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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3823, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360784

RESUMO

Zebrafish have been utilized for many years as a model animal for pharmacological studies on diabetes and obesity. High-fat diet (HFD), streptozotocin and alloxan injection, and glucose immersion have all been used to induce diabetes and obesity in zebrafish. Currently, studies commonly used both male and female zebrafish, which may influence the outcomes since male and female zebrafish are biologically different. This study was designed to investigate the difference between the metabolites of male and female diabetic zebrafish, using limonene - a natural product which has shown several promising results in vitro and in vivo in treating diabetes and obesity-and provide new insights into how endogenous metabolites change following limonene treatment. Using HFD-fed male and female zebrafish, we were able to develop an animal model of T2D and identify several endogenous metabolites that might be used as diagnostic biomarkers for diabetes. The endogenous metabolites in males and females were different, even though both genders had high blood glucose levels and a high BMI. Treatment with limonene prevented high blood glucose levels and improved in diabesity zebrafish by limonene, through reversal of the metabolic changes caused by HFD in both genders. In addition, limonene was able to reverse the elevated expression of AKT during HFD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperglicemia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Limoneno , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hiperglicemia/complicações
2.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 17(1)2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38256941

RESUMO

Tumour-associated angiogenesis play key roles in tumour growth and cancer metastasis. Consequently, several anti-angiogenic drugs such as sunitinib and axitinib have been approved for use as anti-cancer therapies. However, the majority of these drugs target the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) pathway and have shown mixed outcome, largely due to development of resistances and increased tumour aggressiveness. In this study, we used the zebrafish model to screen for novel anti-angiogenic molecules from a library of compounds derived from natural products. From this, we identified canthin-6-one, an indole alkaloid, which inhibited zebrafish intersegmental vessel (ISV) and sub-intestinal vessel development. Further characterisation revealed that treatment of canthin-6-one reduced ISV endothelial cell number and inhibited proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), suggesting that canthin-6-one inhibits endothelial cell proliferation. Of note, canthin-6-one did not inhibit VEGFA-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 in HUVECs and downstream phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) in leading ISV endothelial cells in zebrafish, suggesting that canthin-6-one inhibits angiogenesis independent of the VEGFA/VEGFR2 pathway. Importantly, we found that canthin-6-one impairs tumour-associated angiogenesis in a zebrafish B16F10 melanoma cell xenograft model and synergises with VEGFR inhibitor sunitinib malate to inhibit developmental angiogenesis. In summary, we showed that canthin-6-one exhibits anti-angiogenic properties in both developmental and pathological contexts in zebrafish, independent of the VEGFA/VEGFR2 pathway and demonstrate that canthin-6-one may hold value for further development as a novel anti-angiogenic drug.

4.
Cell Tissue Res ; 393(2): 377-391, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37278825

RESUMO

Neurokinin B (NKB), a recently discovered neuropeptide, plays a crucial role in regulating the kiss-GnRH neurons in vertebrate's brain. NKB is also characterized in gonadal tissues; however, its role in gonads is poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of NKB on gonadal steroidogenesis and gametogenesis through in vivo and in vitro approaches using NKB antagonist MRK-08 were evaluated. The results suggest that the NKB antagonist decreases the development of advanced ovarian follicles and germ cells in the testis. In addition, MRK-08 further reduces the production of 17ß-estradiol in the ovary and testosterone in the testis under both in vivo and in vitro conditions in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the in vitro MRK-08 treatment of gonadal explants attenuated the expression of steroidogenic marker proteins, i.e., StAR, 3ß-HSD, and 17ß-HSD dose-dependently. Moreover, the MAP kinase proteins, pERK1/2 & ERK1/2 and pAkt & Akt were also downregulated by MRK-08. Thus, the study suggests that NKB downregulates steroidogenesis by modulating the expressions of steroidogenic marker proteins involving ERK1/2 & pERK1/2 and Akt/pAkt signalling pathways. NKB also appears to regulate gametogenesis by regulating gonadal steroidogenesis in the catfish.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Neurocinina B , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Neurocinina B/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Gametogênese
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36835497

