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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474152

RESUMO

Necroptosis, a form of necrosis, and alterations in mitochondrial dynamics, a coordinated process of mitochondrial fission and fusion, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to determine the role of mitochondrial morphology in canonical necroptosis induced by a combination of TNFα and zVAD (TNF/zVAD) in H9c2 cells, rat cardiomyoblasts. Time-course analyses of mitochondrial morphology showed that mitochondria were initially shortened after the addition of TNF/zVAD and then their length was restored, and the proportion of cells with elongated mitochondria at 12 h was larger in TNF/zVAD-treated cells than in non-treated cells (16.3 ± 0.9% vs. 8.0 ± 1.2%). The knockdown of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and fission 1, fission promoters, and treatment with Mdivi-1, a Drp-1 inhibitor, had no effect on TNF/zVAD-induced necroptosis. In contrast, TNF/zVAD-induced necroptosis was attenuated by the knockdown of mitofusin 1/2 (Mfn1/2) and optic atrophy-1 (Opa1), proteins that are indispensable for mitochondrial fusion, and the attenuation of necroptosis was not canceled by treatment with Mdivi-1. The expression of TGFß-activated kinase (TAK1), a negative regulator of RIP1 activity, was upregulated and the TNF/zVAD-induced RIP1-Ser166 phosphorylation, an index of RIP1 activity, was mitigated by the knockdown of Mfn1/2 or Opa1. Pharmacological TAK1 inhibition attenuated the protection afforded by Mfn1/2 and Opa1 knockdown. In conclusion, the inhibition of mitochondrial fusion increases TAK1 expression, leading to the attenuation of canonical necroptosis through the suppression of RIP1 activity.


Assuntos
Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Necroptose , Ratos , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Necrose/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
2.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-13, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345053

RESUMO

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) could bind to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and inhibit its activation induced by VEGF. But how PEDF affects VEGFR2 pathway is still poorly understood. In this study, we elucidated the precise mechanism underlying the interaction between PEDF and VEGFR2, and subsequently corroborated our findings using a rat AMI model. PEDF prevented endocytosis of VE-cadherin induced by hypoxia, thereby protecting the endothelium integrity. A three-dimensional model of the VEGFR2-PEDF complex was constructed by protein-protein docking method. The results showed that the VEGFR2-PEDF complex was stable during the simulation. Hydrogen bonds, binding energy and binding modes were analyzed during molecular dynamics simulations, which indicated that hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions were important for the recognition of VEGFR2 with PEDF. In addition, the results from exudation of fibrinogen suggested that PEDF inhibits vascular leakage in acute myocardial infarction and confirmed the critical role of key amino acids in the regulation of endothelial cell permeability. This observation is also supported by echocardiography studies showing that the 34mer peptide sustained cardiac function during acute myocardial infarction. Besides, PEDF and 34mer could inhibit the aggregation of myofiber in the heart and promoted the formation of a dense cell layer in cardiomyocytes, which suggested that PEDF and 34mer peptide protect against AMI-induced cardiac dysfunction. These results suggest that PEDF inhibits the phosphorylation of downstream proteins, thereby preventing vascular leakage, which provides a new therapeutic direction for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

3.
Circ Res ; 134(5): 482-501, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a primary driver of cardiac contractile failure; yet, the cross talk between mitochondrial energetics and signaling regulation remains obscure. Ponatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia, is among the most cardiotoxic tyrosine kinase inhibitors and causes mitochondrial dysfunction. Whether ponatinib-induced mitochondrial dysfunction triggers the integrated stress response (ISR) to induce ponatinib-induced cardiotoxicity remains to be determined. METHODS: Using human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes and a recently developed mouse model of ponatinib-induced cardiotoxicity, we performed proteomic analysis, molecular and biochemical assays to investigate the relationship between ponatinib-induced mitochondrial stress and ISR and their role in promoting ponatinib-induced cardiotoxicity. RESULTS: Proteomic analysis revealed that ponatinib activated the ISR in cardiac cells. We identified GCN2 (general control nonderepressible 2) as the eIF2α (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α) kinase responsible for relaying mitochondrial stress signals to trigger the primary ISR effector-ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4), upon ponatinib exposure. Mechanistically, ponatinib treatment exerted inhibitory effects on ATP synthase activity and reduced its expression levels resulting in ATP deficits. Perturbed mitochondrial function resulting in ATP deficits then acts as a trigger of GCN2-mediated ISR activation, effects that were negated by nicotinamide mononucleotide, an NAD+ precursor, supplementation. Genetic inhibition of ATP synthase also activated GCN2. Interestingly, we showed that the decreased abundance of ATP also facilitated direct binding of ponatinib to GCN2, unexpectedly causing its activation most likely because of a conformational change in its structure. Importantly, administering an ISR inhibitor protected human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes against ponatinib. Ponatinib-treated mice also exhibited reduced cardiac function, effects that were attenuated upon systemic ISRIB administration. Importantly, ISRIB does not affect the antitumor effects of ponatinib in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Neutralizing ISR hyperactivation could prevent or reverse ponatinib-induced cardiotoxicity. The findings that compromised ATP production potentiates GCN2-mediated ISR activation have broad implications across various cardiac diseases. Our results also highlight an unanticipated role of ponatinib in causing direct activation of a kinase target despite its role as an ATP-competitive kinase inhibitor.


