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1.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-16.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52852

RESUMO

To the Member States: In accordance with the Constitution of the Pan American Health Organization, I have the honor to present the 2020 annual report on the work of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization. This report highlights the technical cooperation undertaken by the Bureau during the period July 2019 through June 2020, within the framework of the 2014–2019 Strategic Plan of the Pan American Health Organization, defined by its Governing Bodies and amended by the Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2017, and the 2020–2025 Strategic Plan of the Pan American Health Organization, defined and approved by the Governing Bodies. This report is complemented by the Financial Report of the Director and the Report of the External Auditor for the year 2019. Carissa F. Etienne - Director, Pan American Health Organization.


Assuntos
Cooperação Técnica , Cooperação Internacional , Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Transmissíveis , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Emergências , Serviços de Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Política Informada por Evidências , Uso da Informação Científica na Tomada de Decisões em Saúde , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Doenças não Transmissíveis , América
2.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-05.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52850

RESUMO

Following an outbreak of a novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China, rapid community, regional and international spread has occurred with exponential growth in cases and deaths. On 30 January 2020, the Director-General (DG) of the WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) under the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The first case in the Americas was confirmed in the USA on 20 January 2020, followed by Brazil on 26 February 2020. Since then, COVID-19 has spread to all 54 countries and territories in the Americas. Situation in Numbers in the Americas as of as of 5 October (15:00): 17,176,705 confirmed cases; 572,374 deaths; 54 countries / areas / territories counted for epidemiological purposes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , América , Controle de Infecções , Análise de Situação , Região do Caribe
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-14. (PAHO/CDE/VT/20-0035).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52839

RESUMO

In 2016, the Pan American Health Organization, in partnership with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, began a collaborative effort with delegates from Brazil, Mexico, and Paraguay aimed at transferring technical capacity for integrated serological surveillance of population immunity and transmission of multiple infectious diseases, using the multiplex bead assay (MBA) platform. MBA makes it possible to analyze the antibodies of up to 96 antigens of various pathogens in a single dried-spot blood sample. Serological surveillance is being increasingly used for its ability to generate information that helps characterize disease transmission and monitor the impact of interventions such as vaccination, and to identify susceptible populations. This initiative has served as a learning process based on interprogrammatic work to develop integrated serological surveillance of various diseases and events that are often addressed separately from a programmatic standpoint, but which in reality overlap in the same population groups and geographical areas. This document presents the results of the third regional meeting, held in the city of Cuernavaca, Mexico, on 4-5 March 2020, and attended by delegates from the participating countries, partners, and stakeholders. This publication highlights the lessons learned during the first stage of capacity transfer, and discusses opportunities and next steps to expand integrated serological surveillance in the Region of the Americas as a tool for strengthening surveillance of communicable diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , América , Testes Sorológicos , Vigilância , Doenças Negligenciadas , Epidemiologia , Serviços de Vigilância Epidemiológica , Betacoronavirus
4.
Official Document;360ODD360.
Monografia em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52810

RESUMO

During 2019, PAHO exercised its leadership and role as a catalyst to improve the health and well‐being of the peoples of the Americas, in collaboration with Member States and partners. The Organization continued to provide direct technical cooperation with an integrated and multisectoral approach, mobilize resources, strengthen partnerships and networks, build capacity, generate and provide evidence, and serve as an advocate for achieving the targets set in the PAHO Strategic Plan 2014‐2019 during its final year of implementation. Important progress was made toward fulfilling the commitments in the Sustainable Health Agenda for the Americas 2018‐2030 and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.


