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1.
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 40, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advance directives (ADs) were implemented in Portugal in 2012. Although more than a decade has passed since Law 25/2012 came into force, Portuguese people have very low levels of adherence. In this context, this study aimed to identify and analyse the attitudes of people aged 18 or older living in Portugal towards ADs and to determine the relationships between sociodemographic variables (gender/marital status/religion/level of education/residence/whether they were a health professional/whether they had already drawn up a living will) and people's attitudes towards ADs. METHODS: An online cross-sectional analytical study was conducted using a convenience sample. For this purpose, a request (email) that publicized the link to a -form-which included sociodemographic data and the General Public Attitudes Toward Advance Care Directives (GPATACD) scale-was sent to 28 higher education institutions and 30 senior universities, covering all of mainland Portugal and the islands (Azores and Madeira). The data were collected between January and February 2023. RESULTS: A total of 950 adults from completed the online form. The lower scores (mean 1 and 2) obtained in most responses by applying the GPATACD scale show that the sample of the Portuguese population has a very positive attitude towards ADs. The data showed that women, agnostics/atheists, health professionals and those who had already made a living will had more positive attitudes (p < 0.001) towards ADs. There were no statistically significant differences in the attitudes of the Portuguese population sample towards ADs in relation to marital status, education level, and residence. CONCLUSION: The results obtained enable us to confirm that this sample of the Portuguese population has a positive attitude towards ADs. We verify that there are certain fringes of this sample with certain sociodemographic characteristics (women, agnostics/atheists, health professionals and those who had already made a living will) that have a more positive attitude towards ADs. This data could facilitate the implementation and adjustment of relevant measures, particularly in the field of health education and aimed at groups with less favourable attitudes, to increase the effectiveness of voluntary exercise of citizens' autonomy in end-of-life care planning.


Assuntos
Diretivas Antecipadas , Atitude , População Europeia , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Portugal , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
2.
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 30, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The field of bioethics examines the moral and ethical dilemmas that arise in the biological sciences, healthcare, and medical practices. There has been a rise in medical negligence cases, complaints against healthcare workers, and public dissatisfaction with healthcare professionals, according to reports from the Indian Medical Council and other healthcare associations. We intend to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of bioethics among the registered healthcare professionals (HCPs) of Maharashtra, India. METHODS: A State-level online survey was conducted among the registered HCPs (n = 2143) casing all five regions of the Maharashtra state using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. The responses were expressed as mean, and proportions with their standard deviation and 95% CI respectively. Binary logistic regression and a multivariate logistic model were used to determine factors associated with knowledge, attitude, and practice of bioethics. RESULTS: Of the 2143 registered HCPs in Maharashtra included in this study, most of them (65.2%) had adequate knowledge of bioethics. Adequate knowledge was associated with lower age, profession (nurses and dentists), employment in the private sector, HCPS at Marathwada and Pune, and higher educational attainment. About 3 in 5 HCPs (59.4%) had a favorable attitude towards the ethical practice of bioethics, and was associated with profession, place of work, region of practice, and work experience. The distribution of unethical bioethics practices among 10 items was proportionally high, and only 34.4% reported good/fair practice. The common unethical practices in the state were allowing patients to be examined by interns, and not informing them about professional misconduct to the regulatory bodies. CONCLUSION: Most HCPs had adequate knowledge of bioethics, which is encouraging and would favor the laying foundation for forming a good bioethics framework. Only 3/5 HCPs demonstrated a favorable attitude, and the observed unethical practice is alarmingly common. A serious consideration to evaluate the compliance level of bioethics practice periodically and measures to educate, sensitize, and train bioethics among HCPs in Maharashtra is warranted.