Assuntos
Imidazóis , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Doenças Mitocondriais , Piridazinas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/patologia , Proteômica , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/toxicidade , Doenças Mitocondriais/patologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina
4.
Cardiovasc Res ; 119(10): 1997-2013, 2023 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37267414

RESUMO

AIMS: Novel cancer therapies leading to increased survivorship of cancer patients have been negated by a concomitant rise in cancer therapies-related cardiovascular toxicities. Sunitinib, a first line multi-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been reported to cause vascular dysfunction although the initiating mechanisms contributing to this side effect remain unknown. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging regulators of biological processes in endothelial cells (ECs); however, their roles in cancer therapies-related vascular toxicities remain underexplored. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed lncRNA expression profiling to identify potential lncRNAs that are dysregulated in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived ECs (iPSC-ECs) treated with sunitinib. We show that the lncRNA hyaluronan synthase 2 antisense 1 (HAS2-AS1) is significantly diminished in sunitinib-treated iPSC-ECs. Sunitinib was found to down-regulate HAS2-AS1 by an epigenetic mechanism involving hypermethylation. Depletion of HAS2-AS1 recapitulated sunitinib-induced detrimental effects on iPSC-ECs, whereas CRISPR-mediated activation of HAS2-AS1 reversed sunitinib-induced dysfunction. We confirmed that HAS2-AS1 stabilizes the expression of its sense gene HAS2 via an RNA/mRNA heteroduplex formation. Knockdown of HAS2-AS1 led to reduced synthesis of hyaluronic acid (HA) and up-regulation of ADAMTS5, an enzyme involved in extracellular matrix degradation, resulting in disruption of the endothelial glycocalyx which is critical for ECs. In vivo, sunitinib-treated mice showed reduced coronary flow reserve, accompanied by a reduction in Has2os and degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx. Finally, we identified that treatment with high molecular-weight HA can prevent the deleterious effects of sunitinib both in vitro and in vivo by preserving the endothelial glycocalyx. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of lncRNA-mediated regulation of the endothelial glycocalyx as an important determinant of sunitinib-induced vascular toxicity and reveal potential novel therapeutic avenues to attenuate sunitinib-induced vascular dysfunction.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Glicocálix/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Sunitinibe/toxicidade , Sunitinibe/metabolismo
5.
Zool Res ; 44(3): 591-603, 2023 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37147910

RESUMO

Large animal models of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion are critical for evaluation of the efficacy of cardioprotective interventions prior to clinical translation. Nonetheless, current cardioprotective strategies/interventions formulated in preclinical cardiovascular research are often limited to small animal models, which are not transferable or reproducible in large animal models due to different factors such as: (i) complex and varied features of human ischemic cardiac disease (ICD), which are challenging to mimic in animal models, (ii) significant differences in surgical techniques applied, and (iii) differences in cardiovascular anatomy and physiology between small versus large animals. This article highlights the advantages and disadvantages of different large animal models of preclinical cardiac ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI), as well as the different methods used to induce and assess IRI, and the obstacles faced in using large animals for translational research in the settings of cardiac IR.


