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1.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 12(3): e5588, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504941

RESUMO

Background: Reconstructive obstacles in composite head and neck defects are compounded in reoperated, traumatized, irradiated, and vessel-depleted surgical fields. In cases that require multiple free flaps, recipient vessel accessibility and inset logistics become challenging. Strategic flow-through flap configurations mitigate these issues by supplying arterial inflow and venous outflow to a second flap in a contiguous fashion. This approach (1) permits the use of a singular native recipient vessel, (2) increases the reach of the vascular pedicle, avoiding the need for arteriovenous grafting, and (3) allows for a greater three-dimensional flexibility in configuring soft tissue and bony flap inset. Methods: To demonstrate this technique, we conducted a retrospective review of all head and neck reconstruction patients presenting to us from March 2019 to April 2021. Results: We present seven oncological and two traumatic patients (N = 9) who received flow-through free flaps for head and neck reconstruction. The most common flap used as the flow-through flap was the anterolateral thigh flap (N = 7), followed by the fibula flap (N = 2). Mean follow-up time was 507 days. No flap failures occurred. Conclusion: In head and neck reconstruction, the use of the flow-through principle enables uninterrupted vascular flow for two distinct free flaps in single-stage reconstruction for patients with vessel-depleted, irradiated, and/or reoperated fields. We demonstrate that flow-through flaps in the head and neck may be used successfully for a variety of cases and flaps.

2.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 10(3): e4186, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35291332

RESUMO

Patients with a history of massive weight loss who are undergoing autologous breast reconstruction after mastectomy represent a unique surgical challenge. Although these patients often have an abundance of excess skin, it may be difficult to acquire sufficient tissue volume for adequate reconstruction of bilateral breasts using single flap techniques due to the paucity of subcutaneous fat. Stacked flap techniques have emerged as an effective method in thinner patients with suboptimal fat distribution who desire autologous breast reconstruction. This can serve as an ideal strategy, specifically in this patient population, when it serves the dual function of providing adequate volume for bilateral breast reconstruction and the secondary benefit of removing the excess skin present after massive weight loss. In this article, we discuss surgical techniques used during two cases of bilateral stacked flap breast reconstruction in cancer patients subsequent to massive weight loss.

3.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 10(1): e3872, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35070589

RESUMO

Coagulopathies affect 3% of free flap patients and are among the leading causes of free flap failure. This report describes the case of a head and neck cancer patient that experienced two remote free flap failures before successful autologous mandibular reconstruction. Following identification of an unrecognized thrombophilic state, a focused anticoagulation strategy was executed, including an intraoperative heparin drip, stringent postoperative maintenance of Factor Xa levels between 0.3 and 0.5 IU per mL, and transition to an outpatient enoxaparin regimen of 1 mg per kg twice daily for 1.5 months following surgery. Here, we demonstrate that free tissue transfer following multiple previous failed attempts in the setting of hypercoagulability remains a viable reconstructive option with close interdisciplinary collaboration, close clinical monitoring, and patient-specific antithrombotic protocols.

4.
Ann Plast Surg ; 88(4): 415-419, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The deep inferior epigastric perforator flap (DIEP) is a widely known reliable option for autologous breast reconstruction. One common complication of DIEP procedures is fat necrosis. Consequences of fat necrosis include wound healing complications, pain, infection, and the psychological distress of possible cancerous recurrence. Clinical judgment alone is an imperfect method to detect at-risk segments of adipose tissue. Objective methods to assess perfusion may improve fat necrosis complication rates, reducing additional surgeries to exclude cancer and improve cosmesis for patients. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent analysis of DIEP flap vascularity with or without intraoperative indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Flap perfusion was assessed using intravenous ICGA and was quantified with both relative and absolute value units of fluorescence. Tissue with observed values less than 25% to 30% relative value units was resected. Postoperative outcomes and fat necrosis incidence were collected. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-five DIEP flaps were included in the study, 187 (52.7%) of which were assessed intraoperatively with ICGA. Thirty-nine patients (10.9%) experienced operable fat necrosis. No statistically significant difference in incidence of postoperative fat necrosis was found between the 2 groups (P = 0.732). However, a statistically significant relationship was found between fat necrosis incidence and body mass index as both a continuum (P = 0.001) and when categorized as greater than 35 (P = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Although ICGA is useful for a variety of plastic surgery procedures, our retrospective review did not show a reduction in operable fat necrosis when using this technology.


