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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 109995, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301451

RESUMO

Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative bacterium found in the respiratory and genital tracts of various animals, primarily poultry. Its association with septicemia and high mortality in poultry, along with the rise in multidrug-resistant strains, has amplified concerns. Recent research uncovered significant variability in antibiotic resistance profiles among G. anatis isolates from different Austrian flocks, and even between different organs within the same bird. In response, in the present study 60 of these isolates were sequenced and a combination of comparative genomics and genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis was applied to understand the genetic variability of G. anatis across flocks and organs and to identify genes related to antibiotic resistance. The results showed that each flock harbored one or two strains of G. anatis with only a few strains shared between flocks, demonstrating a great variability among flocks. We identified genes associated with resistance to nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, cefoxitin, tetracycline, ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole. Our findings revealed that G. anatis may develop antibiotic resistance through two mechanisms: single-nucleotide mutations and the presence of specific genes that confer resistance. Unexpectedly, some tetracycline-resistant isolates lacked all known tetracycline-associated genes, suggesting the involvement of novel mechanisms of tetracycline resistance that require additional exploration. Furthermore, our functional annotation of resistance genes highlighted the citric acid cycle pathway as a potential key modulator of antibiotic resistance in G. anatis. In summary, this study describes the first application of GWAS analysis to G. anatis and provides new insights into the acquisition of multidrug resistance in this important avian pathogen.


Assuntos
Pasteurellaceae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Galinhas/microbiologia , Tetraciclina , Aves Domésticas/genética , Resistência a Tetraciclina/genética , Genômica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
2.
Front Vet Sci ; 10: 1195585, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37415967

RESUMO

Introduction: Colibacillosis is a worldwide prevalent disease in poultry production linked to Escherichia coli strains that belong to the avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) pathotype. While many virulence factors have been linked to APEC isolates, no single gene or set of genes has been found to be exclusively associated with the pathotype. Moreover, a comprehensive description of the biological processes linked to APEC pathogenicity is currently lacking. Methods: In this study, we compiled a dataset of 2015 high-quality avian E. coli genomes from pathogenic and commensal isolates, based on publications from 2000 to 2021. We then conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and integrated candidate gene identification with available protein-protein interaction data to decipher the genetic network underlying the biological processes connected to APEC pathogenicity. Results: Our GWAS identified variations in gene content for 13 genes and SNPs in 3 different genes associated with APEC isolates, suggesting both gene-level and SNP-level variations contribute to APEC pathogenicity. Integrating protein-protein interaction data, we found that 15 of these genes clustered in the same genetic network, suggesting the pathogenicity of APEC might be due to the interplay of different regulated pathways. We also found novel candidate genes including an uncharacterized multi-pass membrane protein (yciC) and the outer membrane porin (ompD) as linked to APEC isolates. Discussion: Our findings suggest that convergent pathways related to nutrient uptake from host cells and defense from host immune system play a major role in APEC pathogenicity. In addition, the dataset curated in this study represents a comprehensive historical genomic collection of avian E. coli isolates and constitutes a valuable resource for their comparative genomics investigations.

3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1159970, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37409113

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus, which emerged in Europe and U.S.A. in the late 1980s and has since caused huge economic losses. Infection with PRRSV causes mild to severe respiratory and reproductive clinical symptoms in pigs. Alteration of the host immune response by PRRSV is associated with the increased susceptibility to secondary viral and bacterial infections resulting in more serious and chronic disease. However, the expression profiles underlying innate and adaptive immune responses to PRRSV infection are yet to be further elucidated. In this study, we investigated gene expression profiles of PBMCs and CD8+ T cells after PRRSV AUT15-33 infection. We identified the highest number of differentially expressed genes in PBMCs and CD8+ T cells at 7 dpi and 21 dpi, respectively. The gene expression profile of PBMCs from infected animals was dominated by a strong innate immune response at 7 dpi which persisted through 14 dpi and 21 dpi and was accompanied by involvement of adaptive immunity. The gene expression pattern of CD8+ T cells showed a strong adaptive immune response to PRRSV, leading to the formation of highly differentiated CD8+ T cells starting from 14 dpi. The hallmark of the CD8+ T-cell response was the increased expression of effector and cytolytic genes (PRF1, GZMA, GZMB, GZMK, KLRK1, KLRD1, FASL, NKG7), with the highest levels observed at 21 dpi. Temporal clustering analysis of DEGs of PBMCs and CD8+ T cells from PRRSV-infected animals revealed three and four clusters, respectively, suggesting tight transcriptional regulation of both the innate and the adaptive immune response to PRRSV. The main cluster of PBMCs was related to the innate immune response to PRRSV, while the main clusters of CD8+ T cells represented the initial transformation and differentiation of these cells in response to the PRRSV infection. Together, we provided extensive transcriptomics data explaining gene signatures of the immune response of PBMCs and CD8+ T cells after PRRSV infection. Additionally, our study provides potential biomarker targets useful for vaccine and therapeutics development.


