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1.
Light Sci Appl ; 13(1): 47, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320987

RESUMO

Rydberg excitons (analogues of Rydberg atoms in condensed matter systems) are highly excited bound electron-hole states with large Bohr radii. The interaction between them as well as exciton coupling to light may lead to strong optical nonlinearity, with applications in sensing and quantum information processing. Here, we achieve strong effective photon-photon interactions (Kerr-like optical nonlinearity) via the Rydberg blockade phenomenon and the hybridisation of excitons and photons forming polaritons in a Cu2O-filled microresonator. Under pulsed resonant excitation polariton resonance frequencies are renormalised due to the reduction of the photon-exciton coupling with increasing exciton density. Theoretical analysis shows that the Rydberg blockade plays a major role in the experimentally observed scaling of the polariton nonlinearity coefficient as ∝ n4.4±1.8 for principal quantum numbers up to n = 7. Such high principal quantum numbers studied in a polariton system for the first time are essential for realisation of high Rydberg optical nonlinearities, which paves the way towards quantum optical applications and fundamental studies of strongly correlated photonic (polaritonic) states in a solid state system.

2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2136, 2024 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273037

RESUMO

The human neuron-specific gene, GPM6B (Glycoprotein membrane 6B), is considered a key gene in neural cell functionality. This gene contains an exceptionally long and strictly monomorphic short tandem repeat (STR) of 9-repeats, (GA)9. STRs in regulatory regions, may impact on the expression of nearby genes. We used CRISPR-based tool to delete this GA-repeat in NT2 cells, and analyzed the consequence of this deletion on GPM6B expression. Subsequently, the edited cells were induced to differentiate into neural cells, using retinoic acid (RA) treatment. Deletion of the GA-repeat significantly decreased the expression of GPM6B at the RNA (p < 0.05) and protein (40%) levels. Compared to the control cells, the edited cells showed dramatic decrease of the astrocyte and neural cell markers, including GFAP (0.77-fold), TUBB3 (0.57-fold), and MAP2 (0.2-fold). Subsequent sorting of the edited cells showed an increased number of NES (p < 0.01), but a decreased number of GFAP (p < 0.001), TUBB3 (p < 0.05), and MAP2 (p < 0.01), compared to the control cells. In conclusion, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of a GA-repeat in human GPM6B, led to decreased expression of this gene, which in turn, disrupted differentiation of NT2 cells into neural cells.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições de Microssatélites , Humanos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 16881, 2023 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37803008

RESUMO

Cuprous oxide ([Formula: see text]) has recently emerged as a promising material in solid-state quantum technology, specifically for its excitonic Rydberg states characterized by large principal quantum numbers (n). The significant wavefunction size of these highly-excited states (proportional to [Formula: see text]) enables strong long-range dipole-dipole (proportional to [Formula: see text]) and van der Waals interactions (proportional to [Formula: see text]). Currently, the highest-lying Rydberg states are found in naturally occurring [Formula: see text]. However, for technological applications, the ability to grow high-quality synthetic samples is essential. The fabrication of thin-film [Formula: see text] samples is of particular interest as they hold potential for observing extreme single-photon nonlinearities through the Rydberg blockade. Nevertheless, due to the susceptibility of high-lying states to charged impurities, growing synthetic samples of sufficient quality poses a substantial challenge. This study successfully demonstrates the CMOS-compatible synthesis of a [Formula: see text] thin film on a transparent substrate that showcases Rydberg excitons up to [Formula: see text] which is readily suitable for photonic device fabrications. These findings mark a significant advancement towards the realization of scalable and on-chip integrable Rydberg quantum technologies.

4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7191, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424397

RESUMO

The strong nonlinearities of exciton-polariton condensates in lattices make them suitable candidates for neuromorphic computing and physical simulations of complex problems. So far, all room temperature polariton condensate lattices have been achieved by nanoimprinting microcavities, which by nature lacks the crucial tunability required for realistic reconfigurable simulators. Here, we report the observation of a quantised oscillating nonlinear quantum fluid in 1D and 2D potentials in an organic microcavity at room temperature, achieved by an on-the-fly fully tuneable optical approach. Remarkably, the condensate is delocalised from the excitation region by macroscopic distances, leading both to longer coherence and a threshold one order of magnitude lower than that with a conventional Gaussian excitation profile. We observe different mode selection behaviour compared to inorganic materials, which highlights the anomalous scaling of blueshift with pump intensity and the presence of sizeable energy-relaxation mechanisms. Our work is a major step towards a fully tuneable polariton simulator at room temperature.

5.
BMC Genom Data ; 23(1): 59, 2022 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the evolutionary divergence of cis-regulatory sequences impacts translation initiation sites (TISs), the implication of tandem repeats (TRs) in TIS selection remains largely elusive. Here, we employed the TIS homology concept to study a possible link between TRs of all core lengths and repeats with TISs. METHODS: Human, as reference sequence, and 83 other species were selected, and data was extracted on the entire protein-coding genes (n = 1,611,368) and transcripts (n = 2,730,515) annotated for those species from Ensembl 102. Following TIS identification, two different weighing vectors were employed to assign TIS homology, and the co-occurrence pattern of TISs with the upstream flanking TRs was studied in the selected species. The results were assessed in 10-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: On average, every TIS was flanked by 1.19 TRs of various categories within its 120 bp upstream sequence, per species. We detected statistically significant enrichment of non-homologous human TISs co-occurring with human-specific TRs. On the contrary, homologous human TISs co-occurred significantly with non-human-specific TRs. 2991 human genes had at least one transcript, TIS of which was flanked by a human-specific TR. Text mining of a number of the identified genes, such as CACNA1A, EIF5AL1, FOXK1, GABRB2, MYH2, SLC6A8, and TTN, yielded predominant expression and functions in the human brain and/or skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: We conclude that TRs ubiquitously flank and contribute to TIS selection at the trans-species level. Future functional analyses, such as a combination of genome editing strategies and in vitro protein synthesis may be employed to further investigate the impact of TRs on TIS selection.