Assuntos
Necrose Gordurosa , Mamoplastia , Retalho Perfurante , Angiografia/métodos , Artérias Epigástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Epigástricas/cirurgia , Necrose Gordurosa/epidemiologia , Necrose Gordurosa/etiologia , Necrose Gordurosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina , Mamoplastia/métodos , Retalho Perfurante/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 38(1): 1-9, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From both a medical and surgical perspective, obese breast cancer patients are considered to possess higher risk when undergoing autologous breast reconstruction relative to nonobese patients. However, few studies have evaluated the continuum of risk across the full range of obesity. This study sought to compare surgical risk between the three World Health Organization (WHO) classes of obesity in patients undergoing deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction. METHODS: A retrospective review of 219 obese patients receiving 306 individual DIEP flaps was performed. Subjects were stratified into WHO obesity classes I (body mass index [BMI]: 30-34), II (BMI: 35-39), and III (BMI: ≥ 40) and assessed for risk factors and postoperative donor and recipient site complications. RESULTS: When examined together, the rate of any complication between the three groups only trended toward significance (p = 0.07), and there were no significant differences among rates of specific individual complications. However, logistic regression analysis showed that class III obesity was an independent risk factor for both flap (odds ratio [OR]: 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-3.20, p = 0.03) and donor site (OR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.09-5.05, p = 0.03) complications. CONCLUSION: DIEP breast reconstruction in the obese patient is more complex for both the patient and the surgeon. Although not a contraindication to undergoing surgery, obese patients should be diligently counseled regarding potential complications and undergo preoperative optimization of health parameters. Morbidly obese (class III) patients should be approached with additional caution, and perhaps even delay major reconstruction until specific BMI goals are met.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mamoplastia , Obesidade Mórbida , Retalho Perfurante , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Artérias Epigástricas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 38(6): 491-498, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been widely used for perforator mapping in abdominal-based reconstruction, but it is less widespread in the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. However, CTA may be quite useful for ALT planning, as this flap has demonstrated substantial variability in intrapatient bilateral vascular anatomy. This study investigated whether standard use of preoperative CTA resulted in selection of the donor extremity with preferential perforator anatomy, and whether this affected operative time and postoperative outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review of 105 patients who underwent proposed ALT flap reconstruction was performed. Seventy-nine patients received bilateral lower extremity CTAs, which were evaluated for dominant perforator anatomy (septocutaneous, musculoseptocutaneous, or musculocutaneous). Donor extremity selection was noted, and predicted perforator anatomy was compared with that encountered intraoperatively. RESULTS: Among the 73 patients who received bilateral imaging and ultimately received an ALT, congruent findings between imaging and surgical exploration were observed in 51 (69.8%) patients. Thirty (37.9%) patients had asymmetric perforator anatomy between their bilateral extremities on imaging. Among these, the leg with optimal perforator anatomy was selected in 70% of cases. There were no significant reductions among postoperative complication rates, but selection of the donor site with preferential anatomy was associated with a decrease in operative time (p = 0.049) among patients undergoing extremity reconstruction. CONCLUSION: CTA is a useful tool for optimizing donor site selection for ALT flaps and reducing operative time. We believe that standard use of preoperative CTA in ALTs warrants further consideration.


Assuntos
Retalho Perfurante , Procedimentos de Cirurgia Plástica , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Humanos , Duração da Cirurgia , Retalho Perfurante/irrigação sanguínea , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos de Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/irrigação sanguínea , Coxa da Perna/irrigação sanguínea
7.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 9(11): e3934, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796087

RESUMO

Defects of the frontal bone require thoughtful consideration of reconstructive material to satisfy the aesthetic and functional demands of the region, as well as the anatomic adjacency to the frontal sinus. Some cases may be further complicated by a suboptimal operative field due to prior radiation, reconstructive procedures, or infection. Vascularized bone offers an ideal option to successfully reconstruct bony defects in harsh wound beds. Here, we report the case of a 47-year-old man with adenoid cystic carcinoma who underwent secondary reconstruction of the frontal bone with a split-iliac crest bone flap based on the deep circumflex iliac artery. The patient's course following an initial ablative procedure was complicated by recurrent periorbital cellulitis, radiation, and eventual recurrence of the malignancy. Reconstructive requirements included restoration of the superior orbital rim, cranialization of the frontal sinus, and reconstruction of a sizeable frontal bone defect. In this setting, the iliac crest served as an excellent reconstructive option owing to its natural curvature and large surface area. The split-iliac crest deep circumflex iliac artery bone flap offers a robust and valuable reconstructive option for calvarial defects in hostile surgical fields.

8.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 37(9): 744-752, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is linked to poor outcomes throughout the surgical literature and can be assessed on preoperative imaging to potentially aid in risk stratification. This study examined the effects of sarcopenia on surgical morbidity following lower extremity (LE) reconstruction, and also compared two methods of assessment, one of which is novel ("ellipse method"). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 50 patients receiving free flap-based reconstruction of the LE was performed. Bilateral psoas density and area were quantified at L4 through tracing ("traditional method") and encircling ("ellipse method") to calculate Hounsfield unit average calculation (HUAC). Logistic regression and receiving operator curve analysis for the primary outcome of any postoperative complication was used to determine HUAC cutoffs (≤ 20.7 vs. ≤ 20.6) for sarcopenia. Risk of complications associated with sarcopenia was evaluated using Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Twelve patients (24%) met criteria for sarcopenia via the traditional method and 16 (32%) via the ellipse method. By both methods, sarcopenic patients were older and more often female and diabetic. These patients also had higher American Society of Anesthesiologists scores and lower serum prealbumin levels. The ellipse method was found to be more accurate, sensitive, and specific than the traditional method in predicting postoperative morbidity (p = 0.009). Via the ellipse method, sarcopenic patients were at higher risk for any complication (p = 0.002) and were at a higher risk for a deep vein thrombus or pulmonary embolism via the traditional method (p = 0.047). CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia is associated with greater pre- and postoperative morbidity in LE reconstruction. The novel ellipse method is a simplified and accurate method of assessing sarcopenia that can be easily performed in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Procedimentos de Cirurgia Plástica , Sarcopenia , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Retalhos Cirúrgicos
9.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 9(4): e3555, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912374

