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1.
J Mol Diagn ; 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575066

RESUMO

Precision medicine relies on accurate and consistent classification of sequence variants. A correct diagnosis of HNF1B-MODY, caused by pathogenic variants in the HNF1B gene, is important for optimal disease management and prognosis, and has implications for genetic counseling and follow-up of at-risk family members. In the present study, the hypothesis is that the functional characterization could provide valuable information to assist the interpretation of pathogenicity of HNF1B variants. Using different in vitro functional assays, seven variants were analyzed identified among 313 individuals suspected to have monogenic diabetes with or without kidney disease. The data from the functional assays were subsequently conjugated with obtained clinical, biochemical, and in silico data. Two variants (p.A167P, p.H336Pfs*22) showed severe loss-of-function due to impaired transactivation, reduced DNA binding (p.A167P), and mRNA instability (p.A167P). While both these variant carriers were diagnosed with diabetes, the p.H336Pfs*22 carrier also had congenital absence of a kidney, which is a characteristic HNF1B-MODY trait. Functional analysis of the p.A167P variant revealed damaging effects on HNF-1B protein function, which may warrant imaging of the kidneys and/or pancreas. In addition, the current study has generated important data, including evidence supporting the benign functional impact of five variants (p.D82N, p.T88A, p.N394D, p.V458G and p.T544A), and piloting new approaches that will prove critical for the growth of HNF1B-diabetes diagnosis.

2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 238, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causal relationship between maternal smoking in pregnancy and reduced offspring birth weight is well established and is likely due to impaired placental function. However, observational studies have given conflicting results on the association between smoking and placental weight. We aimed to estimate the causal effect of newly pregnant mothers quitting smoking on their placental weight at the time of delivery. METHODS: We used one-sample Mendelian randomization, drawing data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 690 to 804) and the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (N = 4267 to 4606). The sample size depends on the smoking definition used for different analyses. The analysis was performed in pre-pregnancy smokers only, due to the specific role of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1051730 (CHRNA5 - CHRNA3 - CHRNB4) in affecting smoking cessation but not initiation. RESULTS: Fixed effect meta-analysis showed a 182 g [95%CI: 29,335] higher placental weight for pre-pregnancy smoking mothers who continued smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, compared with those who stopped smoking. Using the number of cigarettes smoked per day in the first trimester as the exposure, the causal effect on placental weight was 11 g [95%CI: 1,21] per cigarette per day. Similarly, smoking at the end of pregnancy was causally associated with higher placental weight. Using the residuals of birth weight regressed on placental weight as the outcome, we showed evidence of lower offspring birth weight relative to the placental weight, both for continuing smoking at the start of pregnancy as well as continuing smoking throughout pregnancy (change in z-score birth weight adjusted for z-score placental weight: -0.8 [95%CI: -1.6,-0.1]). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that continued smoking during pregnancy causes higher placental weights.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Placenta , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Longitudinais , Fumar/efeitos adversos
3.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 432, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594418

RESUMO

Trace elements are important for human health but may exert toxic or adverse effects. Mechanisms of uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion are partly under genetic control but have not yet been extensively mapped. Here we report a comprehensive multi-element genome-wide association study of 57 essential and non-essential trace elements. We perform genome-wide association meta-analyses of 14 trace elements in up to 6564 Scandinavian whole blood samples, and genome-wide association studies of 43 trace elements in up to 2819 samples measured only in the Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). We identify 11 novel genetic loci associated with blood concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, manganese, selenium, and zinc in genome-wide association meta-analyses. In HUNT, several genome-wide significant loci are also indicated for other trace elements. Using two-sample Mendelian randomization, we find several indications of weak to moderate effects on health outcomes, the most precise being a weak harmful effect of increased zinc on prostate cancer. However, independent validation is needed. Our current understanding of trace element-associated genetic variants may help establish consequences of trace elements on human health.