Assuntos
Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica , Humanos , Animais , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/veterinária , Modelos Animais de Doenças
7.
Phytomedicine ; 113: 154743, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36893672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of cell death that has been implicated in various infectious and non-infectious diseases. Gasdermin family proteins are the key executors of pyroptotic cell death, thus they are considered as novel therapeutic targets for inflammatory diseases. However, only limited gasdermin specific inhibitors have been identified to date. Traditional Chinese medicines have been applied in clinic for centuries and exhibit potential in anti-inflammation and anti-pyroptosis. We attempted to find candidate Chinese botanical drugs which specifically target gasdermin D (GSDMD) and inhibit pyroptosis. METHODS: In this study, we performed high-throughput screening using a botanical drug library to identify pyroptosis specific inhibitors. The assay was based on a cell pyroptosis model induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and nigericin. Cell pyroptosis levels were then evaluated by cell cytotoxicity assay, propidium iodide (PI) staining and immunoblotting. We then overexpressed GSDMD-N in cell lines to investigate the direct inhibitory effect of the drug to GSDMD-N oligomerization. Mass spectrometry studies were applied to identify the active components of the botanical drug. Finally, a mouse model of sepsis and a mouse model of diabetic myocardial infarction were constructed to verify the protective effect of the drug in disease models of inflammation. RESULTS: High-throughput screening identified Danhong injection (DHI) as a pyroptosis inhibitor. DHI remarkably inhibited pyroptotic cell death in a murine macrophage cell line and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Molecular assays demonstrated the direct blockade of GSDMD-N oligomerization and pore formation by DHI. Mass spectrometry studies identified the major active components of DHI, and further activity assays revealed salvianolic acid E (SAE) as the most potent molecule among these components, and SAE has a strong binding affinity to mouse GSDMD Cys192. We further demonstrated the protective effects of DHI in mouse sepsis and mouse myocardial infarction with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSION: These findings provide new insights for drug development from Chinese herbal medicine like DHI against diabetic myocardial injury and sepsis through blocking GSDMD-mediated macrophage pyroptosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Infarto do Miocárdio , Sepse , Camundongos , Animais , Piroptose , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Gasderminas , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
8.
J Transl Med ; 21(1): 21, 2023 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) is a vitamin K-dependent protein related to inflammation, fibrosis, as well as platelet function. Genetic ablation of GAS6 in mice protects against cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Nonetheless, the association between plasma GAS6 levels and acute heart failure (AHF) patients is still unknown. METHODS: We measured plasma GAS6 concentrations in 1039 patients with AHF who were enrolled in the DRAGON-HF trial (NCT03727828). Mean follow-up of the study was 889 days. The primary endpoint is all-cause death. RESULTS: In total, there were 195 primary endpoints of all-cause death and 135 secondary endpoints of cardiovascular death during the mean follow-up duration of 889 days. The higher levels of GAS6 were associated with higher rates of all-cause and cardiovascular death (P < 0.05). Baseline plasma GAS6 levels were still strongly correlated with clinical outcomes in different models after adjustment for clinical factors and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, P < 0.05). GAS6 could further distinguish the risks of clinical outcomes based on NT-proBNP measurement. CONCLUSION: Elevated plasma GAS6 levels were associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death in patients with AHF. Trial registration NCT03727828 (DRAGON-HF trial) clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Biomarcadores , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Prognóstico , Volume Sistólico , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/sangue
9.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 38(7-9): 599-618, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053670

RESUMO

Significance: Although corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has now gradually been categorized as an endemic, the long-term effect of COVID-19 in causing multiorgan disorders, including a perturbed cardiovascular system, is beginning to gain attention. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism triggering post-COVID-19 cardiovascular dysfunction remains enigmatic. Are cardiac mitochondria the key to mediating cardiac dysfunction post-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (post-SARS-CoV-2) infection? Recent Advances: Cardiovascular complications post-SARS-CoV-2 infection include myocarditis, myocardial injury, microvascular injury, pericarditis, acute coronary syndrome, and arrhythmias (fast or slow). Different types of myocardial damage or reduced heart function can occur after a lung infection or lung injury. Myocardial/coronary injury or decreased cardiac function is directly associated with increased mortality after hospital discharge in patients with COVID-19. The incidence of adverse cardiovascular events increases even in recovered COVID-19 patients. Disrupted cardiac mitochondria postinfection have been postulated to lead to cardiovascular dysfunction in the COVID-19 patients. Further studies are crucial to unravel the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ensuing cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Critical Issues: The relationship between COVID-19 and myocardial injury or cardiovascular dysfunction has not been elucidated. In particular, the role of the cardiac mitochondria in this association remains to be determined. Future Directions: Elucidating the cause of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction post-SARS-CoV-2 infection may allow a deeper understanding of long COVID-19 and resulting CVD, thus providing a potential therapeutic target. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 38, 599-618.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Cardiopatias , Miocardite , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , SARS-CoV-2 , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Miocardite/complicações , Miocardite/terapia , Mitocôndrias
10.
Int J Stem Cells ; 16(2): 123-134, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581369