Assuntos
Bioética , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Índia , Pessoal de Saúde
3.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 142(3): e2022537, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advance Directive documents allow citizens to choose the treatments they want for end-of-life care without considering therapeutic futility. OBJECTIVES: To analyze patients' and caregivers' answers to Advance Directives and understand their expectations regarding their decisions. DESIGN AND SETTING: This study analyzed participants' answers to a previously published trial, conceived to test the document's efficacy as a communication tool. METHODS: Sixty palliative patients and 60 caregivers (n = 120) registered their preferences in the Advance Directive document and expressed their expectations regarding whether to receive the chosen treatments. RESULTS: In the patient and caregiver groups, 30% and 23.3% wanted to receive cardiorespiratory resuscitation; 23.3% and 25% wanted to receive artificial organ support; and 40% and 35% chose to receive artificial feeding and hydration, respectively. The participants ignored the concept of therapeutic futility and expected to receive invasive treatments. The concept of therapeutic futility should be addressed and discussed with both the patients and caregivers. Legal Advanced Directive documents should be made clear to reduce misinterpretations and potential legal conflicts. CONCLUSION: The authors suggest that all citizens should be clarified regarding the futility concept before filling out the Advance Directives and propose a grammatical change in the document, replacing the phrase "Health Care to Receive / Not to Receive" with the sentence "Health Care to Accept / Refuse" so that patients cannot demand treatments, but instead accept or refuse the proposed therapeutic plans. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT05090072. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05090072.


Assuntos
Diretivas Antecipadas , Futilidade Médica , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Portugal , Atenção à Saúde
4.
Palliat Med ; 38(3): 297-309, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burns are a global public health problem, accounting for around 300,000 deaths annually. Burns have significant consequences for patients, families, healthcare teams and systems. Evidence suggests that the integration of palliative care in burn intensive care units improves patients' comfort, decision-making processes and family care. Research is needed on how to optimise palliative care referrals. AIM: To identify triggers for palliative care referral in critically burned patients based on professionals' views, experiences and practices. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: All five Burn Intensive Care Units reference centres across Portugal were invited; three participated. Inclusion criteria: Professionals with experience/working in these settings. A total of 15 professionals (12 nurses and 3 physicians) participated. Reflexive thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: Three main triggers for palliative care referral were identified: (i) Burn severity and extension, (ii) Co-morbidities and (iii) Multiorgan failure. Other triggers were also generated: (i) Rehabilitative palliative care related to patients' suffering and changes in body image, (ii) Family suffering and/or dysfunctional and complex family processes, (iii) Long stay in the burn intensive care unit and (iv) Uncontrolled pain. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies triggers for palliative care in burn intensive care units based on professionals' views, clinical experiences and practices. The systematisation and use of triggers could help streamline referral pathways and strengthen the integration of palliative care in burn intensive care units. Research is needed on the use of these triggers in clinical practice to enhance decision-making processes, early and high-quality integrated palliative care and proportionate patient and family centred care.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Cuidados Paliativos , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Atenção à Saúde
5.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 12(3)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Is pharmacovigilance at a moment of prominence for science, and in relation to governments' responsibilities towards their nations, as the new coronavirus pandemic has surprised everyone in a negative and lethal way? OBJECTIVE: Evaluate pharmacovigilance as a resource for controlling and understanding adverse events caused by vaccines in use. METHODS: This is a narrative review of the literature. Scientific articles available in databases, government bulletins and similar bodies were used. The search was carried out using the descriptors: "Pharmacovigilance AND COVID-19 in Brazil", "Vaccine Development AND COVID-19", "Vaccination Hesitancy AND COVID-19", "Public Health Surveillance AND COVID-19". The period from May 2021 to June 2022 was covered. RESULTS: The occurrence of some adverse events was observed, including cases of allergy, myocarditis and rheumatoid arthritis. It is important to highlight that these adverse events were identified as rare, occurring in a small percentage of the vaccinated population. Despite these adverse events, the benefits of vaccines proved to be essential for controlling the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The information presented highlights the importance of pharmacovigilance to continuously monitor and evaluate the safety of vaccines, identifying any potential adverse events early. This balance between risk and benefit emphasizes the need for a careful and informed approach when making decisions about vaccination policies, prioritizing public health and population safety.