Assuntos
Selênio , Oligoelementos , Masculino , Humanos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Zinco , Selênio/análise , Manganês
4.
medRxiv ; 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559005

RESUMO

Arterial blood pressure (ABP) and photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms contain valuable clinical information and play a crucial role in cardiovascular health monitoring, medical research, and managing medical conditions. The features extracted from PPG waveforms have various clinical applications ranging from blood pressure monitoring to nociception monitoring, while features from ABP waveforms can be used to calculate cardiac output and predict hypertension or hypotension. In recent years, many machine learning models have been proposed to utilize both PPG and ABP waveform features for these healthcare applications. However, the lack of standardized tools for extracting features from these waveforms could potentially affect their clinical effectiveness. In this paper, we propose an automatic signal processing tool for extracting features from ABP and PPG waveforms. Additionally, we generated a PPG feature library from a large perioperative dataset comprising 17,327 patients using the proposed tool. This PPG feature library can be used to explore the potential of these extracted features to develop machine learning models for non-invasive blood pressure estimation.

5.
iScience ; 27(3): 109285, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38455980

RESUMO

Low birth weight raises neonatal risks and lifelong health issues and is linked to maternal medication use during pregnancy. We examined data from the Norwegian Mother, Father, and Child Cohort Study and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, including 69,828 offspring with genotype data and 81,189 with maternal genotype data. We identified genetic risk variants in placental efflux transporters, calculated genetic scores based on alleles related to transporter activity, and assessed their interaction with prenatal use of antiseizure or antidepressant medication on offspring birth weight. Our study uncovered possible genetic variants in both offspring (rs3740066) and mothers (rs10248420; rs2235015) in placental efflux transporters (MRP2-ABCC2 and MDR1-ABCB1) that modulated the association between prenatal exposure to antiseizure medication and low birth weight in the offspring. Antidepressant exposure was associated with low birth weight, but there were no gene-drug interactions. The interplay between MRP2-ABCC2 and MDR1-ABCB1 variants and antiseizure medication may impact neonatal birth weight.

6.
Diabetologia ; 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502240

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether higher dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy is associated with a lower risk of type 1 diabetes in children. METHODS: The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) together include 153,843 mother-child pairs with prospectively collected data on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake during pregnancy from validated food frequency questionnaires. Type 1 diabetes diagnosis in children (n=634) was ascertained from national diabetes registries. RESULTS: There was no association between the sum of EPA and DHA intake during pregnancy and risk of type 1 diabetes in offspring (pooled HR per g/day of intake: 1.00, 95% CI 0.88, 1.14), with consistent results for both the MoBa and the DNBC. Robustness analyses gave very similar results. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Initiation of a trial of EPA and DHA during pregnancy to prevent type 1 diabetes in offspring should not be prioritised.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2024 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433330

RESUMO

Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha (HNF-4A) regulates genes with roles in glucose metabolism and ß-cell development. Although pathogenic HNF4A variants are commonly associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY1; HNF4A-MODY), rare phenotypes also include hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, renal Fanconi syndrome and liver disease. While the association of rare functionally damaging HNF1A variants with HNF1A-MODY and type 2 diabetes is well established owing to robust functional assays, the impact of HNF4A variants on HNF-4A transactivation in tissues including the liver and kidney is less known, due to lack of similar assays. Our aim was to investigate the functional effects of seven HNF4A variants, located in the HNF-4A DNA binding domain and associated with different clinical phenotypes, by various functional assays and cell lines (transactivation, DNA binding, protein expression, nuclear localization) and in silico protein structure analyses. Variants R85W, S87N and R89W demonstrated reduced DNA binding to the consensus HNF-4A binding elements in the HNF1A promoter (35, 13 and 9%, respectively) and the G6PC promoter (R85W ~10%). While reduced transactivation on the G6PC promoter in HepG2 cells was shown for S87N (33%), R89W (65%) and R136W (35%), increased transactivation by R85W and R85Q was confirmed using several combinations of target promoters and cell lines. R89W showed reduced nuclear levels. In silico analyses supported variant induced structural impact. Our study indicates that cell line specific functional investigations are important to better understand HNF4A-MODY genotype-phenotype correlations, as our data supports ACMG/AMP interpretations of loss-of-function variants and propose assay-specific HNF4A control variants for future functional investigations.