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Sus scrofa/genética , Transcriptoma
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21743, 2022 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526693

RESUMO

In 2019, outbreaks of hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS) were observed in six commercial layer chicken flocks, belonging to three different Polish farms, and characterized by increased mortality, hemorrhagic hepatitis with attached blood clots on the liver surface, and splenomegaly. Diseased flocks were initially investigated for the presence of avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) - the etiological agent of HSS - by conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, which revealed aHEV sequences clustering separately from all known aHEV genotypes. Additionally, an aHEV genome was identified for the first time in common pheasants, from a flock in France, using Next Generation Sequencing. This genome clustered together with the Polish aHEVs here investigated. Complete genome aHEV sequences from the HSS outbreaks confirmed the divergent cluster, with a shared nucleotide sequence identity of 79.6-83.2% with other aHEVs, which we propose to comprise a novel aHEV genotype - genotype 7. Histology and immunohistochemistry investigations in the liver and spleen established an association between aHEV and the observed lesions in the affected birds, consolidating the knowledge on the pathogenesis of aHEV, which is still largely unknown. Thus, the present investigation extends the natural host range and genotypes of aHEV and strengthens knowledge on the pathogenesis of HSS.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal , Hepevirus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Infecções por Vírus de RNA , Animais , Hepevirus/genética , Galinhas , Esplenomegalia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Genótipo , Codorniz , Filogenia
5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e2093-e2104, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363935

RESUMO

In the present study, we report the occurrence of several outbreaks of hepatitis in flocks of young pheasants in France, between 2017 and 2021. The disease was characterized by prostration, apathy and a median cumulative mortality of 12%, with the birds presenting multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis on necropsy. Severe extensive areas of degeneration and necrosis were observed in the liver, with degenerative hepatocytes presenting large amphophilic to acidophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Transmission electron microscopy examination of liver samples showed the presence of parvovirus-like virions of 21-24 nm, a finding already reported decades ago. Further investigations by Next Generation Sequencing and PCR revealed the complete genome of a novel species of parvovirus, here designated Phasianus chaphamaparvovirus 1 (PhChPV-1), that belongs to the new genus Chaphamaparvovirus in the Hamaparvovirinae subfamily. In situ hybridization and real-time PCR confirmed the etiology of the outbreaks, demonstrating the viral genome in the lesions. The findings establish the etiology of a pathology first described in pheasants 50 years ago and pave the way for a targeted protection strategy.


Assuntos
Hepatite , Infecções por Parvoviridae , Parvovirus , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus/genética , Codorniz
6.
J Nephrol ; 35(5): 1457-1465, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are uremic toxins associated with cardiovascular outcome in CKD patients. The present work is an analysis of the association of serum free, total IS and PCS with cardiovascular events and calcium-phosphate metabolism variables in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Serum levels of total and free IS and PCS were measured in 139 hemodialysis patients. Their relationship with calcium-phosphate metabolism variables were tested in an observational cohort study. In addition, their association with cardiovascular events was investigated during a 4-year follow-up. RESULTS: Patients in the highest tertile (T3) of serum free IS showed lower serum 1,25(OH)2D compared to patients in the middle (T2) and lowest tertile (T1); in addition to this, T3 patients showed lower serum irisin than T1 patients and lower serum PTH than all the other subjects (T1 + T2) combined. Serum PTH was also measured during the two years after the baseline measurement and was higher in patients in the T1 than in those in the T3 of serum free IS. Cox regression analysis showed that cardiovascular risk was lower in T1 patients than in those in the T3 of serum free PCS, both using a univariate (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.2-5.43; p = 0.015) or multivariate model (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.12-5.51; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Serum free IS may be associated with PTH and 1,25(OH)2D secretion, whereas free PCS may predict cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico , Biomarcadores , Cálcio , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Cresóis , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Indicã , Indóis , Minerais , Fosfatos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Sulfatos
7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): 2913-2923, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974640