6.
BMC Palliat Care ; 23(1): 37, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the outbreak caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus was declared a pandemic, resulting in numerous fatalities worldwide. To effectively combat the virus, it would be beneficial to involve professionals who specialize in symptom control for advanced illnesses, working closely with other specialties throughout the illness process. This approach can help manage a range of symptoms, from mild to severe and potentially life-threatening. No studies have been conducted in Portugal to analyse the intervention of Palliative Medicine at the end of life of Covid-19 patients and how it differs from other specialties. This knowledge could help determine the importance of including it in the care of people with advanced Covid-19. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine potential differences in the care provided to patients with Covid-19 during their Last Hours and Days of Life (LHDOL) between those who received care from Palliative Medicine doctors and those who did not. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study spanning three months (Dec 2020 to Feb 2021), the duration of the Support Unit especially created to deal with Covid-19 patients. The database included clinical files from 181 patients admitted to the Support Unit, 27 of which died from Covid-19. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were identified in the care provided. Specifically, fewer drugs were administered at the time of death, including drugs for dyspnoea, pain and agitation, suspension of futile devices and use of palliative sedation to control refractory symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: End-of-life care and symptomatic control differ when there's regular follow-up by Palliative Medicine, which may translate less symptomatic suffering and promote a dignified and humane end of life.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Assistência Terminal , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Morte
7.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 12(2)2024 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38255083

RESUMO

(1) Background: Advance directives (ADs) in Portugal have been legalized since 2012. What has been observed over time, from the few studies carried out, is that despite the positive attitudes in the population, there is a low level of adherence to ADs. To try to understand the reasons for these data, the current study aimed to explore and describe the experiences of the Portuguese population regarding AD. (2) Methods: For this exploratory and descriptive qualitative study, the researchers conducted open (unstructured) interviews with a convenience sample aged over 18 years until data saturation was achieved. (3) Results: A total of fifteen interviews were conducted-eight with women and seven with men. The following four categories emerged from the content analysis of the interviews: (1) AD literacy, (2) AD relevance, (3) AD attitudes, and (4) conditionalities for compiling the ADs. (4) Conclusions: The study pointed out the good receptivity of the participants to the ADs; however, literacy on this subject was low, and identifying the conditionalities in the development of ADs could contribute to improvements in implementation in the population. The data from this study suggest the need to implement measures to increase the literacy of the Portuguese population on ADs and review the legal framework for improving the accessibility of the citizen population. There is also a need to continue researching and obtain more evidence about the ways in which the Portuguese population perceives ADs; thus, in this way, a society can better respond to its citizens' right to freely exercise their prospective autonomy at the end of their lives.

8.
Ann Hum Biol ; 51(1): 1-12, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motor performances of youth are related to growth and maturity status, among other factors. AIM: To estimate the contribution of skeletal maturity status per se to the motor performances of female athletes aged 10-15 years and the mediation effects of growth status on the relationships. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Skeletal age (TW3 RUS SA), body size, proportions, estimated fat-free mass (FFM), motor performances, training history and participation motivation were assessed in 80 non-skeletally mature female participants in several sports. Hierarchical and regression-based statistical mediation analyses were used. RESULTS: SA per se explained a maximum of 1.8% and 5.8% of the variance in motor performances of athletes aged 10-12 and 13-15 years, respectively, over and above that explained by covariates. Body size, proportions, and hours per week of training and participation motivation explained, respectively, a maximum of 40.7%, 18.8%, and 22.6% of the variance in performances. Mediation analysis indicated specific indirect effects of SA through stature and body mass, alone or in conjunction with FFM on performances. CONCLUSION: SA per se accounted for small and non-significant amounts of variance in several motor performances of female youth athletes; rather, SA influenced performances indirectly through effects on stature, body mass and estimated FFM.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto , Esportes , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Tamanho Corporal , Atletas , Estatura
9.
São Paulo med. j ; 142(3): e2022537, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551074