9.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 35, 2024 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) may unmask or exacerbate a woman's underlying risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). We estimated associations of maternal and paternal genetically predicted liability for CHD with lifelong risk of APOs. We hypothesized that associations would be found for women, but not their male partners (negative controls). METHODS: We studied up to 83,969‬ women (and up to 55,568‬ male partners) from the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study or the Trøndelag Health Study with genotyping data and lifetime history of any APO in their pregnancies (1967-2019) in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (miscarriage, stillbirth, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes, small for gestational age, large for gestational age, and spontaneous preterm birth). Maternal and paternal genetic risk scores (GRS) for CHD were generated using 148 gene variants (p-value < 5 × 10-8, not in linkage disequilibrium). Associations between GRS for CHD and each APO were determined using logistic regression, adjusting for genomic principal components, in each cohort separately, and combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: One standard deviation higher GRS for CHD in women was related to increased risk of any hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.10), pre-eclampsia (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.11), and small for gestational age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.06). Imprecise associations with lower odds of large for gestational age (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.00) and higher odds of stillbirth (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.98-1.11) were suggested. These findings remained consistent after adjusting for number of total pregnancies and the male partners' GRS and restricting analyses to stable couples. Associations for other APOs were close to the null. There was weak evidence of an association of paternal genetically predicted liability for CHD with spontaneous preterm birth in female partners (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99-1.05), but not with other APOs. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, small for gestational age, and stillbirth may unmask women with a genetically predicted propensity for CHD. The association of paternal genetically predicted CHD risk with spontaneous preterm birth in female partners needs further exploration.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Criança , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Humanos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Natimorto/genética , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/genética , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Pais , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/genética
10.
Hum Reprod ; 39(2): 436-441, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37949105