Assuntos
Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Administração em Saúde , Administração Financeira , Capacidade de Liderança e Governança , Planejamento Estratégico , Cooperação Técnica , Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde , Organização e Administração
5.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-05. (PAHO/NMH/MN/20-0019).
| PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52796

RESUMO

This is a revision of an illustrated booklet developed by the Pan American Health Organization and the Caribbean Development Bank. It is meant as a tool to help the general population of the Caribbean care for themselves and their communities during crisis situation. The booklet explains in a simple language, with a simple language with the help of graphics, the main elements of psychological first aid (PFA). The revised edition includes special safety and disease prevention considerations due to the COVID-19 pandemic while providing PFA.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Infecções por Coronavirus , Violência , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Psicologia , Região do Caribe
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-01. (OPS-W/CDE/HT/20-0036).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52783

RESUMO

[Extracto]. La carga de morbilidad y mortalidad asociada con la infección por el VIH ha disminuido a lo largo de los últimos diez años a medida que ha aumentado el acceso al tratamiento antirretroviral. A pesar de este progreso, casi la mitad de las personas con infección por el VIH inician su atención con un cuadro avanzado y muchas siguen muriendo por infecciones oportunistas relacionadas con el VIH. La meningitis criptocócica es una infección oportunista grave que constituye una causa primordial de morbilidad y mortalidad en las personas con infección avanzada por el VIH, y representa cerca del 15% de todas las muertes relacionadas con el sida a nivel mundial. Se estima que, cada año, unos 223.100 casos de meningitis criptocócica causan 181.000 defunciones de personas con infección por el VIH. La criptococosis es poco común en los niños con infección por el VIH, incluso en zonas geográficas con una elevada morbilidad en adultos. [...]


Assuntos
HIV , Tuberculose , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis , Criptococose
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-09-15. (PAHO/NMH/MH/Covid-19/20-0042).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52646

RESUMO

Alcohol is often used for socialization and by some to cope with difficult emotions. As the rates of anxiety, fear, depression, boredom, and uncertainty became more commonly reported during the COVID-19 pandemic, alcohol consumption is reported to have increased as well, despite the closure of licensed premises. However, the impact of the pandemic on alcohol consumption and related harms remains unknown.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus , América Latina , Região do Caribe
8.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-08. (PAHO/IMS/HSS/COVID-19/20-0031).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52640

RESUMO

The list of essential medicines for the management of patients admitted to ICUs with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 is a core guidance document that provides assistance to countries’ health systems in prioritizing those essential medicines that should be widely available and affordable for the management of patients in ICUs during health emergencies––in this case, for patients with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of COVID19. This document is targeted to health officials and health system managers in the countries of the Region of the Americas.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Acesso a Medicamentos Essenciais e Tecnologias em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , América
9.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-08. (PAHO/NMH/MH/COVID-19/20-0032).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52638

RESUMO

The global COVID-19 pandemic has forced very different types of interventions to explore options for providing remote (digital, tele, or online) Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS), mainly due to the public health need to maintain physical distancing. This fact-sheet provides general guidance to implement MHPSS remote interventions, aligned with the PAHO and WHO e-Health considerations. Considering physical distancing as the key public health measure to prevent COVID-19, new remote strategies are needed to ensure the continuity of treatment for mental health interventions. Remote modalities need specific adjustments for MHPSS, this document provides general guidance in this regard, in an easy and quick format to read.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Saúde Mental , Telemedicina , Tele-Emergência , Telemedicina
10.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-03.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52637

RESUMO

Recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for the Caribbean were first published in 1978 and then revised in 1994. Since then, ongoing research relating to the health consequences of nutrient intakes, particularly with regard to diet-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), has provided new evidence on the inter-relationships between diet and health. The initiative to revise the existing RDAs began with a review of the most current available information as well as the recent approaches taken by other countries and agencies in updating RDAs. The review was carried out within the context of changes in the regional food and nutrition situation. These changes included a reassessment of food availability patterns, dietary and other lifestyle practices, a growing awareness of the need for nutrition standards and dietary guidelines, and the inclusion of food and nutrition-related policy actions in regional strategies addressing rising rates of obesity and NCDs and the strengthening of food and nutrition security. A review was done of various terminologies relating to nutrient requirements, including recommended dietary allowance (RDA), recommended nutrient intake (RNI), average reference intake (ARI), estimated average requirement (EAR), and upper tolerable limit, and recommendations were then made for RNIs for the Caribbean. This report takes into account expert feedback and updates on energy and nutrient requirements from the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. A major focus has been placed on global FAO/WHO recommendations, which are based on extensive review of the available evidence. This publication provides current scientific guidance on the intake of a range of nutrients, as well as the nutrient recommendations for the Caribbean. The publication also includes the population nutrient intake goals (PNIGs) meant to promote healthy dietary consumption patterns that satisfy the nutritional needs of the population while helping to reduce the risk of diet-related NCDs. These serve as a useful adjunct to the RNIs in providing food and nutrition guidance at the population level for macronutrients and food groups in healthy, well-nourished populations.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco , Nutrientes , Avaliação Nutricional , Região do Caribe
11.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-28.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52849