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Advance Directive documents allow citizens to choose the treatments they want for end-of-life care without considering therapeutic futility. OBJECTIVES: To analyze patients' and caregivers' answers to Advance Directives and understand their expectations regarding their decisions. DESIGN AND SETTING: This study analyzed participants' answers to a previously published trial, conceived to test the document's efficacy as a communication tool. METHODS: Sixty palliative patients and 60 caregivers (n = 120) registered their preferences in the Advance Directive document and expressed their expectations regarding whether to receive the chosen treatments. RESULTS: In the patient and caregiver groups, 30% and 23.3% wanted to receive cardiorespiratory resuscitation; 23.3% and 25% wanted to receive artificial organ support; and 40% and 35% chose to receive artificial feeding and hydration, respectively. The participants ignored the concept of therapeutic futility and expected to receive invasive treatments. The concept of therapeutic futility should be addressed and discussed with both the patients and caregivers. Legal Advanced Directive documents should be made clear to reduce misinterpretations and potential legal conflicts. CONCLUSION: The authors suggest that all citizens should be clarified regarding the futility concept before filling out the Advance Directives and propose a grammatical change in the document, replacing the phrase "Health Care to Receive / Not to Receive" with the sentence "Health Care to Accept / Refuse" so that patients cannot demand treatments, but instead accept or refuse the proposed therapeutic plans. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT05090072 URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05090072.

10.
Reprod Health ; 20(1): 183, 2023 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38062511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization characterizes infertility as a disease since 2009; however, in many countries, reproductive health is not prioritized. Characterizing a target population and knowing the barriers to accessing reproductive care may allow for a broadening of the discussion on how to provide equal opportunities. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire that seeks to identify socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of Brazilian infertile couples to open the discussion on the principle of fair access to health. METHODS: (1) literature review in the main databases, (2) questionnaire elaboration by researchers within the areas of human reproduction and bioethics, concerned with content adequacy and comprehension, using the Google Forms online platform, (3) pilot study - the questionnaire was applied to 54 couples, over 18 years of age, that were seeking treatment for infertility and accepted to participate in the study and (4) statistical analysis - for continuous numerical variables, mean, standard deviation and 95% CI of the means were presented. For discrete numerical variables, median, interquartile range, minimum and maximum were presented. RESULTS: Forty-four questionnaires were fully completed and with adequate answers. The questionnaire proved to be objective and easy to understand. It was possible to obtain information on education, race of the couple, the impact of infertility on the couple's life, socioeconomic conditions, and the main difficulties in accessing medical care for treatment of infertility. CONCLUSION: The questionnaire proved to be feasible in collecting appropriate information to characterize a target population and the only limitation was that there was no academic expert evaluation prior to the pilot test.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Projetos Piloto , Infertilidade/terapia , Infertilidade/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escolaridade
11.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 73: 103829, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37977039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the effects of spiritual intelligence (SI) training in several contexts and to identify the most consensual patterns in SI intervention design. INTRODUCTION: The "adaptive application" of spirituality in life is called SI, the ability to use spirituality in everyday problem-solving and it is proven to relate to better clinical and spiritual care (SC) competency in healthcare professionals. Interventions aiming to increase SI have been tested in different settings with benefits that can have a significant impact on the way healthcare professionals approach SC. INCLUSION CRITERIA: It included any quantitative studies that used reproducible methodology and reported on the implementation of interventions aiming to increase SI. Text, proceedings, conference or opinion papers, abstracts, reviews, mixed methods and qualitative studies were excluded from this scoping review. METHODS: Scoping review of quantitative studies on "spiritual intelligence" (query term) that include SI intervention programs (inclusion criteria) conducted on PubMed Central, Scopus, Web Of Science and PsycInfo databases, using the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. Studies published until the 1st january 2022 were included. The studies' selection, extraction and synthesis of data was carried out by two independent reviewers. RESULTS: From the 10 articles/studies included, six were quasi-experimental and three experimental. Most (n=9) were conducted in Iran. The most common target samples of the studies were nurses (4 studies) and students (4 studies). SI training protocols, although based in group sessions, varied in their content between the different studies. SI interventions reported significant increase of SI levels, improvement of communications skills and reduction of anxiety, stress and depression levels. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the consensus among studies regarding the benefits of spiritual intelligence programs, more studies are needed to gauge long-term outcomes. There is also a need to standardize training protocols in spiritual intelligence.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Espiritualidade , Humanos , Ansiedade , Inteligência , Irã (Geográfico)
12.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(20)2023 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37893829

RESUMO

(1) Background: Advance directives are an expression of a person's autonomy regarding end-of-life care. Several studies have shown that the level of completion in countries where advance directives are legalised is low. To better understand this phenomenon, it is important to know the perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge that the population has about this instrument. The aim of this article was to explore a population's perceptions and/or attitudes and/or knowledge toward advance directives. (2) Methods: A search was conducted in March 2023 in the ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and PubMed databases using the following keywords: "advance care directives", "advance care planning", "perceptions", "attitudes", and "knowledge". Two hundred and twenty-four (224) articles were identified, and thirteen (13) were included for analysis. (3) Results: The selected articles point to a low level of knowledge toward advance directives: they recognise a strong positive attitude of the population toward the implementation of advance directives but a low level of achievement. (4) Conclusions: Studies on perceptions/attitudes/knowledge toward advance directives are important to understand the real needs of the population regarding this issue and to implement more adequate and effective promotion and dissemination measures.