RESUMO

Objective: The heart contains a pool of c-kit+ progenitor cells which is believed to be able to regenerate. The differentiation of these progenitor cells is reliant on different physiological cues. Unraveling the underlying signals to direct differentiation of progenitor cells will be beneficial in controlling progenitor cell fate. In this regard, the role of the mitochondria in mediating cardiac progenitor cell fate remains unclear. Specifically, the association between changes in mitochondrial morphology with the differentiation status of c-kit+ CPCs remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the relationship between mitochondrial morphology and the differentiation status of c-kit+ progenitor cells. Methods and Results: c-kit+ CPCs were isolated from 2-month-old male wild-type FVB mice. To activate differentiation, CPCs were incubated in α-minimal essential medium containing 10 nM dexamethasone for up to 7 days. To inhibit Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation, either 10 µM or 50 µM mdivi-1 was administered once at Day 0 and again at Day 2 of differentiation. To inhibit calcineurin, either 1 µM or 5 µM ciclosporin-A (CsA) was administered once at Day 0 and again at Day 2 of differentiation. Dexamethasone-induced differentiation of c-kit+ progenitor cells is aligned with fragmentation of the mitochondria via a calcineurin-Drp1 pathway. Pharmacologically inhibiting mitochondrial fragmentation retains the undifferentiated state of the c-kit+ progenitor cells. Conclusions: The findings from this study provide an alternative view of the role of mitochondrial fusion-fission in the differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells and the potential of pharmacologically manipulating the mitochondria to direct progenitor cell fate.

11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21049, 2022 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36473917

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by acute cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR), may increase susceptibility to arrhythmias by perturbing energetics, oxidative stress production and calcium homeostasis. Although changes in mitochondrial morphology are known to impact on mitochondrial function, their role in cardiac arrhythmogenesis is not known. To assess action potential duration (APD) in cardiomyocytes from the Mitofusins-1/2 (Mfn1/Mfn2)-double-knockout (Mfn-DKO) compared to wild-type (WT) mice, optical-electrophysiology was conducted. To measure conduction velocity (CV) in atrial and ventricular tissue from the Mfn-DKO and WT mice, at both baseline and following simulated acute IR, multi-electrode array (MEA) was employed. Intracellular localization of connexin-43 (Cx43) at baseline was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, while Cx-43 phosphorylation was assessed by Western-blotting. Mfn-DKO cardiomyocytes demonstrated an increased APD. At baseline, CV was significantly lower in the left ventricle of the Mfn-DKO mice. CV decreased with simulated-ischemia and returned to baseline levels during simulated-reperfusion in WT but not in atria of Mfn-DKO mice. Mfn-DKO hearts displayed increased Cx43 lateralization, although phosphorylation of Cx43 at Ser-368 did not differ. In summary, Mfn-DKO mice have increased APD and reduced CV at baseline and impaired alterations in CV following cardiac IR. These findings were associated with increased Cx43 lateralization, suggesting that the mitofusins may impact on post-MI cardiac-arrhythmogenesis.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Camundongos , Animais , Eletrofisiologia Cardíaca , Isquemia
12.
Epigenomics ; 14(19): 1139-1155, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314267

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to characterize the N6-methyladenosine epitranscriptomic profile induced by mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) exposure using a human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cell model. Methods: A multiomic approach was employed by performing RNA sequencing in parallel with an N6-methyladenosine-specific microarray to identify mRNAs, lncRNAs, and miRNAs affected by MEHP exposure. Results: An integrative multiomic analysis identified relevant biological features affected by MEHP, while functional assays provided a phenotypic characterization of these effects. Transcripts regulated by the epitranscriptome were validated with quantitative PCR and methylated RNA immunoprecipitation. Conclusion: The authors' profiling of the epitranscriptome expands the scope of toxicological insights into known environmental toxins to under surveyed cellular contexts and emerging domains of regulation and is, therefore, a valuable resource to human health.