RESUMO

Several theories have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of substance use in schizophrenia. Brain neurons pose a potential to provide novel insights into the association between opioid addiction, withdrawal, and schizophrenia. Thus, we exposed zebrafish larvae at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) to domperidone (DPM) and morphine, followed by morphine withdrawal. Drug-induced locomotion and social preference were assessed, while the level of dopamine and the number of dopaminergic neurons were quantified. In the brain tissue, the expression levels of genes associated with schizophrenia were measured. The effects of DMP and morphine were compared to vehicle control and MK-801, a positive control to mimic schizophrenia. Gene expression analysis revealed that α1C, α1Sa, α1Aa, drd2a, and th1 were up-regulated after 10 days of exposure to DMP and morphine, while th2 was down-regulated. These two drugs also increased the number of positive dopaminergic neurons and the total dopamine level but reduced the locomotion and social preference. The termination of morphine exposure led to the up-regulation of th2, drd2a, and c-fos during the withdrawal phase. Our integrated data implicate that the dopamine system plays a key role in the deficits in social behavior and locomotion that are common in the schizophrenia-like symptoms and opioid dependence.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio , Domperidona , Antagonistas de Dopamina , Dopamina , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Morfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Esquizofrenia , Animais , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/farmacologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra , Domperidona/administração & dosagem , Domperidona/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2117547120, 2023 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623187

RESUMO

Social disturbance in interpersonal relationships is the primary source of stress in humans. Spexin (SPX, SPX1a in cichlid), an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with diverse physiological functions, is up-regulated in the brain during chronic social defeat stress in teleost. On the other hand, repeated exposure to social stress can lead to dysregulation of the monoaminergic system and increase the vulnerability of developing depression. Since dysfunction of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system is associated with social stress and the pathophysiology of depression, the present study investigated the regulatory relationship between the central 5-HT system and SPX1a in the male teleost, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). To identify stress factors that regulate SPX1a gene expression, cortisol, dexamethasone (DEX), and 5-HT were used to treat tilapia brain primary cultures. Our study shows cortisol and DEX treatment had no effect on SPX1a gene expression, but SPX1a gene expression was down-regulated following 5-HT treatment. Anatomical localization showed a close association between 5-HT immunoreactive projections and SPX1a neurons in the semicircular torus. In addition, 5-HT receptors (5-HT2B) were expressed in SPX1a neurons. SPX1a immunoreactive neurons and SPX1a gene expression were significantly increased in socially defeated tilapia. On the other hand, citalopram (antidepressant, 5-HT antagonist) treatment to socially defeated tilapia normalized SPX1a gene expression to control levels. Taken together, the present study shows that 5-HT is an upstream regulator of SPX1a and that the inhibited 5-HT activates SPX1a during social defeat.


Assuntos
Hormônios Peptídicos , Serotonina , Derrota Social , Tilápia , Animais , Masculino , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Tilápia/genética , Hormônios Peptídicos/metabolismo
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 882772, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692389

RESUMO

Spexin (SPX) and galanin (GAL) are two neuropeptides that are phylogenetically related and have descended from a common ancestral gene. Considerable attention has been given to these two multifunctional neuropeptides because they share GAL receptors 1,2, and 3. Since GAL and SPX-synthesizing neurons have been detected in several brain areas, therefore, it can be speculated that SPX and GAL are involved in various neurophysiological functions. Several studies have shown the functions of these two neuropeptides in energy regulation, reproduction, and response to stress. SPX acts as a satiety factor to suppress food intake, while GAL has the opposite effect as an orexigenic factor. There is evidence that SPX acts as an inhibitor of reproductive functions by suppressing gonadotropin release, while GAL modulates the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the brain and gonadotropic cells in the pituitary. SPX and GAL are responsive to stress. Furthermore, SPX can act as an anxiolytic factor, while GAL exerts anti-depressant and pro-depressive effects depending on the receptor it binds. This review describes evidence supporting the central roles of SPX and GAL neuropeptides in energy balance, reproduction, stress, and social behaviors, with a particular focus on non-mammalian vertebrate systems.