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Are impaired glucose tolerance (as measured by fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and fasting insulin) and cardiovascular disease risk (as measured by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure) causally related to infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Genetic instruments suggest that higher fasting insulin may increase infertility in women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Observational evidence suggests a shared etiology between impaired glucose tolerance, cardiovascular risk, and fertility problems. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This study included two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses, in which we used genome-wide association summary data that were publicly available for the biomarkers of impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease, and sex-specific genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of infertility conducted in the Norwegian Mother, Father, and Child Cohort Study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: There were 68 882 women (average age 30, involved in 81 682 pregnancies) and 47 474 of their male partners (average age 33, 55 744 pregnancies) who had available genotype data and who provided self-reported information on time-to-pregnancy and use of ARTs. Of couples, 12% were infertile (having tried to conceive for ≥12 months or used ARTs to conceive). We applied the inverse variance weighted method with random effects to pool data across variants and a series of sensitivity analyses to explore genetic instrument validity. (We checked the robustness of genetic instruments and the lack of unbalanced horizontal pleiotropy, and we used methods that are robust to population stratification.) Findings were corrected for multiple comparisons by the Bonferroni method (eight exposures: P-value < 0.00625). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In women, increases in genetically determined fasting insulin levels were associated with greater odds of infertility (+1 log(pmol/l): odds ratio 1.60, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.18, P-value = 0.003). The results were robust in the sensitivity analyses exploring the validity of MR assumptions and the role of pleiotropy of other cardiometabolic risk factors. There was also evidence of higher glucose and glycated hemoglobin causing infertility in women, but the findings were imprecise and did not pass our P-value threshold for multiple testing. The results for lipids and blood pressure were close to the null, suggesting that these did not cause infertility. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We did not know if underlying causes of infertility were in the woman, man, or both. Our analyses only involved couples who had conceived. We did not have data on circulating levels of cardiometabolic risk factors, and we opted to conduct an MR analysis using GWAS summary statistics. No sex-specific genetic instruments on cardiometabolic risk factors were available. Our results may be affected by selection and misclassification bias. Finally, the characteristics of our study sample limit the generalizability of our results to populations of non-European ancestry. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Treatments for lower fasting insulin levels may reduce the risk of infertility in women. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The MoBa Cohort Study is supported by the Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. This work was supported by the European Research Council [grant numbers 947684, 101071773, 293574, 101021566], the Research Council of Norway [grant numbers 262700, 320656, 274611], the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority [grant numbers 2020022, 2021045], and the British Heart Foundation [grant numbers CH/F/20/90003, AA/18/1/34219]. Open Access funding was provided by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The funders had no role in the study design; the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; the writing of the report; or the decision to submit the article for publication. D.A.L. has received research support from National and International government and charitable bodies, Roche Diagnostics and Medtronic for research unrelated to the current work. O.A.A. has been a consultant to HealthLytix. The rest of the authors declare that no competing interests exist. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Intolerância à Glucose , Infertilidade Feminina , Gravidez , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Intolerância à Glucose/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mães , Estudos de Coortes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Fatores de Risco , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Infertilidade Feminina/complicações , Glucose , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Insulina , Colesterol , Pai
11.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 7(1): e463, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38059537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms behind the diminished incretin effect in type 2 diabetes are uncertain, but impaired vagal transmission has been suggested. We aimed to investigate the association between the incretin effect and autonomic neuropathy, and the degree of dysglycaemia and duration of diabetes. DESIGN AND METHODS: For a cross-sectional study, we included participants with either longstanding type 2 diabetes, recent onset, untreated diabetes and controls without diabetes matched for age, sex and body mass index. Autonomic nerve function was assessed with cardiovascular reflex tests, heart rate variability and sudomotor function. Visceral afferent nerves in the gut were tested performing rapid rectal balloon distention. An oral glucose tolerance test and an intravenous isoglycaemic glucose infusion were performed to calculate the incretin effect and gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD). RESULTS: Sixty-five participants were recruited. Participants with diabetes had rectal hyposensitivity for earliest sensation (3.7 ± 1.1 kPa in longstanding, 4.0 ± 1.3 in early), compared to controls (3.0 ± 0.9 kPa), p = .005. Rectal hyposensitivity for earliest sensation was not associated with the incretin effect (rho = -0.204, p = .106), but an association was found with GIGD (rho -0.341, p = .005). Incretin effect and GIGD were correlated with all glucose values, HbA1c and duration of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Rectal hyposensitivity was uncovered in both longstanding and early type 2 diabetes, and was not associated with the incretin effect, but with GIGD, implying a potential link between visceral neuropathy and gastrointestinal handling of glucose. Both the incretin effect and GIGD were associated with the degree of dysglycaemia and the duration of diabetes. PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED: Some of the data have previously been published and presented as a poster on the American Diabetes Association 83rd Scientific Sessions: Meling et al; 1658-P: Rectal Hyposensitivity, a Potential Marker of Enteric Autonomic Nerve Dysfunction, Is Significantly Associated with Gastrointestinally Mediated Glucose Disposal in Persons with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes 20 June 2023; 72 (Supplement_1): 1658-P. https://doi.org/10.2337/db23-1658-P.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Incretinas , Humanos , Incretinas/fisiologia , Glucose , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Glicemia , Estudos Transversais , Insulina
12.
Diabetologia ; 66(12): 2226-2237, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37798422