Synthetic phthalates, such as mono(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate, have long been recognized as environmental toxins. What effect these compounds have on endothelial cells remains poorly understood. To address this, the authors utilized a human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cell model to screen for an environmental toxin. They then obtained a profile of the epitranscriptomic changes involving the N6-methyladensosine modification and performed biochemical and functional assays. Overall, this study demonstrated how stem cell-based approaches can be used for toxicological screening and provided a valuable resource that profiles the epitranscriptomic response, which was complemented with RNA sequencing and functional and biochemical assays. This study provides relevant toxicological insights into the context of human health.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Humanos , Células Endoteliais
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 6889278, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36203484

RESUMO

Background: Mitochondria fuse to form elongated networks which are more tolerable to stress and injury. Ischemic pre- and postconditioning (IPC and IPost, respectively) are established cardioprotective strategies in the preclinical setting. Whether IPC and IPost modulates mitochondrial morphology is unknown. We hypothesize that the protective effects of IPC and IPost may be conferred via preservation of mitochondrial network. Methods: IPC and IPost were applied to the H9c2 rat myoblast cells, isolated adult primary murine cardiomyocytes, and the Langendorff-isolated perfused rat hearts. The effects of IPC and IPost on cardiac cell death following ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), mitochondrial morphology, and gene expression of mitochondrial-shaping proteins were investigated. Results: IPC and IPost successfully reduced cardiac cell death and myocardial infarct size. IPC and IPost maintained the mitochondrial network in both H9c2 and isolated adult primary murine cardiomyocytes. 2D-length measurement of the 3 mitochondrial subpopulations showed that IPC and IPost significantly increased the length of interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM). Gene expression of the pro-fusion protein, Mfn1, was significantly increased by IPC, while the pro-fission protein, Drp1, was significantly reduced by IPost in the H9c2 cells. In the primary cardiomyocytes, gene expression of both Mfn1 and Mfn2 were significantly upregulated by IPC and IPost, while Drp1 was significantly downregulated by IPost. In the Langendorff-isolated perfused heart, gene expression of Drp1 was significantly downregulated by both IPC and IPost. Conclusion: IPC and IPost-mediated upregulation of pro-fusion proteins (Mfn1 and Mfn2) and downregulation of pro-fission (Drp1) promote maintenance of the interconnected mitochondrial network, ultimately conferring cardioprotection against IRI.


Assuntos
Pós-Condicionamento Isquêmico , Precondicionamento Isquêmico Miocárdico , Infarto do Miocárdio , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica , Animais , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Ratos
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(20): e022304, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612058

RESUMO

Background Circulating microRNAs are emerging biomarkers for heart failure (HF). Our study aimed to assess the prognostic value of microRNA signature that is differentially expressed in patients with acute HF. Methods and Results Our study comprised a screening cohort of 15 patients with AHF and 5 controls, a PCR-discovery cohort of 50 patients with AHF and 26 controls and a validation cohort of 564 patients with AHF from registered study DRAGON-HF (Diagnostic, Risk Stratification and Prognostic Value of Novel Biomarkers in Patients With Heart Failure). Through screening by RNA-sequencing and verification by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, 9 differentially expressed microRNAs were verified (miR-939-5p, miR-1908-5p, miR-7706, miR-101-3p, miR-144-3p, miR-4732-3p, miR-3615, miR-484 and miR-19b-3p). Among them, miR-19b-3p was identified as the microRNA signature with the highest fold-change of 8.4 and the strongest prognostic potential (area under curve with 95% CI, 0.791, 0.654-0.927). To further validate its prognostic value, in the validation cohort, the baseline level of miR-19b-3p was measured. During a follow-up period of 19.1 (17.7, 20.7) months, primary end point comprising of all-cause mortality or readmission due to HF occurred in 48.9% patients, while patients in the highest quartile of miR-19b-3p level presented the worst survival (Log-rank P<0.001). Multivariate Cox model showed that the level of miR-19b-3p could independently predict the occurrence of primary end point (adjusted hazard ratio,1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.64). In addition, miR-19b-3p positively correlated with soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 and echocardiographic indexes of left ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusions Circulating miR-19b-3p could be a valuable prognostic biomarker for AHF. In addition, a high level of circulating miR-19b-3p might indicate ventricular hypertrophy in AHF subjects. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT03727828.