Assuntos
Neuropeptídeos , Hormônios Peptídicos , Animais , Galanina/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Hormônios Peptídicos/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Vertebrados/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563106

RESUMO

The link between substance abuse and the development of schizophrenia remains elusive. In this study, we assessed the molecular and behavioural alterations associated with schizophrenia, opioid addiction, and opioid withdrawal using zebrafish as a biological model. Larvae of 2 days post fertilization (dpf) were exposed to domperidone (DMP), a dopamine-D2 dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, and morphine for 3 days and 10 days, respectively. MK801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, served as a positive control to mimic schizophrenia-like behaviour. The withdrawal syndrome was assessed 5 days after the termination of morphine treatment. The expressions of schizophrenia susceptibility genes, i.e., pi3k, akt1, slc6a4, creb1 and adamts2, in brains were quantified, and the levels of whole-body cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), serotonin and cortisol were measured. The aggressiveness of larvae was observed using the mirror biting test. After the short-term treatment with DMP and morphine, all studied genes were not differentially expressed. As for the long-term exposure, akt1 was downregulated by DMP and morphine. Downregulation of pi3k and slc6a4 was observed in the morphine-treated larvae, whereas creb1 and adamts2 were upregulated by DMP. The levels of cAMP and cortisol were elevated after 3 days, whereas significant increases were observed in all of the biochemical tests after 10 days. Compared to controls, increased aggression was observed in the DMP-, but not morphine-, treated group. These two groups showed reduction in aggressiveness when drug exposure was prolonged. Both the short- and long-term morphine withdrawal groups showed downregulation in all genes examined except creb1, suggesting dysregulated reward circuitry function. These results suggest that biochemical and behavioural alterations in schizophrenia-like symptoms and opioid dependence could be controlled by common mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Esquizofrenia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Animais , Hidrocortisona , Larva/metabolismo , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Esquizofrenia/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
10.
Metabolomics ; 18(2): 12, 2022 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35092490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Today, obesity affects over one-third of the global population and is hugely considered the Industrial Revolution's side effect. This multi-factorial disease is continuously spreading across developing countries, including the Middle East and Southeast Asia region, where Malaysia and Darussalam Brunei are the most affected. The sedentary lifestyle and availability of surplus foods have dramatically increased the number of individuals with type 2 diabetes in these countries. Thus, an adequate medical strategy must be developed urgently to address and remedy these diseases. Natural sources have been attracting attention, especially in Malaysia, where most land areas are under plant cover. Metabolomics, as a prophylactic technique, has been used extensively in Malaysia to investigate the potential use and benefits of herbs to combat obesity and diabetes. AIM OF REVIEW: This review aims to explain the application of the metabolomics approach in the study of anti-diabetes and anti-obesity activity of Malaysian herbs to identify the stand-up point for future advancement in using these herbs as a primary source for drug exploration. KEY SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS OF REVIEW: This review provides an overview of using metabolomics technique in studying the anti-diabetes and anti-obesity activity of Malaysian herbs. Specific emphasis is given to the changed metabolites in both in vivo and in vitro treatment of Malaysia herbs that might be future drugs for treating diabetes and obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Biomarcadores , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malásia , Metabolômica , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico
11.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 34(5): e13068, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931380