Assuntos
Sequências de Repetição em Tandem
6.
Nat Mater ; 21(7): 767-772, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422507

RESUMO

Giant Rydberg excitons with principal quantum numbers as high as n = 25 have been observed in cuprous oxide (Cu2O), a semiconductor in which the exciton diameter can become as large as ∼1 µm. The giant dimension of these excitons results in excitonic interaction enhancements of orders of magnitude. Rydberg exciton-polaritons, formed by the strong coupling of Rydberg excitons to cavity photons, are a promising route to exploit these interactions and achieve a scalable, strongly correlated solid-state platform. However, the strong coupling of these excitons to cavity photons has remained elusive. Here, by embedding a thin Cu2O crystal into a Fabry-Pérot microcavity, we achieve strong coupling of light to Cu2O Rydberg excitons up to n = 6 and demonstrate the formation of Cu2O Rydberg exciton-polaritons. These results pave the way towards realizing strongly interacting exciton-polaritons and exploring strongly correlated phases of matter using light on a chip.

7.
Small ; 14(34): e1801599, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30035854

RESUMO

Nanoactuators are a key component for developing nanomachinery. Here, an electrically driven device yielding actuation stresses exceeding 1 MPa withintegrated optical readout is demonstrated. 10 nm thick Al2 O3 electrolyte films are sandwiched between graphene and Au electrodes. These allow reversible room-temperature solid-state redox reactions, producing Al metal and O2 gas in a memristive-type switching device. The resulting high-pressure oxygen micro-fuel reservoirs are encapsulated under the graphene, swelling to heights of up to 1 µm, which can be dynamically tracked by plasmonic rulers. Unlike standard memristors where the memristive redox reaction occurs in single or few conductive filaments, the mechanical deformation forces the creation of new filaments over the whole area of the inflated film. The resulting on-off resistance ratios reach 108 in some cycles. The synchronization of nanoactuation and memristive switching in these devices is compatible with large-scale fabrication and has potential for precise and electrically monitored actuation technology.

8.
Science ; 354(6313): 726-729, 2016 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846600

RESUMO

Trapping light with noble metal nanostructures overcomes the diffraction limit and can confine light to volumes typically on the order of 30 cubic nanometers. We found that individual atomic features inside the gap of a plasmonic nanoassembly can localize light to volumes well below 1 cubic nanometer ("picocavities"), enabling optical experiments on the atomic scale. These atomic features are dynamically formed and disassembled by laser irradiation. Although unstable at room temperature, picocavities can be stabilized at cryogenic temperatures, allowing single atomic cavities to be probed for many minutes. Unlike traditional optomechanical resonators, such extreme optical confinement yields a factor of 106 enhancement of optomechanical coupling between the picocavity field and vibrations of individual molecular bonds. This work sets the basis for developing nanoscale nonlinear quantum optics on the single-molecule level.

9.
Nat Mater ; 15(10): 1074-8, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27500807

RESUMO

Practical challenges to extrapolating Moore's law favour alternatives to electrons as information carriers. Two promising candidates are spin-based and all-optical architectures, the former offering lower energy consumption, the latter superior signal transfer down to the level of chip-interconnects. Polaritons-spinor quasi-particles composed of semiconductor excitons and microcavity photons-directly couple exciton spins and photon polarizations, combining the advantages of both approaches. However, their implementation for spintronics has been hindered because polariton spins can be manipulated only optically or by strong magnetic fields. Here we use an external electric field to directly control the spin of a polariton condensate, bias-tuning the emission polarization. The nonlinear spin dynamics offers an alternative route to switching, allowing us to realize an electrical spin-switch exhibiting ultralow switching energies below 0.5 fJ. Our results lay the foundation for development of devices based on the electro-optical control of coherent spin ensembles on a chip.

10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(12): 2264-9, 2016 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27223478

RESUMO

Coupling noble metal nanoparticles by a 1 nm gap to an underlying gold mirror confines light to extremely small volumes, useful for sensing on the nanoscale. Individually measuring 10 000 of such gold nanoparticles of increasing size dramatically shows the different scaling of their optical scattering (far-field) and surface-enhanced Raman emission (SERS, near-field). Linear red-shifts of the coupled plasmon modes are seen with increasing size, matching theory. The total SERS from the few hundred molecules under each nanoparticle dramatically increases with increasing size. This scaling shows that maximum SERS emission is always produced from the largest nanoparticles, irrespective of tuning to any plasmonic resonances. Changes of particle facet with nanoparticle size result in vastly weaker scaling of the near-field SERS, without much modifying the far-field, and allows simple approaches for optimizing practical sensing.

11.
Opt Express ; 17(25): 23003-9, 2009 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20052226

RESUMO

We demonstrate a combined magneto-optical trap and imaging system that is suitable for the investigation of cold atoms near surfaces. In particular, we are able to trap atoms close to optically scattering surfaces and to image them with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio. We also demonstrate a simple magneto-optical atom cloud launching method. We anticipate that this system will be useful for a range of experimental studies of novel atom-surface interactions and atom trap miniaturization. .


Assuntos
Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Magnetismo/instrumentação , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Pinças Ópticas , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Magnetismo/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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