RESUMO

Virtual surgical planning and patient-specific osteosynthesis plates provide reconstructive surgeons with the ability to proceed with facial reconstruction of expanding complexity. Moreover, these advances have been shown to reduce the energy, effort, and operating time while helping guide the surgeon toward anatomically correct results. The currently available literature regarding custom-milled plates pertains mostly to reconstructive surgery of the mandible. This small 3-patient series illustrates the use of patient-specific titanium plating to simplify complex reconstruction of the midface. Composite defects requiring multiple bony and soft tissue segments are difficult to reconstruct intraoperatively without prior planning. Custom plates and associated cutting guides based on patient-specific anatomy allow for a more streamlined, stepwise protocol for assembly of intricate constructs. Custom-manufactured hardware will precisely fit bony contours and minimize additional manipulation of both the bone and plate, maximally preserving internal strength and allowing for improved stability, dental occlusion, and spatial positioning. In addition to these mechanical benefits, the ease of mind and overall cost reduction through a reduction in procedural time are significant advantages offered by pre-designed plates. We hope that this series illustrates the value of custom-printed plates for midface reconstruction.

10.
Child Abuse Negl ; 100: 104196, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals at high-risk for trafficking are often subject to preexisting complex trauma that only intensifies during the trafficking experience. This greatly increases their risk of mental illness, although the actual prevalence of mental health disorders in children who are sex trafficked remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of mental health diagnoses among a sample of youth identified as being sex trafficked, and to discuss these rates in relation to other high-risk groups reported in the literature. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 143 female and male child trafficking victims in Wisconsin. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed individual medical records, identifying mental health diagnoses and behaviors. The results were compared to summarized prevalence data for mental health disorders in sex trafficked, runaway children, juvenile offenders, and foster care children identified via a scoping review. RESULTS: We observed significantly higher rates of ADHD (52.4%, p < 0.0001), bipolar disorder (26.6%, p < 0.0001), and PTSD (19.6%, p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001) in our sample of trafficked youth compared to all high-risk groups, as well as for depression (45.5%), anxiety (19.6%), conduct disorder (19.6%), ODD (25.9%), and psychosis (14.0%) relative to multiple groups individually. CONCLUSIONS: The complex trauma suffered by child survivors of sex trafficking can impart numerous effects with overlapping symptomatology of many mental health disorders. Survivors' adaptive responses to complex trauma may lead to improper diagnosis and treatment of mental health disorders at the expense of prompt access to trauma-focused therapies. Alternative diagnoses and treatments of this complex dysfunction are discussed.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Tráfico de Pessoas/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Jovens em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
11.
Transplant Direct ; 5(9): e482, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579810

RESUMO

Biliary complications (BC) following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is strongly associated with inferior patient outcomes and increased healthcare cost. BC in high-acuity patients can be lethal. While the utility of staged biliary reconstruction after liver transplantation (SBRALT) has been reported in adult and pediatric OLT, biliary outcome data are scarce. We sought to evaluate the clinical utility and outcomes of SBRALT in high-acuity transplant recipients. METHODS: We conducted an analysis from our prospective database of 149 adult OLT between January 1, 2012, and September 30, 2017. Mean follow-up was 26 months. Variables were compared for Group I: one-stage OLT with biliary reconstruction (N = 58) versus Group II: SBRALT (N = 91). RESULTS: Compared with Group I, patients in Group II had higher acuity of illness: median model for end-stage liver disease scores (19 vs 35 P = 0.002), requirement for pretransplant intensive care unit (29.3% vs 54.9%, P = 0.022), pretransplant renal replacement therapy (15.5% vs 48.4%), estimated blood loss (2000 vs 4750 mL, P < 0.001), and intraoperative packed red blood cells transfusion (4 vs 10 units, P < 0.001). For Group II, biliary reconstruction was performed between 1 and 6 days after OLT. Hepaticojejunostomy was performed in 8.6% (Group I) and 26.4% (Group II), P = 0.010. For Groups I and II, BC rates (8.6% vs 7.7%, P = 0.955) and 1-year graft failure-free survival rates (89.7% vs 88.2%, P = 0.845) were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Graft failure-free survival and biliary outcomes of SBRALT in high-acuity recipients are excellent and comparable to one-stage OLT for low-risk patients. SBRALT is a practical surgical strategy in complex OLT.

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