RESUMO

Cutaneous fowlpox is a disease of chickens and turkeys caused by the fowlpox virus (FWPV), characterized by the development of proliferative lesions and scabs on unfeathered areas. FWPVs regularly carry an integrated, active copy of the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), and it has been hypothesized that such FWPVs are more problematic in the field. Extensive outbreaks are usually observed in tropical and sub-tropical climates, where biting insects are more difficult to control. Here, we report an epidemic of 65 cutaneous fowlpox cases in Austria in layer chickens (91% of the cases) and broiler breeders and turkeys, all of them unvaccinated against the disease, from October 2018 to February 2020. The field data revealed appearance in flocks of different sizes ranging from less than 5000 birds up to more than 20,000 animals, with the majority raised indoors in a barn system. The clinical presentation was characterized by typical epithelial lesions on the head of the affected birds, with an average decrease of 6% in egg production and an average weekly mortality of 1.2% being observed in the flocks. A real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of FWPV-REV DNA, not only in the lesions but also in the environmental dust from the poultry houses. The integration of the REV provirus into the FWPV genome was confirmed by PCR, and revealed different FWPV genome populations carrying either the REV long terminal repeats (LTRs) or the full-length REV genome, reiterating the instability of the inserted REV. Two selected samples were fully sequenced by next generation sequencing (NGS), and the whole genome phylogenetic analysis revealed a regional clustering of the FWPV genomes. The extensive nature of these outbreaks in host populations naïve for the virus is a remarkable feature of the present report, highlighting new challenges associated with FWPV infections that need to be considered.


Assuntos
Vírus da Varíola das Aves Domésticas , Varíola Aviária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vírus da Reticuloendoteliose , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Galinhas , Poeira , Varíola Aviária/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola das Aves Domésticas/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Vírus da Reticuloendoteliose/genética , Perus
8.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 753, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histomonas meleagridis is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of histomonosis, an important poultry disease whose significance is underlined by the absence of any treatment and prophylaxis. The recent successful in vitro attenuation of the parasite urges questions about the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: Whole genome sequence data from a virulent and an attenuated strain originating from the same parental lineage of H. meleagridis were recruited using Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) and Illumina platforms, which were combined to generate megabase-sized contigs with high base-level accuracy. Inspecting the genomes for differences identified two substantial deletions within a coding sequence of the attenuated strain. Additionally, one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and indel targeting coding sequences caused the formation of premature stop codons, which resulted in the truncation of two genes in the attenuated strain. Furthermore, the genome of H. meleagridis was used for characterizing protein classes of clinical relevance for parasitic protists. The comparative analysis with the genomes of Trichomonas vaginalis, Tritrichomonas foetus and Entamoeba histolytica identified ~ 2700 lineage-specific gene losses and 9 gene family expansions in the H. meleagridis lineage. CONCLUSIONS: Taken as a whole, the obtained data provide the first hints to understand the molecular basis of attenuation in H. meleagridis and constitute a genomics platform for future research on this important poultry pathogen.


Assuntos
Eucariotos , Parasitos , Animais , Aves Domésticas , Análise de Sequência , Virulência/genética
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 259: 109161, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214907

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli have commonly been considered harmless commensal inhabitants of the chicken gut; however, these Campylobacter spp. are known to be able to multiply in the gut and invade other tissues, negatively affecting host health and performance. In this study, fourteen Campylobacter spp. were isolated from chickens showing foci of necrosis on the liver surface resembling lesions observed in cases of avian vibrionic hepatitis/spotty liver disease. The whole genome sequences of the fourteen isolates were analysed and their virulomes compared to those of Campylobacter reference sequences, aiming to investigate the possible association between virulence genes and the observed pathological lesions. Nine C. jejuni and five C. coli were studied. These Campylobacter shared twelve virulence factors with other isolates originated from chicken livers and hosted a higher number of virulence-associated genes in comparison to the reference genomes, including genes encoding for factors involved in adherence to and invasion of the intestinal epithelial cells. Our findings seem to point out that these twelve common virulence-associated genes, together with the presence of a high number of virulence factors involved in adherence, invasion and motility, might be responsible for the extra-intestinal spread of our isolates and the colonization of parenchymatous tissues, possibly causing the pathological lesions observed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter coli/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter coli/patogenicidade , Campylobacter jejuni/patogenicidade , Galinhas , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Genômica , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Virulência
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1471-1480, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197273