13.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(20)2023 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37893855

RESUMO

The COVID-19 vaccination campaign has been fortified by the positive effects of immunization: data from official government organizations and communication channels show that infection rates, hospitalizations, and deaths have continued to fall since its implementation. In Brazil, the effective and free National Vaccination Program has failed to prioritize patients with rare diseases, who have extreme comorbidities, and who adhere to the calendar prepared by the government. The question is why these "rare people" were not considered priorities during the vaccination program. This study aims to understand the reasoning behind this decision and to resume the debate around the rights of patients with rare diseases based on regular descriptors issued by official government agencies and by critics of rare disease issues in scientific articles. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the dispensed care of rare disease patients in the COVID-19 vaccination campaign; to identify the procedures implemented by the National Vaccination Plan for the Brazilian population over 18 years of age and to evaluate the effectiveness of the plan implemented from the perspective of a "rare person".

14.
Nurs Rep ; 13(4): 1477-1485, 2023 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37873831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This article focuses on exploring the evolution of palliative care in Portugal. Ten years after the approval of its Basic Law, the aim was to investigate the quality of the path followed and the guidelines that could promote its development. Thus, this study sought to identify (a) the goals of the current members of parliament concerning palliative care, (b) the major priorities that should guide the development of palliative care in the coming decade, (c) the facilitating or hindering factors to accelerating the process, and (d) to propose consensually agreed measures for the integral development of palliative care within the health system. METHODS: The qualitative data analysis was performed through the reading of the literature and interviews conducted via Zoom with several intentionally chosen participants. The data extracted from the previous studies were analyzed in a focus group. The NVivo® 10 was used for the data processing and categorization. RESULTS: Three key themes emerged concerning the current status of palliative care: the policymakers, the health professionals, and the society. This first line of structuring is explained by a second set of categories, namely, (a) the knowledge about palliative care; and (b) palliative care organization from the policymakers' perspective. In the health professionals' domain: (a) knowledge about palliative care, (b) clinical training, and (c) medical specialty. Finally, in society: (a) knowledge about palliative care. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESULTS: Advancing general education, increasing the qualitative training for different health professionals, reformulating the laws supporting them, promoting the flexibility of the implementation methodologies, and establishing a medical specialty are crucial to achieving the proposed goal. This study was not registered.

15.
PLoS One ; 18(10): e0292846, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37847716

RESUMO

The obstetrics field is undergoing transformation and committing to ensuring the autonomy of pregnant women in decisions related to birth based on scientific information. The physiological process of birth typically results in vaginal delivery, but medicine has evolved to include obstetric surgeries that are safe and result in few perioperative complications, especially when cesarean section is performed from 39 weeks of gestational age. Thus, the question is whether clinicians should interfere with pregnant women's freedom to choose their mode of delivery by trying to persuade them to choose vaginal delivery. The objective was to analyze the perinatal complications of the maternal-fetal dyad in primiparous women subjected to vaginal delivery versus elective cesarean section with respect to the bioethical precepts of autonomy, beneficence and nonmaleficence. In total, 2,507 women, including 1,807 (72.1%) with vaginal deliveries and 700 (27.9%) with cesarean deliveries, were analyzed between 2017 and 2020. There was no difference between the types of delivery in maternal readmission, death, admission to the intensive care unit, an Apgar score <7 in the 5th minute of life, maternal blood transfusion or comorbidities of the mothers or newborns. The elective cesarean section group showed less need for therapeutic uterotonics. In primigravidae, it was observed that elective cesarean section did not present a higher risk of complications than vaginal delivery. Therefore, this guarantees the autonomy and right of the individual to choose the mode of delivery.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto , Paridade
16.
Acta bioeth ; 29(2)oct. 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1519839

