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2.
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 14, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While most countries that allow abortion on women's request also grant physicians a right to conscientious objection (CO), this has proven to constitute a potential barrier to abortion access. Conscientious objection is regarded as an understudied phenomenon the effects of which have not yet been examined in Germany. Based on expert interviews, this study aims to exemplarily reconstruct the processes of abortion in a mid-sized city in Germany, and to identify potential effects of conscientious objection. METHODS: Five semi-structured interviews with experts from all instances involved have been conducted in April 2020. The experts gave an insight into the medical care structures with regard to abortion procedures, the application and manifestations of conscientious objection in medical practice, and its impact on the care of pregnant women. A content analysis of the transcribed interviews was performed. RESULTS: Both the procedural processes and the effects of conscientious objection are reported to differ significantly between early abortions performed before the 12th week of pregnancy and late abortions performed at the second and third trimester. Conscientious objection shows structural consequences as it is experienced to further reduce the number of possible providers, especially for early abortions. On the individual level of the doctor-patient relationship, the experts confirmed the neutrality and patient-orientation of the vast majority of doctors. Still, it is especially late abortions that seem to be vulnerable to barriers imposed by conscientious objection in individual medical encounters. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that conscientious objection possibly imposes barriers to both early and late abortion provision and especially in the last procedural steps, which from an ethical point of view is especially problematic. To oblige hospitals to partake in abortion provision in Germany has the potential to prevent negative impacts of conscientious objection on women's rights on an individual as well as on a structural level.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Recusa do Médico a Tratar , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Direitos da Mulher , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Consciência
3.
J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother ; 37(4): 324-335, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37773586

RESUMO

The increasing incidence of oncological diseases creates a corresponding need for effective cancer pain management (CPM). The lack of access to and availability of opioid analgesics in most countries leads to avoidable suffering. This systematic review aims to identify barriers to accessing opioids, as described in literature that reflects the perspective of health-care workers. A systematic literature search was performed in May 2018 and updated in December 2022, using search terms related to "cancer pain," "opioid analgesics," "access," and "health-care personnel." Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo were searched. Forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Principal barriers that have hindered licit access to medical opioids include regulatory, systemic, educational, patient-related, and societal. These barriers are rooted in a lack of adequate education about the importance and significance of appropriate CPM. Barriers were often mutually reinforcing. A interdisciplinary approach is required to overcome them. This research contributes to the important global health issue of unduly limited access to opioid analgesics. It provides interdisciplinary solutions in terms of guidelines to ensure that governments respect, protect, and fulfill the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the relief of severe pain.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer , Neoplasias , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/complicações
4.
Pain Manag ; 13(4): 219-232, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37218413

RESUMO

Background: Ecuador is facing increasing health-related suffering due to cancer; however, the distributed opioid analgesic in the country is below the global average. Aim: This study explores the access to cancer pain management (CPM) from the healthcare professionals' perspective in a middle-income country. Methods: Thirty problem-centered interviews with healthcare providers were conducted in six cancer facilities and were analyzed thematically. Results: Limited and unequal access to opioid analgesics was reported. Structural weaknesses of the healthcare system restrain access for the poorest, at the primary care level, and for people living in remote areas. The lack of education among the healthcare personnel, patients, and society was identified as the main barrier. Conclusion: Access barriers were interrelated; therefore multisectoral strategies must be considered to improve access to CPM.


The number of patients with cancer in Ecuador is growing. It is known that people with a cancer diagnosis often experience severe pain, which requires opioid analgesics. In this study, we explore the opinion of healthcare providers regarding access to opioid analgesics to alleviate cancer pain in Ecuador. We interviewed 30 healthcare professionals working at six cancer centers in different cities, who deal daily with patients with a cancer diagnosis. We found that it is difficult for cancer patients in the country to access adequate pain therapy and this generates avoidable severe health-related suffering. The structure of the healthcare system makes it difficult to be supplied with the medication they need. That is worst for the country's poor and people in rural areas. The main problem is the lack of knowledge on the subject among health workers, patients and society. We conclude that the obstacles in providing patients access to cancer pain relief lie in different areas, including the healthcare system, the healthcare professionals and the patients and society, all of which are interrelated. All areas must work together to improve the situation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Manejo da Dor , Humanos , Equador , Pessoal de Saúde , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações
5.
J Palliat Med ; 26(2): 199-209, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040320