RESUMO

Following an outbreak of a novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China, rapid community, regional and international spread has occurred with exponential growth in cases and deaths. On 30 January 2020, the Director-General (DG) of the WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) under the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The first case in the Americas was confirmed in the USA on 20 January 2020, followed by Brazil on 26 February 2020. Since then, COVID-19 has spread to all 54 countries and territories in the Americas. Situation in Numbers in the Americas as of 28 September (15:00): 16,434,186 confirmed cases; 551,313 deaths; 54 countries / areas / territories counted for epidemiological purposes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , América , Emergências , Região do Caribe , Pandemias , Análise de Situação , Controle de Infecções
12.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-29. (PAHO/ECC/COVID-19/20-001).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52774

RESUMO

[Introduction]. On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the COVID-19 outbreak was a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. COVID-19 is an acute respiratory illness (ARI) caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Most people infected with this virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Others, however, may become seriously ill. Older people, and those with underlying medical conditions like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness. COVID-19 spreads primarily through contact and droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is to be well informed about COVID-19, including how it spreads and how to protect yourself and others. While there is still much to learn about the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19, basic protective measures focus on washing your hands or using an alcohol-based rub frequently, keeping at least a 1 meter (3 feet) distance from others, avoiding to touch your face, practicing respiratory etiquette (e.g., by coughing into a flexed elbow), and seeking medical care early in case of symptoms (e.g., fever, cough and difficulty breathing). Additional infection prevention and control (IPC) measures that are needed will depend on the local COVID-19 transmission dynamics and the type of contact required by the shelter activity, including any care activity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Violência Doméstica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções , Mulheres , Violência contra a Mulher , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criança , Região do Caribe
13.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-21.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52770

RESUMO

Following an outbreak of a novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China, rapid community, regional and international spread has occurred with exponential growth in cases and deaths. On 30 January 2020, the Director-General (DG) of the WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) under the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The first case in the Americas was confirmed in the USA on 20 January 2020, followed by Brazil on 26 February 2020. Since then, COVID-19 has spread to all 54 countries and territories in the Americas. Situation in Numbers in the Americas as of 21 September (15:00): 15,665,730 confirmed cases; 531,687 deaths; 54 countries / areas / territories counted for epidemiological purposes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , América , Emergências , Região do Caribe , Pandemias , Análise de Situação , Controle de Infecções
14.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-29. (PAHO/FPL/IM/COVID-19/20-0020).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52769

RESUMO

[Extract]. Immunization Programs in the Region of the Americas in the Context of COVID-19. COVID-19 is a communicable disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The COVID-19 pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 12 March 2020, and to date more than 31 million cases and 967,000 deaths have been reported worldwide1. Approximately, more than half of these cases (N~15,800,000) and deaths (N~534,000) have been reported in the Region of the Americas. [...]


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Programas de Imunização , América
15.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-29. (PAHO/HSS/BIO/COVID-19/20-0034).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52768

RESUMO

Transparency is a central component of the ethical governance of research. In the context of COVID-19, transparency is key to promote public trust in research and in the response to the pandemic. If society and all stakeholders know which research studies are taking place, and the existing mechanisms to ensure studies are conducted ethically, they will be more willing to contribute to research efforts and to trust in the results of research. Therefore, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recommends relevant national health authorities take action to strengthen the transparency of research during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias
16.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-25. (PHE/IHM/2020).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52741

