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1.
FASEB J ; 38(3): e23448, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305779

RESUMO

Diabetes causes a range of complications that can affect multiple organs. Hyperglycemia is an important driver of diabetes-associated complications, mediated by biological processes such as dysfunction of endothelial cells, fibrosis, and alterations in leukocyte number and function. Here, we dissected the transcriptional response of key cell types to hyperglycemia across multiple tissues using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and identified conserved, as well as organ-specific, changes associated with diabetes complications. By studying an early time point of diabetes, we focus on biological processes involved in the initiation of the disease, before the later organ-specific manifestations had supervened. We used a mouse model of type 1 diabetes and performed scRNA-seq on cells isolated from the heart, kidney, liver, and spleen of streptozotocin-treated and control male mice after 8 weeks and assessed differences in cell abundance, gene expression, pathway activation, and cell signaling across organs and within organs. In response to hyperglycemia, endothelial cells, macrophages, and monocytes displayed organ-specific transcriptional responses, whereas fibroblasts showed similar responses across organs, exhibiting altered metabolic gene expression and increased myeloid-like fibroblasts. Furthermore, we found evidence of endothelial dysfunction in the kidney, and of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in streptozotocin-treated mouse organs. In summary, our study represents the first single-cell and multi-organ analysis of early dysfunction in type 1 diabetes-associated hyperglycemia, and our large-scale dataset (comprising 67 611 cells) will serve as a starting point, reference atlas, and resource for further investigating the events leading to early diabetic disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hiperglicemia , Camundongos , Animais , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Células Endoteliais , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hiperglicemia/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
2.
Cardiovasc Res ; 119(1): 236-251, 2023 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134856

RESUMO

AIMS: Acute myocardial infarction rapidly increases blood neutrophils (<2 h). Release from bone marrow, in response to chemokine elevation, has been considered their source, but chemokine levels peak up to 24 h after injury, and after neutrophil elevation. This suggests that additional non-chemokine-dependent processes may be involved. Endothelial cell (EC) activation promotes the rapid (<30 min) release of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which have emerged as an important means of cell-cell signalling and are thus a potential mechanism for communicating with remote tissues. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we show that injury to the myocardium rapidly mobilizes neutrophils from the spleen to peripheral blood and induces their transcriptional activation prior to arrival at the injured tissue. Time course analysis of plasma-EV composition revealed a rapid and selective increase in EVs bearing VCAM-1. These EVs, which were also enriched for miRNA-126, accumulated preferentially in the spleen where they induced local inflammatory gene and chemokine protein expression, and mobilized splenic-neutrophils to peripheral blood. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we generated VCAM-1-deficient EC-EVs and showed that its deletion removed the ability of EC-EVs to provoke the mobilization of neutrophils. Furthermore, inhibition of miRNA-126 in vivo reduced myocardial infarction size in a mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show a novel EV-dependent mechanism for the rapid mobilization of neutrophils to peripheral blood from a splenic reserve and establish a proof of concept for functional manipulation of EV-communications through genetic alteration of parent cells.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , MicroRNAs , Infarto do Miocárdio , Camundongos , Animais , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
3.
Biomedicines ; 9(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201592

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EV) are a heterogeneous group of bilipid-enclosed envelopes that carry proteins, metabolites, RNA, DNA and lipids from their parent cell of origin. They mediate cellular communication to other cells in local tissue microenvironments and across organ systems. EV size, number and their biologically active cargo are often altered in response to pathological processes, including infection, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and in response to metabolic perturbations such as obesity and diabetes, which also have a strong inflammatory component. Here, we discuss the broad repertoire of EV produced by neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, their precursor hematopoietic stem cells and discuss their effects on the innate immune system. We seek to understand the immunomodulatory properties of EV in cellular programming, which impacts innate immune cell differentiation and function. We further explore the possibilities of using EV as immune targeting vectors, for the modulation of the innate immune response, e.g., for tissue preservation during sterile injury such as myocardial infarction or to promote tissue resolution of inflammation and potentially tissue regeneration and repair.

4.
J Vis Exp ; (170)2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938882

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid enclosed envelopes that carry biologically active material such as proteins, RNA, metabolites and lipids. EVs can modulate the cellular status of other cells locally in tissue microenvironments or through liberation into peripheral blood. Adipocyte-derived EVs are elevated in the peripheral blood and show alterations in their cargo (RNA and protein) during metabolic disturbances, including obesity and diabetes. Adipocyte-derived EVs can regulate the cellular status of neighboring vascular cells, such as endothelial cells and adipose tissue resident macrophages to promote adipose tissue inflammation. Investigating alterations in adipocyte-derived EVs in vivo is complex because EVs derived from peripheral blood are highly heterogenous and contain EVs from other sources, namely platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes and muscle. Therefore, the culture of human adipocytes provides a model system for the study of adipocyte derived EVs. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the extraction of total small EVs from cell culture media of human gluteal and abdominal adipocytes using filtration and ultracentrifugation. We further demonstrate the use of Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) for quantification of EV size and concentration and show the presence of EV-protein tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) in the gluteal and abdominal adipocyte derived-EVs. Isolated EVs from this protocol can be used for downstream analysis, including transmission electron microscopy, proteomics, metabolomics, small RNA-sequencing, microarrays and can be utilized in functional in vitro/in vivo studies.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Vesículas Extracelulares , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Filtração , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ultracentrifugação
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