RESUMO

Background: Different sets of barriers have been identified to explain the difficulties in the access and availability of opioid analgesics in palliative care, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, including Latin America. Objective: To validate a structured questionnaire for the access to opioid medicines and to investigate the perception of health professionals regarding access barriers to opioid analgesics in 17 countries of the Latin American Region. Design: Survey to identify the domains and barriers of access to opioid medicines according to health professionals, including physicians, nurses, and pharmacists affiliated to institutions that provide palliative care in Latin America between August 2019 and October 2020. Results: We analyzed responses from 426 health professionals. The median age was 44 years old (ranging from 23 to 73 years) with an average experience in palliative care of 10 years (range: 1-35), 71.8% were women, and 49.8% were affiliated to specialized health care facilities of urban areas (94.6%). The main barriers perceived to be extremely relevant by the respondents were "belief that patients can develop addiction" and "financial limitations of patients" for the patient's domain and the "appropriate education, instruction, and training of professionals" for health professional's domain. Conclusions: It is necessary to develop strategies to strengthen less-developed health systems of the region to review legal frameworks, ensure integrated palliative care systems, and deploy multidisciplinary strategies for sensitizing, training, and raising the awareness of patients, caregivers and, particularly, health professionals regarding appropriate prescription and rational use of opioid analgesics.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Cuidados Paliativos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , América Latina , Percepção , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
6.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 65(3): 193-202, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36455800

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Progress in palliative care (PC) necessarily involves scientific development. However, research conducted in South America (SA) needs to be improved. OBJECTIVES: To develop a set of recommendations to advance PC research in SA. METHODS: Eighteen international PC experts participated in a Delphi study. In round one, items were developed (open-ended questions); in round two, each expert scored the importance of each item (from 0 to 10); in round three, they selected the 20 most relevant items. Throughout the rounds, the five main priority themes for research in SA were defined. In Round three, consensus was defined as an agreement of ≥75%. RESULTS: 60 potential suggestions for overcoming research barriers in PC were developed in round one. Also in Round one, 88.2% (15 of 17) of the experts agreed to define a priority research agenda. In Round two, the 36 most relevant suggestions were defined and a new one added. Potential research priorities were investigated (open-ended). In Round three, from the 37 items, 10 were considered the most important. Regarding research priorities, symptom control, PC in primary care, public policies, education and prognosis were defined as the most relevant. CONCLUSION: Potential strategies to improve scientific research on PC in SA were defined, including stimulating the formation of collaborative research networks, offering courses and workshops on research, structuring centers with infrastructure resources and trained researchers, and lobbying governmental organizations to convince about the importance of palliative care. In addition, priority research topics were identified in the region.


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Cuidados Paliativos , Humanos , Técnica Delfos , América do Sul , Consenso
7.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04031, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486804

RESUMO

Background: Little is known about place of death in Latin America, although this data are crucial for health system planning. This study aims to describe place of death and associated factors in Latin America and to identify factors that contribute to inter-country differences in place of death. Methods: We conducted a total population observational study using death certificates of the total annual decedent populations in 12 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay) for the most recent available year (2016, 2017, or 2018). Data were analysed regarding place of death and multivariable logistic regression with place of death as the dependent variable was used to examine associated clinical and sociodemographic factors (independent variables) in each of the countries. Results: The total study sample was 2 994 685 deaths; 31.3% of deaths occurred at home, and 57.6% in hospitals. A strong variation was found among the countries with home deaths ranging from 20% (Brazil) to 67.9% (Guatemala) and hospital deaths from 22.3% (Guatemala) to 69.5% (Argentina). These differences between countries remained largely unchanged after controlling for sociodemographic factors and causes of death. The likelihood of dying at home was consistently higher with increasing age, for those living in a rural area, and for those with a lower educational level (except in Argentina). Conclusions: Most deaths in Latin America occur in hospitals, with a strong variation between countries. As clinical and sociodemographic factors included in this study did not explain country differences, other factors such as policy and health care system seem to have a crucial impact on where people die in Latin America.