Assuntos
MicroRNA Circulante , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Biomarcadores , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Humanos , Prognóstico
17.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 628885, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718452

RESUMO

Aims: COVID-19 patients with comorbidities such as hypertension or heart failure (HF) are associated with poor clinical outcomes. The cellular distribution of Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the critical enzyme for SARS-CoV-2 infection, in the human heart is unknown. We explore the underlying mechanism that leads to increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with cardiovascular diseases and patients of cardiac dysfunction have increased risk of multi-organ injury compared with patients of normal cardiac function. Methods and Results: We analyzed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data in both normal and failing hearts. The results demonstrated that ACE2 is present in cardiomyocytes (CMs) and non-CMs, while the number of ACE2-postive (ACE2+) CMs and ACE2 gene expression in these CMs are significantly increased in the failing hearts. Interestingly, both brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are significantly up-regulated in the ACE2+ CMs, which is consistent with other studies that ACE2, ANP, and BNP increased in HF patients. We found that genes related to virus entry, virus replication and suppression of interferon-gamma signaling are all up-regulated in failing CMs, and the increase was significantly higher in ACE2+ CMs, suggesting that these CMs may be more vulnerable to virus infection. As the level of expression of both ACE2 and BNP in CMs were up-regulated, we further performed retrospective analysis of the plasma BNP levels and clinical outcomes of 91 COVID-19 patients from a single-center. Patients with higher plasma BNP were associated with significantly higher mortality and expression levels of inflammatory and infective markers. Conclusion: In the failing heart, the upregulation of ACE2 and virus infection associated genes could potentially facilitate SARS-CoV-2 virus entry and replication in these vulnerable cardiomyocyte subsets. COVID-19 patients with higher plasma BNP levels had poorer clinical outcomes. These observations may allude to a potential regulatory association between ACE2 and BNP in mediating myocarditis associated with COVID-19.

18.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 514, 2020 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256833

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global pandemic. The prevalence/severity of COVID-19 is higher among patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Despite the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor for SARS-CoV-2 infection, in cardiomyocytes, there has been no conclusive evidence of direct viral infection although the presence of viral genome within COVID-19 patients' hearts has been reported. Here, we overexpressed SARS-CoV-2 genes in A549 lung epithelial cells. We then isolated extracellular vesicles (EVs) and detected the presence of viral RNA within these EVs. We observed that human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are receptive to these EVs, and viral genes were detectable in the cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, the uptake of viral RNA-harboring EVs led to an upregulation of inflammation-related genes in hiPSC-CMs. Thus, our findings indicate that SARS-CoV-2 RNA containing EVs represents an indirect route of viral RNA entry into cardiomyocytes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/virologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Internalização do Vírus , Células A549 , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , RNA Viral
19.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(6): 4465-4471, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945150

RESUMO

AIMS: Elevated heart rate (HR) in heart failure (HF) is associated with worse outcomes, particularly in acute HF (AHF). HR reduction with ivabradine reduces cardiovascular events in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction. The present trial aimed to test the hypothesis that the early HR reduction using ivabradine improves clinical outcomes in patients with AHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: SHIFT-AHF is a prospective, multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ivabradine when adding to standard therapy in AHF patients (SHIFT-AHF). The trial will include 674 AHF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association functional classes III-IV. Participants were enrolled from March 2020 and will be followed up until December 2022. Patients are randomized to treatment with ivabradine or placebo (randomization 1:1). After allocation, the dose of ivabradine is titrated according to HR. Six months' follow-up and three control visits (7, 90, and 180 days after enrolment) are required for every participant. Assessment involves clinical examination, laboratory tests, echocardiography, electrocardiography, heart rhythm, cardiac function, and quality of life. The primary endpoint is a composite of all-cause mortality or re-admission due to worsening HF. Secondary endpoints include the assessments of cardiac remodelling, cardiac functional capacity, and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: The SHIFT-AHF trial will shed further light on the role of early HR reduction using ivabradine in patients with AHF.

20.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637965

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into a worldwide pandemic. Early data suggest that the prevalence and severity of COVID-19 appear to be higher among patients with underlying cardiovascular risk factors. Despite the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 infection, in cardiomyocytes, there has been no conclusive evidence of direct viral infection although the presence of inflammation and viral genome within the hearts of COVID-19 patients have been reported. Here we transduced A549 lung epithelial cells with lentivirus overexpressing selected genes of the SARS-CoV-2. We then isolated extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the supernatant of A549 cells and detected the presence of viral RNA within the purified EVs. Importantly, we observed that human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) were able to actively uptake these EVs and viral genes were subsequently detected in the cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, uptake of EVs containing viral genes led to an upregulation of inflammation-related genes in hiPSC-CMs. Thus, our findings indicate that SARS-CoV-2 RNA-containing EVs represent an indirect route of viral RNA entry into cardiomyocytes.

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