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Correctly diagnosing MODY is important, as individuals with this diagnosis can discontinue insulin injections; however, many people are misdiagnosed. We aimed to develop a robust approach for determining the pathogenicity of variants of uncertain significance in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF1A)-MODY and to obtain an accurate estimate of the prevalence of HNF1A-MODY in paediatric cases of diabetes. METHODS: We extended our previous screening of the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry by 830 additional samples and comprehensively genotyped HNF1A variants in autoantibody-negative participants using next-generation sequencing. Carriers of pathogenic variants were treated by local healthcare providers, and participants with novel likely pathogenic variants and variants of uncertain significance were enrolled in an investigator-initiated, non-randomised, open-label pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT04239586). To identify variants associated with HNF1A-MODY, we functionally characterised their pathogenicity and assessed the carriers' phenotype and treatment response to sulfonylurea. RESULTS: In total, 615 autoantibody-negative participants among 4712 cases of paediatric diabetes underwent genetic sequencing, revealing 19 with HNF1A variants. We identified nine carriers with novel variants classified as variants of uncertain significance or likely to be pathogenic, while the remaining ten participants carried five pathogenic variants previously reported. Of the nine carriers with novel variants, six responded favourably to sulfonylurea. Functional investigations revealed their variants to be dysfunctional and demonstrated a correlation with the resulting phenotype, providing evidence for reclassifying these variants as pathogenic. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Based on this robust classification, we estimate that the prevalence of HNF1A-MODY is 0.3% in paediatric diabetes. Clinical phenotyping is challenging and functional investigations provide a strong complementary line of evidence. We demonstrate here that combining clinical phenotyping with functional protein studies provides a powerful tool to obtain a precise diagnosis of HNF1A-MODY.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Criança , Projetos Piloto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Autoanticorpos/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Noruega/epidemiologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia , Mutação
13.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 3(1): 136, 2023 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37794142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monogenic diabetes presents opportunities for precision medicine but is underdiagnosed. This review systematically assessed the evidence for (1) clinical criteria and (2) methods for genetic testing for monogenic diabetes, summarized resources for (3) considering a gene or (4) variant as causal for monogenic diabetes, provided expert recommendations for (5) reporting of results; and reviewed (6) next steps after monogenic diabetes diagnosis and (7) challenges in precision medicine field. METHODS: Pubmed and Embase databases were searched (1990-2022) using inclusion/exclusion criteria for studies that sequenced one or more monogenic diabetes genes in at least 100 probands (Question 1), evaluated a non-obsolete genetic testing method to diagnose monogenic diabetes (Question 2). The risk of bias was assessed using the revised QUADAS-2 tool. Existing guidelines were summarized for questions 3-5, and review of studies for questions 6-7, supplemented by expert recommendations. Results were summarized in tables and informed recommendations for clinical practice. RESULTS: There are 100, 32, 36, and 14 studies included for questions 1, 2, 6, and 7 respectively. On this basis, four recommendations for who to test and five on how to test for monogenic diabetes are provided. Existing guidelines for variant curation and gene-disease validity curation are summarized. Reporting by gene names is recommended as an alternative to the term MODY. Key steps after making a genetic diagnosis and major gaps in our current knowledge are highlighted. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a synthesis of current evidence and expert opinion on how to use precision diagnostics to identify individuals with monogenic diabetes.


Some diabetes types, called monogenic diabetes, are caused by changes in a single gene. It is important to know who has this kind of diabetes because treatment can differ from that of other types of diabetes. Some treatments also work better than others for specific types, and some people can for example change from insulin injections to tablets. In addition, relatives can be offered a test to see if they are at risk. Genetic testing is needed to diagnose monogenic diabetes but is expensive, so it's not possible to test every person with diabetes for it. We evaluated published research on who should be tested and what test to use. Based on this, we provide recommendations for doctors and health care providers on how to implement genetic testing for monogenic diabetes.