Assuntos
Atestado de Óbito , Projetos de Pesquisa , Brasil , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , México
8.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 63(1): e124-e133, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363955

RESUMO

Colombia's health sector reform has been recognized for its universal health (UHC) coverage scheme. However, this reform evolved without palliative care (PC), thereby omitting a core element of UHC. In this paper, we analyze the Colombian health system reform and health policies in relation to PC. We present the history, innovations, successes, and shortcomings of the reform and summarize the lessons learned to strengthen efforts leading to PC integration. Our analysis is based on the WHO public health framework for PC (policy, access to medicines, education, service provision). For several years and especially during the last decade, the government enacted laws and regulations to improve access to essential medicines and to integrate PC. Relative to other countries in Latin America, Colombia was the first to launch a PC service and to accredit palliative medicine as a specialty, the second to establish a national PC association and one of the few countries with a specific PC law. However, data shows that there are still too few services to meet the PC needs of approximately 250,000 adult patients annually. Our analysis shows that the country's failure to integrate PC most likely is a result of limited health worker education. Advocacy efforts should include deans of schools and provosts, in addition to policy makers and regulators. Other possible factors affecting uptake and implementation of existing national policies are civil unrest and limited collaboration between government offices. Additional research is needed to evaluate the impact of these and other related factors on PC integration in Colombia.


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Cuidados Paliativos , Adulto , Colômbia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Análise de Sistemas
9.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 63(1): 33-41, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring and reporting palliative care development serves to identify progress as well as remaining challenges for improvement. AIM: To report on the updated status of palliative care development in Latin America, develop and apply a new index to measure progress, and enable cross-country comparisons. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the data collected for the first (2012) and second (2020) editions of the Atlas of Palliative Care in Latin America using indicators on Policy, Education, Access to Medicines and Service Provision. The ALCP indicators were reviewed and the ALCP Index-II was constructed adding the z-score for each indicator and used to rank the countries' development as High, Moderate or Low. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen Latin American countries. RESULTS: The number of countries with a national palliative care plan increased from 5 (29%) to 10 (59%); Percentage of medical schools with palliative care as an independent subject at the undergraduate level grew from 4.2 to 15.4%; Distributed Opioid Morphine Equivalence increased from 6.6 to 7.1 mg/capita; and Number of services increased from 1.5 to 2.6/million. The number of palliative care services was correlated to the proportion of medical schools which included palliative care (Rs1=0.3; Rs2=0.31); and with morphine equivalence/capita (Rs1=0.61; Rs2=0.72), and with the existence of a national plan (p2=0.005). With the standardization of the indicators, three groups ranked by development were identified Uruguay, Chile, Costa Rica, Argentina Panama, and Brazil ranked the highest while the other ranked in the middle or lowest groups. According to the ALCP Index-II, Uruguay registered the highest score (7.5), Honduras the lowest (-3.7). The dispersal in the values was larger than the one registered in 2012, showing more heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Significant advances in palliative care development in Latin America have been achieved. The ALCP-II Index is useful for assessing and comparing palliative care development across countries.


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Cuidados Paliativos , Analgésicos Opioides , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Morfina
10.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 45: e149, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper assesses the availability and quality of death certificate data in Latin America and the feasibility of using these data to study place of death and associated factors. METHODS: In this comparative study, we collected examples of current official death certificates and digital data files containing information about all deaths that occurred during 1 year in 19 Latin American countries. Data were collected from June 2019 to May 2020. The records for place of death and associated variables were studied. The criteria for data quality were completeness, number of ill-defined causes of death and timeliness. RESULTS: All 19 countries provided copies of current official death certificates and 18 of these registered the place of death. Distinguishing among hospital or other health care institution, home and other was possible for all countries. Digital data files with death certificate data were available from 12 countries and 1 region. Three countries had data considered to be of high quality and seven had data considered to be of medium quality. Categories for place of death and most of the predetermined factors possibly associated with place of death were included in the data files. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of data sets was rated medium to high in 10 countries. Hence, death certificate data make it feasible to conduct an international comparative study on place of death and the associated factors in Latin America.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55343

