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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 663536, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489988

RESUMO

The plant mediator is a highly conserved protein complex that interacts with transcription factors (TFs) and RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) to relay regulatory information during transcription. Plant immune response is one of the biological processes that is orchestrated by this regulatory mechanism. Brassica napus, an important oil crop, is severely attacked by a devastating disease Sclerotinia stem rot. Here, we explored broad-spectrum disease resistant roles of B. napus mediator subunit 16 (BnMED16) and its host defense mechanism against fugal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We found that BnMED16 expression was significantly increased by S. sclerotiorum infection, and its homologous overexpression resulted in rapid and comprehensive defense responses from the beginning to the end. This affected signal transduction with multiple channels including pathogen recognition, intracellular Ca2+ concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and clearance, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades initially. Subsequently, pathogen-/defense-related genes and hormone-responsive pathways were highly activated, which resulted in enhanced cell wall and secretion of defense proteases. Furthermore, the biochemical analysis showed that BnMED16 interacts with BnMED25 and BnWRKY33. Additionally, BnMED25 also interacts with TFs BnMYC2, BnCOI1, and BnEIN3 of the JA/ET signal transduction pathway. Taken together, we proposed a hypothetical model that BnMED16 confers S. sclerotiorum resistance by enhancing BnMED25-mediated JA/ET defense pathways and BnWRKY33-activated defense signaling in B. napus. The BnMED16 overexpressing lines with enhanced broad-spectrum disease resistance could be useful for breeding Sclerotinia-resistant oilseed rape varieties, as well as serving as basis for further strategy development in resistance breeding.

2.
Biomed Opt Express ; 10(8): 4290-4304, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453011

RESUMO

Co-amorphous drugs have shown significant potential in improving the stability and bioavailability compared with single neat amorphous drugs. Here, we explored the molecular interactions of cimetidine, naproxen, indomethacin and their binary co-amorphous mixtures via Raman and terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. We used quench-cooled method to prepare the neat amorphous drugs and their binary co-amorphous mixtures and tested their thermodynamic properties through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Then, we found that the stability of co-amorphous drugs was stronger than their neat amorphous components. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the vibrational modes between different co-amorphous drugs. Generally, we found that the stability of co-amorphous drugs was better than their neat amorphous components for these samples we tested. Meanwhile, we complemented the detection of THz spectroscopy and found that crystalline and amorphous drugs could be better distinguished.

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