RESUMO

In August 2018, the Federal Council of Medicine (CFM), the body responsible for the supervision and standardization of medical professional practice in Brazil, published a national code of ethics for medical students (CEMS), which standardizes and suggests behaviors, based on the best moral and ethical values, for medical students, supporting the humanization of medicine and indirectly helping teachers and managers of medical courses. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the dissemination and awareness of scientific publications on the Brazilian CEMS code, and consisted of an integrative literature review of all publications related to the Brazilian CEMS published from 2005 to the present. We found 4 studies related to regional and university codes of ethics for medical students published from 2005 to 2022, and regarding the CEMS elaborated by the FCM, we found a single study from its launch in 2018 to 2022. A CEMS has universal importance, facilitating the ethical and human development of future physicians, and despite its importance in the training of physicians, there is a lack of published research on the subject in Brazil.


En agosto de 2018, el Consejo Federal de Medicina (CFM), órgano responsable de la supervisión y normalización de la práctica profesional médica en Brasil, publicó un código nacional de ética para estudiantes de medicina (CEMS), que normaliza y sugiere conductas, basadas en los mejores valores morales y éticos, para los estudiantes de medicina, apoyando la humanización de la medicina y ayudando indirectamente a los profesores y gestores de los cursos de medicina. El propósito del estudio fue evaluar la difusión y el conocimiento de las publicaciones científicas sobre el código de la CEMS brasileña, y consistió en una revisión bibliográfica integradora de todas las publicaciones relacionadas con la CEMS brasileña publicadas desde 2005 hasta la actualidad. Encontramos 4 estudios relacionados con códigos de ética regionales y universitarios para estudiantes de medicina publicados desde 2005 hasta 2022, y con respecto a los CEMS elaborados por la FCM, encontramos un único estudio desde su lanzamiento en 2018 hasta 2022. Un CEMS tiene importancia universal, facilitando el desarrollo ético y humano de los futuros médicos, y, a pesar de su importancia en la formación de los médicos, falta investigación publicada sobre el tema en Brasil.


Em agosto de 2018, o Conselho Federal de Medicina (CFM), órgão responsável pela fiscalização e normatização do exercício profissional médico no Brasil, publicou um código nacional de ética do estudante de medicina (CEMS), que padroniza e sugere condutas, com base nos melhores valores morais e éticos, para os estudantes de medicina, apoiando a humanização da medicina e auxiliando indiretamente os professores e gestores dos cursos de medicina. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a disseminação e a conscientização das publicações científicas sobre o código CEMS brasileiro, e consistiu em uma revisão integrativa da literatura de todas as publicações relacionadas ao CEMS brasileiro publicadas de 2005 até o presente. Encontramos 4 estudos relacionados a códigos de ética regionais e universitários para estudantes de medicina publicados de 2005 a 2022 e, com relação ao CEMS elaborado pela FCM, encontramos um único estudo desde seu lançamento em 2018 até 2022. Um CEMS tem importância universal, facilitando o desenvolvimento ético e humano dos futuros médicos, e, apesar de sua importância na formação dos médicos, há uma carência de pesquisas publicadas sobre o assunto no Brasil.

17.
Acta bioeth ; 29(2)oct. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1519840

RESUMO

El concepto de "muerte digna" o "buena muerte" ha sido muy difundido entre los profesionales de la salud, que lo manejan de manera rutinaria y experimentan el dilema ético sobre lo que realmente se debe hacer ante un enfermo terminal. Ante esto, el presente estudio tiene como objetivo mostrar los conceptos y cómo los casos de pacientes terminales han sido tratados dentro de las Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI). Para argumentar respecto de la aplicación y funcionalidad de la eutanasia, la ortotanasia y la distanasia en las UCI, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de 14 artículos. Se concluyó que se debe considerar el conocimiento del profesional con relación a estos temas y distinguir el tema específico que se aborda, sin olvidar enfatizar los derechos previstos en la Constitución y el bienestar del paciente y su familia.