RESUMO

This third edition of the landscape analysis of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses: Surveillance in the Americas provides regional and country-specific data that is used and valued by forums in the Region and beyond.Data of regional trends include surveillance of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), influenza-like illness (ILI), influenza vaccine, FluNet/FluID reporting, and participation in WHO’s External Quality Assessment Project (EQAP). The second half of the report presents country-specific data on sociodemographic indicators, surveillance systems, virologic analysis, laboratory capacity, and trends in human-animal interface (HAI). To strengthen the Region’s surveillance abilities, it is important to understand the current capacity of each country and the issues in that country that need attention. Similarly, to assess progress over time, it is necessary to document regional trends. Because several indicators had changed since the last analysis was published, PAHO conducted an extensive survey to collect and compile additional, varied, and detailed data. This report illustrates the complexities in surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses and highlights differences in the countries’ preparedness capacities through charts, infographics, tables, and brief narratives.


Assuntos
Doenças Respiratórias , Influenza Humana , Controle de Infecções , Vacinas contra Influenza , América
17.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-25. (PAHO/NMH/RF/20-0033).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52740

RESUMO

High blood pressure, high fasting blood sugar levels (measured as fasting plasma glucose), and overweight/obesity are the top three risk factors for mortality in the Americas. Unhealthy eating is closely linked to these top three risk factors in the Americas, driven largely by excess intake of sugars, total fats, saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium. The excess intake of these nutrients has been driven largely by the widespread availability, affordability, and promotion of processed and ultra-processed food products that are excessive in sugars, fats, and sodium. As such, an essential part of the solution requires the use of laws and regulations to reduce the demand for and offer of products that contain excessive amounts of critical nutrients. One of the key policy tools to regulate such products to prevent them from unbalancing diets is the use of front-of-package labeling (FOPL) to indicate to consumers which products contain excessive amounts of sugars, total fats, saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium. To support populations in the Americas in their efforts to meet the World Health Organization recommendations and protect them from the top risk factors harming their health and development, the regulatory objective of a FOPL system should aim at allowing consumers to correctly, quickly, and easily identify products that contain excessive amount of sugars, total fats, saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium. This technical brief summarizes the evidence on the performance of FOPL systems in meeting this purpose and provides a list of frequently asked questions about the nutrition warning system.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco , Açúcares da Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Doença Crônica , Doenças não Transmissíveis , América
18.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-23. (PAHO/IMS/HSS/COVID-19/20-0033).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52727

RESUMO

In order to address the COVID-19 pandemic, countries and health institutions must have the capacity to respond with human resources that are sufficient in quantity and who possess the skills and capacities necessary to meet the needs of the population in a timely, relevant, efficient, and effective manner. Effective management of human resources will allow health systems to respond in a timely manner, improve health care outcomes, rationalize the use of resources, and reduce the stress on staff.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Mão de Obra em Saúde
19.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-22. (PAHO/IMS/EIH/COVID-19/20-0019).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52719

RESUMO

As of 13 October 2020 This is the ninth edition of this summary of rapid systematic reviews, which includes the results of a rapid systematic review of currently available literature. More than 200 therapeutic options or their combinations are being investigated in more than 1,700 clinical trials. In this review, 46 therapeutic options are examined. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is continually monitoring ongoing research on any possible therapeutic options. As evidence emerges, then PAHO will immediately assess and update its position, and particularly as it applies to any special sub-group populations such as children, expectant mothers, those with immune conditions, etc.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Pandemias , Medicina de Emergência Baseada em Evidências
20.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-09-21. (OPS/NMH/MH/COVID-19/20-0032).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52713

RESUMO

La pandemia mundial de COVID-19 ha obligado a explorar opciones para proporcionar intervenciones remotas de salud mental y apoyo psicosocial (SMAPS) (a distancia, digitales o en línea), debido a la necesidad de la salud pública de mantener el distanciamiento físico. Si bien los servicios de salud mental requieren profesionales especializados u otros proveedores de atención médica capacitados en salud mental, los actores comunitarios pueden proveer intervenciones psicosociales como la primera ayuda psicológica (PAP) y el apoyo mutuo.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções , Telemedicina , Telemedicina , Telemedicina para as Zonas Rurais e Remotas , Saúde Mental
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