RESUMO

Food-borne infections with Salmonella are among the most common causes of human diseases worldwide, and infections with the serovar Infantis are becoming increasingly important. So far, diverse phenotypes and genotypes of S. Infantis have been reported. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the infection dynamics of two different S. Infantis strains in broilers. For this purpose, 15 birds were infected on day 2 of life with 108 CFU/ml of a pESI+ or a pESI- S. Infantis strain, respectively. Ten uninfected birds served as in-contact birds to monitor transmission. In both groups, an increase of infection was observed from 7 days of age onwards, reaching its peak at 28 days. However, the pESI+ strain proved significantly more virulent being re-isolated from most cloacal swabs and organs by direct plating. In contrast, the pESI- strain could be re-isolated from cloacal swabs and caeca only when enrichment was applied. Although the excretion of this strain was limited, the transmission level to in-contact birds was similar to the pESI+ strain. Differences in infection dynamics were also reflected in the antibody response: whereas the pESI+ strain provoked a significant increase in antibodies, antibody levels following infection with the pESI- strain remained in the range of negative control birds. The actual findings provide for the first time evidence of S. Infantis strain-specific infectivity in broilers and confirm previous observations in the field regarding differences in persistence on farms and resistance against disinfectants.


Assuntos
Plasmídeos/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Galinhas , Patrimônio Genético , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/sangue , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Salmonelose Animal/sangue , Salmonelose Animal/transmissão , Virulência
11.
Clin Kidney J ; 13(4): 666-673, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients under hemodialysis show a higher risk of cardiovascular (CV) mortality and morbidity than the general population. This study aims to identify genetic markers that could explain the increased CV risk in hemodialysis. METHODS: A total of 245 CKD patients under hemodialysis were recruited and followed up for 5 years to record CV events. Genetic analysis was performed using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyping by Infinium Expanded Multi-Ethnic Genotyping Array (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) comparing patients with and without a history of CV events [161 cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and 84 no CVDs]. The fixation index (Fst) measure was used to identify the most differentiated SNPs, and gene ontology analysis [Protein Analysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA)] was applied to define the biological/pathological roles of the associated SNPs. Partitioning tree analysis interrogated the genotype-phenotype relationship between discovered genetic variants and CV phenotypes. Cox regression analysis measured the effect of these SNPs on new CV events during the follow-up (FU). RESULTS: Fst analysis identified 3218 SNPs that were significantly different between CVD and no CVD. Gene ontology analysis identified two of these SNPs as involved in cardiovascular disease pathways (Ingenuity Pathway) and heart development (Panther) and belonging to 2 different genes: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) and Sarcoglycan delta (SGCD). The phenotype-genotype analysis found a higher percentage of CVD patients carrying the GLP1R rs10305445 allele A (P = 0.03) and lower percentages of CVD patients carrying the SGCD rs145292439 allele A (P = 0.038). Moreover, SGCD rs145292439 was associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein (P = 0.015). Cox analysis confirmed the increased frequency of CV events during the 5-year FU in patients carrying GLP1R rs1035445 allele A but it did not show any significant association with SGCD rs145292439. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified GLP1R rs10305445 and SCGD rs145292439 as potential genetic markers that may explain the higher risk of CVD in hemodialysis patients.