RESUMO

Three paralogous genes for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3) and GnRH receptors exist in non-mammalian vertebrates. However, there are some vertebrate species in which one or two of these paralogous genes have become non-functional during evolution. The developmental migration of GnRH neurons in the brain is evolutionarily conserved in mammals, reptiles, birds, amphibians, and jawed teleost fish. The three GnRH paralogs have specific expression patterns in the brain and originate from multiple sites. In acanthopterygian teleosts (medaka, cichlid, etc.), the preoptic area (POA)-GnRH1 and terminal nerve (TN)-GnRH3 neuronal types originate from the olfactory regions. In other fish species (zebrafish, goldfish and salmon) with only two GnRH paralogs (GnRH2 and GnRH3), the TN- and POA-GnRH3 neuronal types share the same olfactory origin. However, the developmental origin of midbrain (MB)-GnRH2 neurons is debatable between mesencephalic or neural crest site. Each GnRH system has distinctive anatomical and physiological characteristics, and functions differently. The POA-GnRH1 neurons are hypophysiotropic in nature and function in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. The non-hypophysiotropic GnRH2/GnRH3 neurons probably play neuromodulatory roles in metabolism (MB-GnRH2) and the control of motivational state for sexual behavior (TN-GnRH3).


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Mamíferos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptores LHRH/metabolismo
12.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 317: 113973, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971635

RESUMO

Hypothalamic kisspeptin encoded by KISS1/Kiss1 gene emerged as a regulator of the reproductive axis in mammals following the discovery of the kisspeptin receptor (Kissr) and its role in reproduction. Kisspeptin-Kissr systems have been investigated in various vertebrates, and a conserved sequence of kisspeptin-Kissr has been identified in most vertebrate species except in the avian linage. In addition, multiple paralogs of kisspeptin sequences have been identified in the non-mammalian vertebrates. The allegedly conserved role of kisspeptin-Kissr in reproduction became debatable when kiss/kissr genes-deficient zebrafish and medaka showed no apparent effect on the onset of puberty, sexual development, maturation and reproductive capacity. Therefore, it is questionable whether the role of kisspeptin in reproduction is conserved among vertebrate species. Here we discuss from a comparative and evolutional aspect the diverse functions of kisspeptin and its receptor in vertebrates. Primarily this review focuses on the role of hypothalamic kisspeptin in reproductive and non-reproductive functions that are conserved in vertebrate species.


Assuntos
Kisspeptinas , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Kisspeptinas/genética , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Reprodução/genética , Maturidade Sexual , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
13.
Front Neuroendocrinol ; 64: 100951, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757093

RESUMO

Kisspeptin, encoded by the KISS1 gene, was first discovered as a potential metastasis suppressor gene. The prepro-kisspeptin precursor is cleaved into shorter mature bioactive peptides of varying sizes that bind to the G protein-coupled receptor GPR54 (=KISS1R). Over the last two decades, multiple types of Kiss and KissR genes have been discovered in mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrate species, but they are remarkably absent in birds. Kiss neuronal populations are distributed mainly in the hypothalamus. The KissRs are widely distributed in the brain, including the hypothalamic and non-hypothalamic regions, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, and habenula. The role of KISS1-KISS1R in humans and Kiss1-Kiss1R in rodents is associated with puberty, gonadal maturation, and the reproductive axis. However, recent gene deletion studies in zebrafish and medaka have provided controversial results, suggesting that the reproductive role of kiss is dispensable. This review highlights the evolutionary history, localisation, and significance of Kiss-KissR in reproduction and reproductive behaviours in mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates.


Assuntos
Kisspeptinas , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Kisspeptinas/genética , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Receptores de Kisspeptina-1/genética , Receptores de Kisspeptina-1/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
14.
Front Neuroendocrinol ; 64: 100964, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793817

RESUMO

Habenula is an evolutionarily conserved structure in the brain of vertebrates. Recent reports have drawn attention to the habenula as a processing centre for emotional decision-making and its role in psychiatric disorders. Emotional decision-making process is also known to be closely associated with reproductive conditions. The habenula receives innervations from reproductive centres within the brain and signals from key reproductive neuroendocrine regulators such as gonadal sex steroids, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and kisspeptin. In this review, based on morphological, biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological evidence we discuss an emerging role of the habenula in reproduction. Further, we discuss the modulatory role of reproductive endocrine factors in the habenula and their association with socio-reproductive behaviours such as mating, anxiety and aggression.