The concept of dignified death or a good death has been widespread among health professionals, who routinely deal with it and experience the ethical dilemma about what should really be done in the face of a terminally ill patient. Given this, the present study aims to show the concepts and how cases of terminally ill patients have been conducted within the Intensive Care Units (ICU). To argue about the application and functionality of euthanasia, orthothanasia and dysthanasia in ICUs, a literature review of 14 articles was carried out. It was concluded that the knowledge that the professional has in relation to these themes needs to be taken into account and to distinguish the specific theme that is addressed, not forgetting to emphasize the rights provided for in the constitution and the well-being of the paciente and his family.


O conceito de morte digna ou boa morte tem sido difundido entre os profissionais de saúde, os quais lidam com isso rotineiramente e vivem o dilema ético sobre o que realmente deve ser feito diante de um paciente terminal. Visto isso, o presente estudo visa mostrar os conceito e como tem sido conduzido os casos de pacientes em fase terminal dentro das Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Para argumentar sobre a aplicação e a funcionalidade da eutanasia, ortotanásia e distanásia nas UTIs foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica de 14 artigos. Concluiu-se que precisa ser levado em consideração o conhecimento que o profissional tem em relação a esses temas e distinguir a temática específica que é tratado, não esquecendo de salientar os direitos previstos na constituição e o bem-estar do paciente e de sua família.

18.
Acta bioeth ; 29(2)oct. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1519845

RESUMO

El uso de estrategias de imagen en las redes sociales médicas está cada vez más extendido, cumpliendo el límite ético establecido por el CEM. Sabiendo esto, el presente estudio buscó comprender el problema de la exposición de los pacientes en las redes sociales médicas. Para ello, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica a partir de las bases Scientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo), PubMED, UpToDate, LILACS, incluyendo artículos en inglés, español y portugués publicados a partir de 2018. Así, se percibió en algunas ciudades la tendencia a crear leyes para regular esta exposición, dado que el uso de imágenes se ha vuelto rutinario en la publicidad médica, como una forma de demostrar resultados. Sin embargo, esta práctica está muy acompañada de faltas éticas como recomienda el CFM.


The use of imagem strategies in medical socieal networks is increasingly widespread, meeting the ethical limit established by the CEM. Knowing this, the present study sought to understand the problem of patient exposure in medical social networks. For this, a literature review was carried out from the Scientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo), Pubmed, UpToDate, LILACS databases, articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese published from 2018 onwards were included. Thus, a tendency was noticed in some cities to create laws to regulate this exposure, given that the use of images has become routine in medical advertising, as a way to demonstrate results. However, this practice is greatly accompanied by ethical failures as recommended by the CFM.


A utilização das estratégias de imagem nas redes sociais médicas está cada vez mais disseminada, encontrando-se no limite ético estabelecido pelo CEM. Sabendo disso, o presente estudo buscou entender a problemática da exposição do paciente nas redes sociais médicas. Para isso, foi feita uma revisão da literatura a partir das bases Scientific Eletronic Library Online (Scielo), PubMED, UpToDate, LILACS, foram incluídos artigos em inglês, espanhol e português publicados a partir de 2018. Assim, percebeu-se em algumas cidades a tendência de criar leis para regular essa exposição, haja vista que a utilização de imagens tornou-se rotineira na propaganda médica, como forma demonstrar resultados. Todavia, tal prática vem acompanhada grandemente de falhas éticas segundo o preconizado pelo CFM.

19.
Acta bioeth ; 29(2)oct. 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1519859

RESUMO

In August 2018, the Federal Council of Medicine (CFM), the body responsible for the supervision and standardization of medical professional practice in Brazil, published a national code of ethics for medical students (CEMS), which standardizes and suggests behaviors, based on the best moral and ethical values, for medical students, supporting the humanization of medicine and indirectly helping teachers and managers of medical courses. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the dissemination and awareness of scientific publications on the Brazilian CEMS code and consisted of an integrative literature review of all publications related to the Brazilian CEMS published from 2005 to the present. We found 4 studies related to regional and university codes of ethics for medical students published from 2005 to 2022, and regarding the CEMS elaborated by the FCM, we found a single study from its launch in 2018 to 2022. A CEMS has universal importance, facilitating the ethical and human development of future physicians, and despite its importance in the training of physicians, there is a lack of published research on the subject in Brazil.