12.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 579, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: M. morganii is a bacterium frequently associated with urinary infections in humans. While many human strains are sequenced, only the genomes of few poultry strains are available. Here, we performed a detailed characterization of five highly resistant Morganella morganii strains isolated in association with Escherichia coli from diseased domestic Austrian poultry flocks, namely geese, turkeys and chicken layers. Additionally, we sequenced the genomes of these strains by NGS and analyzed phylogenetic clustering, resistance and virulence genes in the context of host-specificity. RESULTS: Two strains were identified to be Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) and one as AmpC beta-lactamases (AMP-C) phenotype, while two were ESBL negative. By integrating the genome sequences of these five poultry strains with all the available M. morganii genomes, we constructed a phylogenetic tree that clearly separates the Morganella genus into two clusters (M1 and M2), which approximately reflect the proposed subspecies classification (morganii and sibonii). Additionally, we found no association between phylogenetic structure and host, suggesting interspecies transmission. All five poultry strains contained genes for resistance to aminocoumarins, beta-lactams, colistin, elfamycins, fluoroquinolones, phenicol, rifampin and tetracycline. A comparative genomics analysis of virulence genes showed acquisition of novel virulence genes involved in secretion system and adherence in cluster M2. We showed that some of these genes were acquired by horizontal gene transfer from closely related Morganellaceae species and propose that novel virulence genes could be responsible for expansion of tissue tropism in M. morganii. Finally, we detected variability in copy number and high sequence divergence in toxin genes and provided evidence for positive selection in insecticidal toxins genes, likely reflecting host-related adaptations. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this study describes i) the first isolation and characterization of M. morganii from goose and turkey, ii) a large-scale genetic analysis of M. morganii and an attempt to generate a global picture of the M. morganii intraspecific phylogenetic structure.


Assuntos
Morganella morganii , Animais , Antibacterianos , Humanos , Morganella morganii/genética , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Virulência/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamas
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11123, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636426

RESUMO

The presence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) or plasmid-mediated AmpC ß-lactamase (pAmpC)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/pAmpC-EC) in livestock is a public health risk given the likelihood of their transmission to humans via the food chain. We conducted whole genome sequencing on 100 ESBL/pAmpC-EC isolated from the broiler production to explore their resistance and virulence gene repertoire, characterise their plasmids and identify transmission events derived from their phylogeny. Sequenced isolates carried resistance genes to four antimicrobial classes in addition to cephalosporins. Virulence gene analysis assigned the majority of ESBL/pAmpC-EC to defined pathotypes. In the complex genetic background of ESBL/pAmpC-EC, clusters of closely related isolates from various production stages were identified and indicated clonal transmission. Phylogenetic comparison with publicly available genomes suggested that previously uncommon ESBL/pAmpC-EC lineages could emerge in poultry, while others might contribute to the maintenance and dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC genes in broilers. The majority of isolates from diverse E. coli lineages shared four dominant plasmids (IncK2, IncI1, IncX3 and IncFIB/FII) with identical ESBL/pAmpC gene insertion sites. These plasmids have been previously reported in diverse hosts, including humans. Our findings underline the importance of specific plasmid groups in the dissemination of cephalosporin resistance genes within the broiler industry and across different reservoirs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , beta-Lactamases/genética , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Resistência beta-Lactâmica/genética
14.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 96, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001546

RESUMO

Microsatellites are short repetitive DNA sequences of 2-6 repeats interspersed in the genome that display a rapid mutation rate and consequently show high variation between individuals or populations. They have been used to characterize population diversity and structure and the level of variation between different isolates of a number of different organisms, including apicomplexan protozoa. Currently nothing is known about the genetic variability and population structure of Cystoisospora suis (Apicomplexa: Coccidia), the causative agent of piglet coccidiosis, and we made use of the recently available genome of C. suis (strain Wien-I) to amplify microsatellite regions (ca. 300-550 bp) and evaluate the applicability of fluorescence-labeled primers to investigate amplicon length variation at high resolution using capillary electrophoresis (CE). Two phenotypically characterized isolates (Wien-I, toltrazuril susceptible; Holl 1 toltrazuril resistant) and six field isolates from Europe were compared by conventional PCR followed by agar-gel electrophoresis, Sanger sequencing, and CE (fluorescence labeling and fragment length analysis) to evaluate the applicability of the method. Four primer pairs could be identified that amplified bands of the expected size and were labeled for CE analysis. High resolution CE for size determination of PCR amplicons proved to be a reliable and simple method. It revealed high diversity of the analyzed strains, with marked differences even between two strains from neighboring swine farms. In follow-up studies, adaptation of the PCR assay to multiplexing and amplification of small DNA quantities will provide a cost-effective tool to analyse field strains to reveal geographic diversity that could be mapped to phenotypic traits.