Assuntos
Habenula , Animais , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Habenula/metabolismo , Humanos , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Sistemas Neurossecretores/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia
15.
Front Neuroendocrinol ; 64: 100963, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798082

RESUMO

Vertebrate reproduction is essentially controlled by the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is a central dogma of reproductive biology. Two major hypothalamic neuroendocrine cell groups containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin are crucial for control of the HPG axis in vertebrates. GnRH and kisspeptin neurons exhibit high levels of heterogeneity including their cellular morphology, biochemistry, neurophysiology and functions. However, the molecular foundation underlying heterogeneities in GnRH and kisspeptin neurons remains unknown. More importantly, the biological and physiological significance of their heterogeneity in reproductive biology is poorly understood. In this review, we first describe the recent advances in the neuroendocrine functions of kisspeptin-GnRH pathways. We then view the recent emerging progress in the heterogeneity of GnRH and kisspeptin neurons using morphological and single-cell transcriptomic analyses. Finally, we discuss our views on the significance of functional heterogeneity of reproductive endocrine cells and their potential relevance to reproductive health.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Kisspeptinas , Animais , Biologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Vertebrados/metabolismo
16.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681072

RESUMO

The fish reproductive system is a complex biological system. Nonetheless, reproductive organ development is conserved, which starts with sex determination and then sex differentiation. The sex of a teleost is determined and differentiated from bipotential primordium by genetics, environmental factors, or both. These two processes are species-specific. There are several prominent genes and environmental factors involved during sex determination and differentiation. At the cellular level, most of the sex-determining genes suppress the female pathway. For environmental factors, there are temperature, density, hypoxia, pH, and social interaction. Once the sexual fate is determined, sex differentiation takes over the gonadal developmental process. Environmental factors involve activation and suppression of various male and female pathways depending on the sexual fate. Alongside these factors, the role of the brain during sex determination and differentiation remains elusive. Nonetheless, GnRH III knockout has promoted a male sex-biased population, which shows brain involvement during sex determination. During sex differentiation, LH and FSH might not affect the gonadal differentiation, but are required for regulating sex differentiation. This review discusses the role of prominent genes, environmental factors, and the brain in sex determination and differentiation across a few teleost species.

17.
Acta Histochem ; 123(6): 151766, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384940

RESUMO

The central role of kisspeptin (kiss) in mammalian reproduction is well established; however, its intra-gonadal role is poorly addressed. Moreover, studies investigating intra-gonadal role of kiss in fish reproduction are scanty, contradictory and inconclusive. The expression of kiss1 mRNA has been detected in the fish brain, and functionally attributed to the regulation of reproduction, feeding and behavior. The kiss1 mRNA has also been demonstrated in tissues other than the brain in some studies, but its cellular distribution and role at the tissue level have not been adequately addressed in fish. Therefore, an attempt was made in the present study to localize kiss1 in gonadal cells of the freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. This study reports the presence of kiss1 in the theca cells and granulosa cells of the ovarian oocytes and interstitial cells in the testis of the catfish. The role of kiss1 in the ovary and testis of the catfish was also investigated using kiss1 receptor (kiss1r) antagonist (p234). The p234 treatment decreased the production of 17ß-estradiol in ovary and testosterone in the testis by lowering the activities of 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase under both, in vivo as well as in vitro conditions. The p234 treatment also arrested the progression of oogenesis, as evident from the low number of advancing/advanced oocytes in the treated ovary in comparison to the control ovary. It also reduced the area and perimeter of the seminiferous tubules in the treated catfish testis. Thus, our findings suggest that kiss is involved in the regulation of gonadal steroidogenesis, independent of known endocrine/ autocrine/ paracine regulators, and thereby it accelerates gametogenic processes in the freshwater catfish.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Kisspeptinas/biossíntese , Ovário/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Peixes-Gato/genética , Feminino , Kisspeptinas/genética , Masculino
18.
Pharmacol Res ; 172: 105855, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461221