14.
medRxiv ; 2023 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37662288

RESUMO

Background: The causal relationship between maternal smoking in pregnancy and reduced offspring birth weight is well established and is likely due to impaired placental function. However, observational studies have given conflicting results on the association between smoking and placental weight. We aimed to estimate the causal effect of newly pregnant mothers quitting smoking on their placental weight at the time of delivery. Methods: We used one-sample Mendelian randomization, drawing data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (up to N = 805) and the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (up to N = 4475). The analysis was performed in pre-pregnancy smokers only, due to the specific role of the genetic instrument SNP rs1051730 (CHRNA5 - CHRNA3 - CHRNB4) in affecting smoking cessation but not initiation. Results: Fixed effect meta-analysis showed a 175 g [95%CI: 16, 334] higher placental weight for pre-pregnancy smoking mothers who continued smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, compared with those who stopped smoking. Using the number of cigarettes smoked per day in the first trimester as the exposure, the causal estimate was a 12 g [95%CI: 2,22] higher placental weight per cigarette per day. Results were similar when the smoking exposures were measured at the end of pregnancy. Using the residuals of birth weight regressed on placental weight as the outcome, we showed weak evidence of lower offspring birth weight relative to the placental weight for continuing smoking. Conclusion: Our results suggest that continued smoking during pregnancy causes higher placental weights.

15.
Europace ; 25(10)2023 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37738632

RESUMO

AIMS: A low resting heart rate (RHR) implies a more efficient heart function and a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, observational studies have reported a U-shaped association between RHR and atrial fibrillation (AF). In contrast, Mendelian randomization (MR) studies have found an inverse causal association between RHR and AF. Hence, the causal nature of the relationship is not clear. The aim is to investigate the causal association and its shape between RHR on AF using linear and non-linear MR (NLMR). METHODS AND RESULTS: Linear and non-linear MR were performed on individual-level data in the Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) and UK Biobank (UKB). HUNT consists of 69 155 individuals with 7,062 AF cases, while UKB provides data on 431 852 individuals with 20 452 AF cases. The linear MR found an inverse relationship between RHR and AF with an OR = 0.95 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-0.98] and OR = 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95-0.97) per unit decrease in RHR in HUNT and UKB, respectively. The NLMR was supportive of an inverse linear relationship in both HUNT and UKB for RHR values <90 beats per minute (bpm). Several sensitivity analyses were also consistent. CONCLUSION: In contrast with the current observational knowledge of RHR and AF, an inverse causal association between RHR and AF was demonstrated in both linear and non-linear MR for RHR values up to 90 bpm. Further exploring the underlying mechanisms of the genetic instrument for RHR may shed light on whether pleiotropy is biasing this association.

16.
medRxiv ; 2023 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37645979

RESUMO

Bleeding in early pregnancy and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) bear substantial risks, with the former closely associated with pregnancy loss and the latter being the foremost cause of maternal death, underscoring the severity of these complications in maternal-fetal health. Here, we investigated the genetic variation underlying aspects of pregnancy-associated bleeding and identified five loci associated with PPH through a meta-analysis of 21,512 cases and 259,500 controls. Functional annotation analysis indicated candidate genes, HAND2, TBX3, and RAP2C/FRMD7, at three loci and showed that at each locus, associated variants were located within binding sites for progesterone receptors (PGR). Furthermore, there were strong genetic correlations with birth weight, gestational duration, and uterine fibroids. Early bleeding during pregnancy (28,898 cases and 302,894 controls) yielded no genome-wide association signals, but showed strong genetic correlation with a variety of human traits, indicative of polygenic and pleiotropic effects. Our results suggest that postpartum bleeding is related to myometrium dysregulation, whereas early bleeding is a complex trait related to underlying health and possibly socioeconomic status.

17.
medRxiv ; 2023 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37131594

RESUMO

Monogenic forms of diabetes present opportunities for precision medicine as identification of the underlying genetic cause has implications for treatment and prognosis. However, genetic testing remains inconsistent across countries and health providers, often resulting in both missed diagnosis and misclassification of diabetes type. One of the barriers to deploying genetic testing is uncertainty over whom to test as the clinical features for monogenic diabetes overlap with those for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we perform a systematic evaluation of the evidence for the clinical and biochemical criteria used to guide selection of individuals with diabetes for genetic testing and review the evidence for the optimal methods for variant detection in genes involved in monogenic diabetes. In parallel we revisit the current clinical guidelines for genetic testing for monogenic diabetes and provide expert opinion on the interpretation and reporting of genetic tests. We provide a series of recommendations for the field informed by our systematic review, synthesizing evidence, and expert opinion. Finally, we identify major challenges for the field and highlight areas for future research and investment to support wider implementation of precision diagnostics for monogenic diabetes.