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. This paper assesses the availability and quality of death certificate data in Latin America and the feasibility of using these data to study place of death and associated factors. Methods. In this comparative study, we collected examples of current official death certificates and digital data files containing information about all deaths that occurred during 1 year in 19 Latin American countries. Data were collected from June 2019 to May 2020. The records for place of death and associated variables were studied. The criteria for data quality were completeness, number of ill-defined causes of death and timeliness. Results. All 19 countries provided copies of current official death certificates and 18 of these registered the place of death. Distinguishing among hospital or other health care institution, home and other was possible for all countries. Digital data files with death certificate data were available from 12 countries and 1 region. Three countries had data considered to be of high quality and seven had data considered to be of medium quality. Categories for place of death and most of the predetermined factors possibly associated with place of death were included in the data files. Conclusions. The quality of data sets was rated medium to high in 10 countries. Hence, death certificate data make it feasible to conduct an international comparative study on place of death and the associated factors in Latin America.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. En este artículo se evalúa la disponibilidad y la calidad de los datos del certificado de defunción en América Latina y la factibilidad de emplear estos datos para estudiar el lugar de defunción y factores asociados. Métodos. En este estudio comparativo, se recogieron ejemplos de certificados oficiales de defunción actuales y archivos digitales de datos que contenían información acerca de todas las defunciones que ocurrieron durante un año en 19 países latinoamericanos. Se recopilaron datos desde junio del 2019 hasta mayo del 2020. Se estudiaron los registros del lugar de la muerte y las variables asociadas. Los criterios para determinar la calidad de los datos fueron la exhaustividad, el número de causas de muerte mal definidas y la presentación oportuna de la información. Resultados. Los 19 países proporcionaron copias de los certificados oficiales de defunción actuales; en 18 de estos se registraba el lugar de la muerte. En todos los países fue posible distinguir entre hospital u otra institución de atención de salud, el hogar y otros. Se obtuvieron los archivos de datos digitales con los datos del certificado de defunción de 12 países y una región. Tres países tenían datos considerados de buena calidad y siete tenían datos considerados de calidad media. En los archivos de datos se incluyeron categorías para lugar de defunción y la mayoría de los factores predeterminados posiblemente asociados con el lugar de defunción. Conclusiones. La calidad de los conjuntos de datos se calificó de media a buena en 10 países. En consecuencia, es factible realizar un estudio internacional comparativo sobre el lugar de defunción y los factores asociados en América Latina con los datos del certificado de defunción.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Este estudo avalia a disponibilidade e a qualidade dos dados das declarações de óbito na América Latina e a viabilidade de usar esses dados para estudar o local do óbito e fatores associados. Métodos. Neste estudo comparativo, coletamos exemplos de declarações de óbito oficiais atuais e arquivos de dados digitais contendo informações sobre todos os óbitos que ocorreram durante 1 ano em 19 países latinoamericanos. Os dados foram coletados no período de junho de 2019 a maio de 2020. Foram estudados os registros do local do óbito e variáveis associadas. Os critérios de qualidade dos dados foram preenchimento completo, número de causas mal definidas de morte e oportunidade. Resultados. Todos os 19 países forneceram cópias das declarações de óbito oficiais atuais, e 18 deles registraram o local do óbito . Foi possível distinguir em todos os países entre hospital ou outra instituição de saúde, lar ou outro local. Arquivos de dados digitais com os dados das declarações de óbito foram disponibilizados por 12 países e 1 região. Três países tiveram dados considerados de alta qualidade, e sete tiveram dados considerados de qualidade média. As categorias de local do óbito e a maioria dos fatores predeterminados possivelmente associados ao local do óbito foram incluídos nos arquivos de dados. Conclusões. A qualidade dos conjuntos de dados foi classificada como média a alta em 10 países. Portanto, os dados de declarações de óbito possibilitam a realização de um estudo comparativo internacional sobre local do óbito e fatores associados na América Latina.