15.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 206, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystoisospora suis causes diarrhoeal disease and reduced weight gain in suckling piglets, and a toltrazuril-based oral suspension is available for treatment. Recently a combinatorial product with toltrazuril plus iron has been developed for parenteral application. In this study we compared the efficacy of the injectable product with the oral suspension against experimentally induced piglet cystoisosporosis. METHODS: In a randomised controlled study, three groups of piglets (n = 10-13) were treated either with a fixed dose of 45 mg toltrazuril + 200 mg gleptoferron i.m. per piglet (Forceris®) on the second day of life (study day 2; SD 2) or with 20 mg toltrazuril/kg body weight as an oral suspension (Baycox® 5%) on SD 4 or left untreated (Control group). The Baycox® and the Control group received 200 mg of iron dextran/piglet on SD 2. All piglets were infected with 1000 sporulated C. suis oocysts on SD 3. Faecal samples were taken daily from SD 7 to SD 20 to determine faecal consistency, oocyst shedding and other diarrhoeal pathogens. Body weight was recorded on SD 1 and then weekly until SD 29. Animals were observed daily for general health and after treatment for possible adverse events. RESULTS: In the Control group all animals shed oocysts for 3.1 days on average and all animals showed diarrhoea for an average of five days. Excretion peaked on SD 9 (max. 48,618 oocysts per gram of faeces). Treatment with Forceris® completely suppressed oocyst excretion. In the Baycox® group, low levels of excretion could be detected. Diarrhoea was reduced to single piglets in the treated groups. Body weight development was reduced in the Control group compared to the treated groups. Enteropathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens) could be detected. All parameters related to oocyst excretion, faecal consistency and weight gain were significantly improved in the treated groups compared to the Control group without significant differences between the treated groups. Both products were safe to use. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with both the injectable (Forceris®) and the oral (Baycox®) formulation of toltrazuril in the prepatent period were safe and highly effective against experimental infection with C. suis in newborn piglets.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/administração & dosagem , Complexo Ferro-Dextran/administração & dosagem , Sarcocystidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/patologia , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/patologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Curr Biol ; 27(13): 2029-2035.e5, 2017 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669755

RESUMO

The Y chromosome directly reflects male genealogies, but the extremely low Y chromosome sequence diversity in horses has prevented the reconstruction of stallion genealogies [1, 2]. Here, we resolve the first Y chromosome genealogy of modern horses by screening 1.46 Mb of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) in 52 horses from 21 breeds. Based on highly accurate pedigree data, we estimated the de novo mutation rate of the horse MSY and showed that various modern horse Y chromosome lineages split much later than the domestication of the species. Apart from few private northern European haplotypes, all modern horse breeds clustered together in a roughly 700-year-old haplogroup that was transmitted to Europe by the import of Oriental stallions. The Oriental horse group consisted of two major subclades: the Original Arabian lineage and the Turkoman horse lineage. We show that the English Thoroughbred MSY was derived from the Turkoman lineage and that English Thoroughbred sires are largely responsible for the predominance of this haplotype in modern horses.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Cavalos/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Haplótipos/genética , Masculino , Linhagem
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 68, 2017 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28173829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genome of the apicomplexan parasite Cystoisospora suis (syn. Isospora suis) has recently been sequenced and annotated, opening the possibility for the identification of novel therapeutic targets against cystoisosporosis. It was previously proposed that a 42 kDa uncharacterized merozoite protein, encoded by gene CSUI_005805, might be a relevant vaccine candidate due to its high immunogenic score, high expression level and species-specificity as determined in silico. METHODS: The 1170 bp coding sequence of the CSUI_005805 gene was PCR amplified and cloned into the bacterial expression vector pQE-31. The specificity of the expressed recombinant protein was evaluated in an immunoblot, and relative levels of expression in different developmental stages and subcellular localization were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay, respectively. RESULTS: The CSUI_005805 gene encoded for a 389 amino acid protein containing a histidine-rich region. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that CSUI_005805 was differentially expressed during the early development of C. suis in vitro, with higher transcript levels in merozoites compared to sporozoites. The recombinant protein was specifically recognized by sera from chicken immunized with recombinant CSUI_005805 protein and sera from piglets experimentally infected with C. suis, all of which suggested that despite prokaryotic expression, the recombinant CSUI_005805 protein maintained antigenic determinants and could elicit an immune response in the host. Immunofluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy revealed localization primarily at the surface of the parasite. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that CSUI_005805 is highly expressed in merozoites and might thus be critical for their survival and establishment inside host cells. Owing to its specificity, localization and expression pattern, CSUI_005805 could be exploited as an attractive candidate for alternative control strategies against C. suis such as vaccines.


