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Clin Microbiol Infect ; 29(10): 1338.e1-1338.e4, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37354996


OBJECTIVES: Penicillin allergy records are common, often incorrect and are associated with broad spectrum antibiotic use. We piloted a pharmacist-led multidisciplinary penicillin allergy de-labelling daily ward round to determine the opportunity for penicillin allergy de-labelling in a UK hospital. METHODS: A daily ward round, delivered by antibiotic pharmacists or junior doctors, identified adult medical and surgical patients between 7 November 2022 and 31 January 2023 with a penicillin allergy record that was preventing first-line penicillin use. An allergy history was taken before risk stratifying likelihood of future harm from penicillin re-exposure and an allergy testing method was determined (direct de-label on history alone or after direct drug provocation testing). After successful allergy de-label, the antibiotic was switched to a penicillin antibiotic. RESULTS: Of 7214 inpatients during the study period, 1133 (15.7%) had a penicillin allergy record. Of 285 allergy histories taken, 105 (36.8%) met high-risk criteria, 45 (15.8%) met low-risk criteria eligible for direct de-label and 73 (25.6%) met criteria eligible for direct drug provocation testing. We were unable to obtain a history for 61 (21.4%) patients. Of 45 low-risk patients eligible for direct de-label, 40 (88.9%) were de-labelled of whom 24 (53.3%) were switched to a penicillin antibiotic. Of 73 patients with a low-risk allergy history eligible for direct drug provocation testing, 16 (21.9%) received direct drug provocation testing, of whom 9 were switched to a penicillin antibiotic. Two direct de-label patients experienced harm (thrush within 5 days and delayed skin reaction after day 5); none of the direct drug provocation testing patients had a reaction by day 5. The switches resulted in reduced alternative antibiotic use by 173 Daily Defined Doses (DDDs). DISCUSSION: Penicillin allergy de-labelling patient pathway delivered by pharmacists and junior doctors was safe and effective and well accepted by patients and the wider clinical teams.

Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Hipersensibilidade , Adulto , Humanos , Testes Cutâneos/métodos , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Hospitais , Reino Unido
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 2023 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37117009


INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic use drives antibiotic resistance. The UK antimicrobial resistance (AMR) strategy aims to reduce antibiotic use. We aimed to quantify excess antibiotic use in a district general hospital in south-west England. METHODS: Medical patients discharged in August 2020 who had received antibiotics were included. An audit tool of antibiotic prescribing appropriateness was used to collect relevant clinical information regarding each patient case. The appropriateness of antibiotic use was then determined by two infection specialists and excess days of therapy (DOTs) calculated. RESULTS: 647 patients were discharged in August 2020. Of the 1658 antibiotic DOTs for the 184 patients reviewed, 403 (24%) were excess DOTs. The excess antibiotic DOTs were prescribed in 92 patients (50%); 112/403 (27.8%) excess DOTs originated at the initiation of antibiotic therapy (time point A); 184/403 (45.7%) of excess DOTs occurred at the antibiotic review pre-72 hours (time point B); and 107/403 (26.6%) of excess DOTs were due to protracted antibiotic courses (time point C). CONCLUSION: 24% of antibiotic DOTs were deemed unnecessary. The greatest opportunity to reduce antibiotic use safely was the pre-72 hours antibiotic review, which may provide a target for reducing excess antimicrobial therapy in line with the national AMR strategy.

Int J Infect Dis ; 129: 152-161, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36450321


OBJECTIVES: Penicillin allergy records are often incorrect and may result in harm. We aimed to systematically review the effectiveness and safety of nonallergist health care worker delivery of penicillin allergy delabeling. METHODS: We searched EMBASE/MEDLINE/CINAHL (Ovid), PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception to January 21, 2022 and unpublished studies and gray literature. The proportion of patients allergic to penicillin delabeled and harmed was calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS: Overall, 5019 patients were delabeled. Using allergy history alone, 14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9-21%) of 4350 assessed patients were delabeled without reported harm. Direct drug provocation testing resulted in delabeling in 27% (95% CI, 18-37%) of 4207 assessed patients. Of the 1373 patients tested, 98% were delabeled (95% CI, 97-99%), and nonserious harm was reported in 1% (95% CI, 0-2%). Using skin testing, followed by drug provocation testing, 41% (95% CI, 24-59%) of 2890 assessed patients were delabeled. Of the 1294 tested patients, 95.0% (95% CI, 90-99%) were delabeled, and the reported harm was low (0%; (95% CI 0-1%). CONCLUSION: Penicillin allergy delabeling by nonallergists is efficacious and safe. The proportion of assessed patients who can be delabeled increases with the complexity of testing method, but substantial numbers can be delabeled without skin testing.

Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Adulto , Criança , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Testes Cutâneos/métodos , Atenção à Saúde , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos
JBI Evid Synth ; 20(2): 624-632, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698707


OBJECTIVE: This review will systematically examine and synthesize the evidence evaluating the effectiveness and safety of interventions that enable non-allergy specialist health care workers to assess allergy risk in patients with reported penicillin allergies and subsequently remove erroneous allergy records. INTRODUCTION: The potential benefits of removing erroneous penicillin allergy labels (de-labeling) are wide-ranging. Penicillin allergy assessment and de-labeling is an antibiotic stewardship priority. Delivery of such assessment and de-labeling by non-allergy specialists has been reported in several studies, but the effectiveness and safety have not been formally synthesized. This is a necessary step in the upscaling of penicillin allergy assessment services. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will consider quantitative studies using appropriate designs. The studies will include adults and pediatric patients who have undergone penicillin allergy assessment and de-labeling by non-allergy specialists in any health care setting. METHODS: A range of databases will be searched to identify studies published in English, with no date limit applied. Unpublished studies and gray literature will also be searched. Title and abstract screening, and assessment of selected full texts against the inclusion criteria will be conducted by at least two independent reviewers. Identified studies will be assessed for methodological quality using standardized critical appraisal instruments. Data will be extracted and categorized using the EPOC taxonomy, and the effectiveness and safety of the intervention will be determined. Where possible, data will be pooled to facilitate meta-analysis. Data from heterogeneous studies will be reported narratively. The GRADE approach for grading the certainty of evidence will be followed. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42020219044.

Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Adulto , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Criança , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 29(2): 72-78, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772731


BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) antimicrobial prescribing guidelines for common infections recommend short course antimicrobial therapy in order to reduce antibiotic associated harm. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the opportunity to reduce antibiotic use in an emergency department (ED) through adoption of these short antibiotic course recommendations. DESIGN, SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective observational study in an ED in the UK with 95 000 attendances a year. Patients managed in the ED between 1 December and 31 December 2019 with the following infections were identified: acute otitis media, human and animal bites, pyelonephritis, lower urinary tract infections, cellulitis, cough, infective exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, sore throat, sinusitis, and diverticulitis. OUTCOME MEASURE: Excess antibiotic use due to either a protracted course length, or not meeting criteria for antibiotics. RESULTS: 395 patients (260 adults and 135 children) were identified. Of the 1215 days of antibiotic therapy, 198 (16%) were excess because of protracted course lengths. In terms of antibiotic defined daily doses (DDD), there were 1201.5 antibiotic DDD prescribed, of which 232 (19%) DDD were excess because of protracted course lengths. If both protracted courses and unnecessary antibiotic use were included, then 321 (27%) DDD were excess. Excess antibiotic use and total antibiotic use by infection group were: 123/546 (23%) DDD in lower respiratory tract infection, 46/59 (79%) in upper respiratory tract infection, 44/231 (19%) in upper and lower urinary tract infection, 0/113 (0%) cellulitis, 77/180 (43%) bites, and 30/40 (75%) diverticulitis. Excess antibiotic use, as a proportion of all antibiotic use in the ED, was 321/4291 (7.5%) DDD, and of whole hospital antibiotic use, the ED's excess use was 321/33 566 (0.96%). CONCLUSION: Adoption of NICE antibiotic prescribing guidelines for common infections has the potential to reduce total antibiotic use in the ED by 7.5% and contribute to the hospital-wide antibiotic stewardship programme.

Antibacterianos , Infecções Respiratórias , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Reino Unido/epidemiologia