RESUMO

Obesity is an indication of an imbalance between energy expenditure and food intake. It is a complicated disease of epidemic proportions as it involves many factors and organs. Sedentary lifestyles and overeating have caused a substantial rise in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Thus, the discovery of successful and sustainable therapies for these chronic illnesses is critical. However, the mechanisms of obesity and diabetes and the crosstalk between these diseases are still ambiguous. Numerous studies are being done to study these mechanisms, with updates made frequently. VGF peptide and its derivatives are anticipated to have a role in the development of obesity and diabetes. However, contradictory studies have produced conflicting findings on the function of VGF. Therefore, in this review, we attempt to clarify and explain the role of VGF peptides in the brain, pancreas, and adipose tissue in the development of obesity.


Assuntos
Apetite , Insulina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Pâncreas/metabolismo
19.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915909

RESUMO

The king of rivers or mahseer comprises three genera: Tor, Neolissochilus, and Naziritor, under the Cyprinidae family. The Tor genus has been classified as the true mahseer due to the presence of a median lobe among the three genera. The Tor species are widely distributed across Southeast (SE) Asia, and 13 Tor species have been reported previously: Tor ater, Tor dongnaiensis, Tor douronensis, Tor laterivittatus, Tor mosal, Tor mekongensis, Tor putitora, Tor sinensis, Tor soro, Tor tambra, Tor tambroides, Tor tor and Tor yingjiangensis. However, the exact number of valid Tor species remains debatable. Different and unstandardized approaches of applying genetic markers in taxonomic identification and morphology variation within the same species have further widened the gap and ameliorated the instability of Tor species taxonomy. Therefore, synchronized and strategized research among Tor species researchers is urgently required to improve and fill the knowledge gap. This review is a current update of SE Asia's Tor species, outlining their distribution, morphology, and genetic identification. In addition, the present review proposes that there are ten valid Tor species in the SE Asian region. This list will serve as a template and standard to improve the taxonomy of the SE Asian Tor species, which could serve as a basis to open new directions in Tor research.

20.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 188: 114531, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773975

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder diagnosed by elevated blood glucose levels and a defect in insulin production. Blood glucose, an energy source in the body, is regenerated by two fundamental processes: glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These two processes are the main mechanisms used by humans and many other animals to maintain blood glucose levels, thereby avoiding hypoglycaemia. The released insulin from pancreatic ß-cells activates glycolysis. However, the glucagon released from the pancreatic α-cells activates gluconeogenesis in the liver, leading to pyruvate conversion to glucose-6-phosphate by different enzymes such as fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase. These enzymes' expression is controlled by the glucagon/ cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)/ proteinkinase A (PKA) pathway. This pathway phosphorylates cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus to bind it to these enzyme promoters and activate their expression. During fasting, this process is activated to supply the body with glucose; however, it is overactivated in diabetes. Thus, the inhibition of this process by blocking the expression of the enzymes via CREB is an alternative strategy for the treatment of diabetes. This review was designed to investigate the association between CREB activity and the treatment of diabetes and diabetes complications. The phosphorylation of CREB is a crucial step in regulating the gene expression of the enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Many studies have proven that CREB is over-activated by glucagon and many other factors contributing to the elevation of fasting glucose levels in people with diabetes. The physiological function of CREB should be regarded in developing a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications. However, the accessible laboratory findings for CREB activity of the previous research still not strong enough for continuing to the clinical trial yet.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Animais , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Glucagon/metabolismo , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
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