Assuntos
Clonagem Molecular , Eimeriidae/genética , Eimeriidae/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Merozoítos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Protozoário/genética , Esporozoítos/metabolismo
18.
Int J Parasitol ; 47(4): 189-202, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28161402

RESUMO

Vaccine development targeting protozoan parasites remains challenging, partly due to the complex interactions between these eukaryotes and the host immune system. Reverse vaccinology is a promising approach for direct screening of genome sequence assemblies for new vaccine candidate proteins. Here, we applied this paradigm to Cystoisospora suis, an apicomplexan parasite that causes enteritis and diarrhea in suckling piglets and economic losses in pig production worldwide. Using Next Generation Sequencing we produced an ∼84Mb sequence assembly for the C. suis genome, making it the first available reference for the genus Cystoisospora. Then, we derived a manually curated annotation of more than 11,000 protein-coding genes and applied the tool Vacceed to identify 1,168 vaccine candidates by screening the predicted C. suis proteome. To refine the set of candidates, we looked at proteins that are highly expressed in merozoites and specific to apicomplexans. The stringent set of candidates included 220 proteins, among which were 152 proteins with unknown function, 17 surface antigens of the SAG and SRS gene families, 12 proteins of the apicomplexan-specific secretory organelles including AMA1, MIC6, MIC13, ROP6, ROP12, ROP27, ROP32 and three proteins related to cell adhesion. Finally, we demonstrated in vitro the immunogenic potential of a C. suis-specific 42kDa transmembrane protein, which might constitute an attractive candidate for further testing.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Sarcocystidae/genética , Sarcocystidae/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Genoma de Protozoário , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Vacinas Protozoárias/genética , Vacinas Protozoárias/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos
19.
Parasitol Res ; 115(11): 4417-4422, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27492199

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal myiases are caused by larvae of bot flies (Diptera: Oestridae), which have evolved a high specificity for their hosts. Bot flies (n = 916) were collected from 137 (57.6 %) out of 238 red deer (Cervus elaphus) hunted in Vorarlberg and Tyrol (Western Austria). After being stored in 75 % ethanol, larvae were identified to species level and developmental stage using morphological and morphometric keys. Larvae were also molecularly characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Morphological and molecular analysis allowed identification of larvae as Cephenemyia auribarbis and Pharyngomyia picta. Genetic variations were also examined within the specimens collected in both geographical locations.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Dípteros , Miíase/veterinária , Doenças Nasofaríngeas/veterinária , Animais , Áustria , Dípteros/classificação , Larva , Tipagem Molecular , Miíase/parasitologia , Doenças Nasofaríngeas/parasitologia , Nasofaringe/parasitologia
20.
J Vasc Access ; 17(5): 417-422, 2016 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27516139

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Catheter-related infections are an important clinical problem in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Catheter-related bloodstream infections have a negative effect on survival, hospitalization and cost of care. Tegaderm™ chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) dressing may be useful to reduce catheter-related infection rates. METHODS: We performed a study to assess the efficacy of Tegaderm™ CHG dressing for reducing catheter-related infections. We designed a prospective randomized cross-over study with a scheme of two treatments, Tegaderm™ CHG dressing versus standard dressing, and two periods of six months. Catheter-related infection rate was the primary outcome. We enrolled 59 prevalent hemodialysis patients. RESULTS: Catheter-related infection rate per 1000 catheter days was reduced from 1.21 in patients using standard dressing to 0.28 in patients with Tegaderm™ CHG dressing (p = 0.02). Catheter-related bloodstream infection rate per 1000 catheter days was equal to 0.09 in patients with Tegaderm™ CHG dressing versus 0.65 in patients with standard dressing (p = 0.05). Annual total healthcare costs for catheter-related bloodstream infections were estimated equal to EUR62,459 versus EUR300,399, respectively, for patients with Tegaderm™ CHG versus standard dressing. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective study to show that Tegaderm™ CHG dressing significantly reduces catheter-related infection rates in hemodialysis patients.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bandagens , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Diálise Renal , Idoso , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/economia , Bandagens/efeitos adversos , Bandagens/economia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/economia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/economia , Cateteres de Demora/economia , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/economia , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/efeitos adversos , Clorexidina/economia , Redução de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Cross-Over , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/economia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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