Assuntos
Atestado de Óbito , Estudo Comparativo , América Latina , Atestado de Óbito , Estudo Comparativo , América Latina , Atestado de Óbito , Estudo Comparativo
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(11): e474-e487, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735817

RESUMO

The increasing burden of cancer represents a substantial problem for Latin America and the Caribbean. Two Lancet Oncology Commissions in 2013 and 2015 highlighted potential interventions that could advance cancer care in the region by overcoming existing challenges. Areas requiring improvement included insufficient investment in cancer control, non-universal health coverage, fragmented health systems, inequitable concentration of cancer services, inadequate registries, delays in diagnosis or treatment initiation, and insufficient palliative services. Progress has been made in key areas but remains uneven across the region. An unforeseen challenge, the COVID-19 pandemic, strained all resources, and its negative effect on cancer control is expected to continue for years. In this Series paper, we summarise progress in several aspects of cancer control since 2015, and identify persistent barriers requiring commitment of additional resources to reduce the cancer burden in Latin America and the Caribbean.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Atenção à Saúde/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Oncologia/educação , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
13.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 27(2): 299-305, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken to mitigate spread have affected countries in different ways. Healthcare workers, in particular, have been impacted by the pandemic and by these measures. This study aims to explore how COVID-19 has impacted on palliative care (PC) workers around the world. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online survey to members of the International Association for Hospice and PC during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Convenience sampling was used. Statistical descriptive and contingency analyses and Chi-square tests with P < 0.05 were conducted. RESULTS: Seventy-nine participants (RR = 16%) from 41 countries responded. Over 93% of those who provide direct patient care reported feeling very or somewhat competent in PC provision for patients with COVID-19. Eighty-four felt unsafe or somewhat safe when caring for patients with COVID-19. Level of safety was associated with competence (P ≤ 0.000). Over 80% reported being highly or somewhat affected in their ability to continue working in their PC job, providing care to non-COVID patients and in staff availability in their workplace. About 37% reported that availability and access to essential medicines for PC were highly or somewhat affected, more so in low-income countries (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The results from this study highlight the impact of COVID-19 on the provision of PC. It is incumbent on government officials, academia, providers and affected populations, to develop and implement strategies to integrate PC in pandemic response, and preparedness for any similar future events, by providing appropriate and comprehensive education, uninterrupted access to essential medicines and personal protective equipment and ensure access to treatment and care, working together with all levels of society that is invested in care of individuals and populations at large. The long-term effects of the pandemic are still unknown and future research is needed to monitor and report on the appropriateness of measures.

14.
J Relig Health ; 60(5): 3621-3639, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455549

RESUMO

We aimed to validate the Spanish version of the Spiritual Care Competence Questionnaire (SCCQ) in a sample of 791 health care professionals from Spanish speaking countries coming principally from Argentina, Colombia, Mexico and Spain. Exploratory factor analysis pointed to six factors with good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.71 to 0.90), which are in line with the factors of the primary version of the SCCQ. Conversation competences and Perception of spiritual needs competences scored highest, and Documentation competences and Team spirit the lowest, Empowerment competences and Spiritual self-awareness competences in-between. The Spanish Version of the SCCQ can be used for assessment of spiritual care competencies, planning of educational activities and for comparisons as well as monitoring/follow-up after implementation of improvement strategies.


Assuntos
Terapias Espirituais , Traduções , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha , Espiritualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 106, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The vast majority of medical students have no exposure to clinical palliative care encounters, especially in the community. Medical schools should respond to current challenges and needs of health systems by guaranteeing students adequate training that addresses palliative care needs of populations in different settings. The main purpose of this qualitative study was to capture the experiences of a select group of medical students' following a community-based PC course. METHODS: We carried out a qualitative study using two focus groups to capture the experience of medical students in a course that combined classroom teaching with community-based learning for undergraduate medical students in Germany. Discussions were transcribed and analyzed thematically. RESULTS: Fifteen female students in their 2nd to 5th year participated in the focus groups, which provided didactic teaching and experiential learning. Four areas were particularly relevant: (1) authenticity, (2) demystification of the concepts of palliative care through personal contact with patients, (3) translation of theoretical knowledge into practice, and (4) observation of a role model interacting with seriously ill patients and engaging in difficult conversations. CONCLUSION: Students whose encounters with patients and their families went beyond a review of their medical records had a better grasp of the holistic nature of PC than those who did not. Bringing students directly from the hospital to patients in their homes reinforced the benefits of an integrated healthcare system.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring and reporting palliative care development serves to identify progress as well as remaining challenges for improvement. AIM: To report on the updated status of palliative care development in Latin America, develop and apply a new index to measure progress, and enable cross-country comparisons. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the data collected for the 1st (2012) and 2nd (2020) editions of the Atlas of Palliative Care in Latin America using indicators on Policy, Education, Access to Medicines and Service Provision. The ALCP indicators were reviewed and the ALCP Index-II was constructed adding the z-score for each indicator and used to rank the countries' development as High, Moderate or Low. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen Latin American countries. RESULTS: The number of countries with a national palliative care plan increased from five (29%) to nine (53%); Percentage of medical schools with palliative care as an independent subject at the undergraduate level grew from 4.2% to 17.1%; Distributed Opioid Morphine Equivalence increased from 6.6 to 7.1 mg/capita; and Number of services increased from 1.5 to 2.6/million. The number of palliative care services was correlated to the proportion of medical schools which included palliative care (Rs1 = 0.48; Rs2 = 0.34); and with morphine equivalence/capita (Rs1 = 0.61; Rs2 = 0.72), but not associated with the existence of a national plan (p1 = 0.234; p2 = 0. 074). Using the ALCP Index-II, Uruguay, Chile, Costa Rica, Panama, Brazil, and Argentina ranked the highest while the other ranked in the middle or lowest groups. Uruguay registered the highest score (7.5), Honduras the lowest (-3.59). The dispersal in the values was larger than the one registered in 2012, showing more heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Significant advances in palliative care development in Latin America have been achieved. The ALCP-II Index is useful for assessing and comparing palliative care development across countries.

17.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 62(5): 960-967, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Formal recognition of palliative medicine as a specialty has been one of the main drivers in the development of palliative care. AIM: To provide a comparative, comprehensive overview on the status of palliative medicine as medical specialty across Latin America. METHODS: We conducted a comparative study of 19 Latin American countries. Key informants and persons in charge of the specialization training programs were identified and interviewed. We collected data on general recognition as specialty (title, process of certification) and on training program characteristics (title, start year, requirements, training length, and type full time or part time). RESULTS: Eight of 19 countries (42%) Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay and Venezuela reported palliative medicine as medical specialty. Thirty-five (sub)specialization training programs in palliative medicine were identified in the region (eight as a specialty and 27 as a subspecialty), the majority in Colombia (43.5%) and Brazil (33.7%). A total of 20% of the programs have yet to graduate their first cohort. Length of clinical training as specialty varied from two to four years, and from 520 hours to three years for a subspecialty. CONCLUSION: Despite long-standing efforts to improve quality of care, and significant achievements to date, most Latin American countries have yet to develop palliative medicine as medical specialty. Specialty and sub-specialty training programs remain scarce in relation to regional needs, and the programs that do exist vary widely in duration, structure, and content.


Assuntos
Medicina Paliativa , Brasil , Colômbia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , México , Especialização
18.
Palliat Support Care ; 19(2): 187-192, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With over two million deaths and almost 100 million confirmed cases, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a "tsunami of suffering." Health care workers, including palliative care workers, have been severely impacted. This study explores how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted palliative care workers around the world and describes the coping strategies they have adopted to face their specific situation. METHOD: We conducted a qualitative analysis of written, unstructured comments provided by respondents to a survey of IAHPC members between May and June 2020. Free text was exported to MAX QDA, and a thematic analysis was performed by reading the comments and developing a coding frame. RESULTS: Seventy-seven palliative care workers from 41 countries submitted at least one written comment, resulting in a data corpus of 10,694 words and a total of 374 coded comments. Eight main themes are emerged from the analysis: palliative care development, workforce impact, work reorganization, palliative care reconceptualization, economic and financial impacts, increased risk, emotional impact, and coping strategies. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The pandemic has had a huge impact on palliative care workers including their ability to work and their financial status. It has generated increased workloads and placed them in vulnerable positions that affect their emotional well-being, resulting in distress and burnout. Counseling and support networks provide important resilience-building buffers. Coping strategies such as team and family support are important factors in workers' capacity to adapt and respond. The pandemic is changing the concept and praxis of palliative care. Government officials, academia, providers, and affected populations need to work together to develop, and implement steps to ensure palliative care integration into response preparedness plans so as not to leave anyone behind, including health workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Palliat Med ; 24(5): 673-679, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955990

RESUMO

Background: There are substantial disparities in distribution of palliative care (PC) services within Latin America, with Bolivia historically lagging behind neighboring countries in PC metrics. Comprehensive data on PC in Bolivia were last collected in 2012 through the Latin American Association for Palliative Care (ALCP) Atlas of PC. Objective: To update the 2012 data and describe the current state of PC in Bolivia to aid in their ongoing efforts to expand PC services. In addition, to develop an instrument for assessment of national PC capacity that can be adapted for use in other countries. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted using personal and online structured interviews of PC team directors from all 19 PC teams around the country. Measurements: A new survey was developed for this study based on the ALCP Atlas of PC and international PC guidelines. Results: PC teams in Bolivia have slowly increased in number since 2008. There are currently 19 PC teams in Bolivia, highly concentrated in urban centers. Multidisciplinary teams typically include physicians, nurses, psychologists, and social workers. The majority of teams offer treatments for all 16 essential PC symptoms included in our study. Teams report significant barriers for their patients to obtain opioid pain medications. Conclusions: Bolivian PC teams utilize multidisciplinary teams and have the capability to treat many of the essential PC symptoms with guideline-recommended treatments. However, it is unclear whether availability of services translates to accessibility for most patients, especially given their geographic distribution and cost of services.


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Cuidados Paliativos , Bolívia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , América Latina
20.
Palliat Support Care ; 19(4): 447-456, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the psychosocial distress and associated factors in advanced cancer patients consulting at the outpatient Palliative Care Unit at the National Cancer Institute in Mexico City. DESIGN: A retrospective study was conducted using electronic records (June 2015 to December 2016). SAMPLE: A total of 646 patients with advanced cancer during their first visit to the outpatient palliative care unit at the National Cancer Institute in Mexico were evaluated using the Distress Thermometer (DT) and ECOG performance status scores. FINDINGS: Overall, 62% were women, with a median age of 57 years, and married (54.8%). The most frequent diagnosis was gastrointestinal cancer (28.6%), and 38.9% had a functional performance status of ECOG 2. The median DT score was 4.0 (IQR = 2-6), with 56% reporting DT scores ≥4. The three most frequent problems ≥4 were sadness (82.6%), feeling weak (81.2%), worry (79.6%), and <4 were feeling weak (57.7%), fatigue (55.6%), and financial security (52.1%). The variables associated with distress according to the multiple logistic regression analysis were problems with housing (OR = 2.661, 95% CI = 1.538-4.602), sadness (OR = 2.533, 95% CI = 1.615-3.973), transportation (OR = 1.732, 95% CI = 1.157-2.591), eating (OR = 1.626, 95% CI = 1.093-2.417), nervousness (OR = 1.547, 95% CI = 1.014-2.360), and sleep (OR = 1.469, 95% CI = 1.980-2.203). CONCLUSION: The principal factors were related to distress levels, housing problems, transportation issues, and emotional problems such as sadness, nervousness, lower functionality, and younger age. Therefore, psychosocial support is of considerable relevance in palliative care. These findings will help clinicians understand the distress of patients with advanced cancer in palliative care in Latin American countries.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Estresse Psicológico , Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Cuidados Paliativos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
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