18.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 125, 2023 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37013617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidance to improve fertility includes reducing alcohol and caffeine consumption, achieving healthy weight-range and stopping smoking. Advice is informed by observational evidence, which is often biased by confounding. METHODS: This study primarily used data from a pregnancy cohort, the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study. First, we conducted multivariable regression of health behaviours (alcohol and caffeine consumption, body-mass index (BMI), and smoking) on fertility outcomes (e.g. time to conception) and reproductive outcomes (e.g. age at first birth) (n = 84,075 females, 68,002 males), adjusting for birth year, education and attention-deficit and hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD) traits. Second, we used individual-level Mendelian randomisation (MR) to explore possible causal effects of health behaviours on fertility/reproductive outcomes (n = 63,376 females, 45,460 males). Finally, we performed summary-level MR for available outcomes in UK Biobank (n = 91,462-1,232,091) and controlled for education and ADHD liability using multivariable MR. RESULTS: In multivariable regression analyses, higher BMI associated with fertility (longer time to conception, increased odds of infertility treatment and miscarriage), and smoking was associated with longer time to conception. In individual-level MR analyses, there was strong evidence for effects of smoking initiation and higher BMI on younger age at first birth, of higher BMI on increased time to conception, and weak evidence for effects of smoking initiation on increased time to conception. Age at first birth associations were replicated in summary-level MR analysis; however, effects attenuated using multivariable MR. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking behaviour and BMI showed the most consistent associations for increased time to conception and a younger age at first birth. Given that age at first birth and time to conception are positively correlated, this suggests that the mechanisms for reproductive outcomes are distinct to the mechanisms acting on fertility outcomes. Multivariable MR suggested that effects on age at first birth might be explained by underlying liability to ADHD and education.


Assuntos
Mães , Fumar , Gravidez , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Cafeína , Fertilidade , Pai , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde
19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 13(1): 94, 2023 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36934099

RESUMO

Parental genes may indirectly influence offspring psychiatric outcomes through the environment that parents create for their children. These indirect genetic effects, also known as genetic nurture, could explain individual differences in common internalising and externalising psychiatric symptoms during childhood. Advanced statistical genetic methods leverage data from families to estimate the overall contribution of parental genetic nurture effects. This study included up to 10,499 children, 5990 mother-child pairs, and 6,222 father-child pairs from the Norwegian Mother Father and Child Study. Genome-based restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) models were applied using software packages GCTA and M-GCTA to estimate variance in maternally reported depressive, disruptive, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in 8-year-olds that was explained by direct offspring genetic effects and maternal or paternal genetic nurture. There was no strong evidence of genetic nurture in this sample, although a suggestive paternal genetic nurture effect on offspring depressive symptoms (variance explained (V) = 0.098, standard error (SE) = 0.057) and a suggestive maternal genetic nurture effect on ADHD symptoms (V = 0.084, SE = 0.058) was observed. The results indicate that parental genetic nurture effects could be of some relevance in explaining individual differences in childhood psychiatric symptoms. However, robustly estimating their contribution is a challenge for researchers given the current paucity of large-scale samples of genotyped families with information on childhood psychiatric outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Pais , Feminino , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Genótipo , Variação Genética
20.
medRxiv ; 2023 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36865116

RESUMO

The intergenerational transmission of educational attainment from parents to their children is one of the most important and studied relationships in social science. Longitudinal studies have found strong associations between parents' and their children's educational outcomes, which could be due to the effects of parents. Here we provide new evidence about whether parents' educational attainment affects their parenting behaviours and children's early educational outcomes using within-family Mendelian randomization and data from 40,879 genotyped parent-child trios from the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort (MoBa) study. We found evidence suggesting that parents' educational attainment affects their children's educational outcomes from age 5 to 14. More studies are needed to provide more samples of parent-child trios and assess the potential consequences of selection bias and grandparental effects.

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