En agosto de 2018, el Consejo Federal de Medicina (CFM), órgano responsable de la supervisión y normalización de la práctica profesional médica en Brasil, publicó un código nacional de ética para estudiantes de medicina (CEMS), que normaliza y sugiere conductas, basadas en los mejores valores morales y éticos, para los estudiantes de medicina, apoyando la humanización de la medicina y ayudando indirectamente a los profesores y gestores de los cursos de medicina. El propósito del estudio fue evaluar la difusión y el conocimiento de las publicaciones científicas sobre el código de la CEMS brasileña, y consistió en una revisión bibliográfica integradora de las publicaciones relacionadas con la CEMS brasileña publicadas desde 2005 hasta la actualidad. Encontramos 4 estudios relacionados con códigos de ética regionales y universitarios para estudiantes de medicina publicados desde 2005 hasta 2022, y, respecto de los CEMS elaborados por la FCM, encontramos un único estudio desde su lanzamiento en 2018 hasta 2022. Un CEMS tiene importancia universal, facilitando el desarrollo ético y humano de los futuros médicos, y, a pesar de su importancia en la formación de los médicos, falta investigación publicada sobre el tema en Brasil.


Em agosto de 2018, o Conselho Federal de Medicina (CFM), órgão responsável pela fiscalização e normatização do exercício profissional médico no Brasil, publicou um código nacional de ética do estudante de medicina (CEMS), que padroniza e sugere condutas, com base nos melhores valores morais e éticos, para os estudantes de medicina, apoiando a humanização da medicina e auxiliando indiretamente os professores e gestores dos cursos de medicina. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a disseminação e a conscientização das publicações científicas sobre o código CEMS brasileiro, e consistiu em uma revisão integrativa da literatura de todas as publicações relacionadas ao CEMS brasileiro publicadas de 2005 até o presente. Encontramos 4 estudos relacionados a códigos de ética regionais e universitários para estudantes de medicina publicados de 2005 a 2022 e, com relação ao CEMS elaborado pela FCM, encontramos um único estudo desde seu lançamento em 2018 até 2022. Um CEMS tem importância universal, facilitando o desenvolvimento ético e humano dos futuros médicos, e, apesar de sua importância na formação dos médicos, há uma carência de pesquisas publicadas sobre o assunto no Brasil.

20.
BMC Med Ethics ; 24(1): 69, 2023 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37667304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infertility is an increasingly prevalent disease in society and is considered by the World Health Organization to be a public health problem. An important ethical issue arises from the clarification of reproductive rights in a fair and equal way. The objective of this study was to deepen and update the knowledge and discussion about the difficulty of accessing infertility treatments in Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out through the application of an online questionnaire that collected the socioeconomic characteristics of couples and identify how barriers to infertility care affect the most vulnerable populations. We included couples who sought medical assistance to achieve pregnancy at two clinics in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. RESULTS: A total of 201 questionnaires were analyzed. Most couples self-declared as white and the average age of wives was 36 years and husbands 38 years. 65% (65%) of couples would proceed with the treatment in a different city to which they lived, 37% evaluated as having easy access to a medical specialist only after indication, and more than half of the participating have thought about giving up the treatment due to some difficulty in accessing it. 39% of participants sought more than one medical service to find better reception, 42% of couples sought more than one medical service to define where it would be better financially, and 67.2% referred to the high cost of treatments, that is, financial issues, as a great difficulty in accessing medical services and/or treatment. Although 72.6% of couples considered having a good quality of life, 54.2% admitted that infertility and the search for treatment generated anxiety/stress in the couple's life. CONCLUSION: There is a need for public education on reproductive health and for policymakers to raise awareness of the importance of the difficulty that many couples face in seeking treatment to become pregnant, especially in countries with less financial resources. Indeed, it is commonly accepted that there is a universal human right to access healthcare of appropriate quality as a matter of justice. Discussion of access to reproductive technologies should be considered taking into account the longstanding ethical debate regarding fertility, fecundity, and infertility, as well as reproductive care.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Qualidade de Vida , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Infertilidade/terapia , Justiça Social
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