption of telemedicine; other regulations currently limit its adoption.

Hemodial Int ; 27(4): 436-443, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37056053


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Eight states and Washington, DC have implemented regulations mandating a minimum ratio between treatment staff and patients receiving hemodialysis in a facility in an effort to improve the quality of hemodialysis treatment. Our investigation examines the association between minimum staffing regulations and patient mortality for four states and hospitalizations for two states that implemented these rules during our sample period. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: We utilized a synthetic difference in differences estimation to analyze the effect of minimum staffing ratios on hemodialysis treatment quality, measured by deaths and hospitalizations for end-stage renal disease patients. We used data gathered by the US Renal Data System and aggregated at the state level. RESULTS: We are unable to find evidence that mandated dialysis staffing ratios area associated with a reduction in mortality or hospitalizations. We estimate a slight reduction in deaths per 1000 patient hours and a slight increase in hospitalizations, but neither are statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to find evidence that minimum staffing ratios for hemodialysis facilities are associated with improved patient outcomes. Our findings highlight the need for future work, studying the impact of these regulations at the facility level.

Falência Renal Crônica , Diálise Renal , Idoso , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicare , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Hospitalização , Recursos Humanos
Health Policy Open ; 3: 100062, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904135


In 2020, COVID-19 threatened to overwhelm healthcare capacity, forcing policymakers to enact temporary waivers of licensing restrictions. Research finds that occupational licensing reduces the supply of professionals in a regulated field, and reduces geographic mobility, contributing to the primary care professional shortage. Scope of practice laws reduce the flexibility of practitioners, exacerbating these shortages. Given the fact that policymakers and healthcare professionals recognized the shortcomings to our current licensing regime during the COVID-19 pandemic, we should consider alternatives that still ensure quality care for patients without restricting access and reducing flexibility. We rank six alternatives currently being considered to address the primary care shortage from most to least effective. While efforts to expand the supply of physicians or NPs and PAs would be the most effective reforms to expand access to primary care, others that better utilize our existing supply of healthcare professionals are worth considering.

Policy Polit Nurs Pract ; 22(3): 212-220, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990171


The demand for primary care services may surpass the supply of primary care providers, exacerbating challenges with access, quality, and cost in the U.S. health care system. Expanding the supply of, and access to, nurse practitioner (NP) care has been proposed as one method to alleviate these challenges. New York State (NYS) changed its regulatory environment for NPs in 2015. We estimate the impact of expanded NP scope of practice (SOP) regulations in NYS on total care days received by Medicaid beneficiaries from 2015 to 2018 using a model derived from national historical data from 1999 to 2011. We used a longitudinal data policy analysis framework and a generalized difference-in-differences model to identify the effect of changes in NP SOP regulations on total care days. The model included controls for state income and unemployment rates. Our results suggest that the policy change increased total care days provided to patients, but that this difference was not statistically significant and became negligible after computing the number of days per beneficiary. In addition, our results suggest that had NYS moved to a full practice environment, more care days could have been provided to Medicaid patients, and this difference was found to be statistically significant. Our results suggest that states should adopt full NP SOP practice environments to realize measurable benefits of expanded NP SOP.

Medicaid , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , New York , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estados Unidos
Semin Dial ; 33(5): 410-417, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448474


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In 2005, the New Jersey Department of Health enacted a rule requiring that an administrator or designate always be present in a hemodialysis clinic and that the individual may not be involved in patient care activities at any time. Our investigation examines the effect of this unique rule on patient mortality and hospitalizations and is meant to inform the public policy discussion. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: We utilized a synthetic control estimation to analyze the effect of this rule on patient mortality in New Jersey. We also compared trends for hospitalizations in New Jersey to other similar states. RESULTS: We find no evidence that the law affected patient mortality or the number of hospitalizations for Medicare patients in New Jersey. CONCLUSIONS: The New Jersey law poses substantial costs to hemodialysis clinics and we find little evidence of any measurable benefit to patients.

Medicare , Diálise Renal , Idoso , Custos e Análise de Custo , Hospitalização , Humanos , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia