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1.
Food Res Int ; 181: 114118, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448091

RESUMO

Meat dry aging consists in storing unpackaged meat in a cold room, and at a specific and controlled relative humidity (RH), for a period of 1 to 5 weeks or more. This practice has become widespread in recent years due to its positive effect on the tenderness of the meat but also on other organoleptic characteristics and therefore its market value. The objective of this work was to study the bacterial and fungal microbiota of dry-aged beef at the commercial stage by both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Fifty-eight samples of dry-aged meat from different producer types (meat processing plants, artisanal and supermarket butchers) were studied. The dry-aging conditions (temperature, RH) of the meats, as well as the surface pH and aw, were measured. The main microbial groups were enumerated by culture on various dedicated media. Concerning fungi, isolates of yeasts and molds (n = 257) were identified after dereplication by FTIR spectroscopy and/or sequencing of taxonomically relevant genes (26S rDNA, ITS, ß-tubulin, actin). Metagenetic analyzes targeting the V3-V4 regions of 16S rDNA and ITS2 were also performed. Overall, ripening practices were diversified with temperatures and RH between 0.5 and 2.8 °C (median = 2 °C) and 47 and 88 % (median = 70 %), respectively. The aerobic colony count varied between 1.97 and 10.91 log10 CFU/g (median = 8.32 log10 CFU/g) and was similar to that of Pseudomonas spp., indicating that this bacterial group was dominant. Yeast populations varied between <2 and 9.41 log10 CFU/g, while molds showed abundances between <2 and 7.7 log10 TFU/g, the highest values being found in meats matured with a high RH. Bacterial and mold counts were positively correlated with the dry-aging RH and, to a lesser extent, temperature. The main yeast species were Candida zeylanoides and Yarrowia alimentaria as well as Itersonilia pannonica (identified only in metagenetics). The dominant mold species were psychrophilic or psychrotrophic species, namely Mucor complex flavus and Helycostylum elegans/pulchrum that have already been shown to be associated with dry-aged beef meat. This study has identified the main microorganisms associated with dry-aged meat in France, which raises the question of their role in the organoleptic quality of these higher value products.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Mucor , Micobioma , Animais , Bovinos , França , DNA Ribossômico
2.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 25(4): 519-536, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37354383

RESUMO

The initiation of this study relies on a targeted genome-mining approach to highlight the presence of a putative vanadium-dependent haloperoxidase-encoding gene in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent fungus Hortaea werneckii UBOCC-A-208029. To date, only three fungal vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases have been described, one from the terrestrial species Curvularia inaequalis, one from the fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea, and one from a marine derived isolate identified as Alternaria didymospora. In this study, we describe a new vanadium chloroperoxidase from the black yeast H. werneckii, successfully cloned and overexpressed in a bacterial host, which possesses higher affinity for bromide (Km = 26 µM) than chloride (Km = 237 mM). The enzyme was biochemically characterized, and we have evaluated its potential for biocatalysis by determining its stability and tolerance in organic solvents. We also describe its potential three-dimensional structure by building a model using the AlphaFold 2 artificial intelligence tool. This model shows some conservation of the 3D structure of the active site compared to the vanadium chloroperoxidase from C. inaequalis but it also highlights some differences in the active site entrance and the volume of the active site pocket, underlining its originality.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Cloreto Peroxidase , Exophiala , Fontes Hidrotermais , Cloreto Peroxidase/genética , Cloreto Peroxidase/química , Cloreto Peroxidase/metabolismo , Exophiala/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vanádio/metabolismo , Inteligência Artificial , Ascomicetos/genética
3.
Food Res Int ; 157: 111247, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761558

RESUMO

Filamentous fungi are used in the dairy industry as adjunct cultures in fermented products, but can also lead to food spoilage, waste and economic losses. The control of filamentous fungi with abiotic factors contributes to longer food shelf life and prevention of fungal spoilage. One of the main abiotic factors for controlling fungal growth in foods is water activity (aw). This study aimed to evaluate radial growth as a function of aw for sixteen fungal adjuncts and/or spoilers isolated from dairy products or a dairy environment. Glycerol (a non-ionic compound) and sodium chloride (NaCl, an ionic compound) were used to adjust the aw of culture media. This study showed significant diversity in the responses of the tested fungal strains as a function of medium aw. The growth response of Penicillium bialowiezense and Sporendonema casei was binary, with no clear decrease of growth rate until the growth limit, when the aw was reduced. For the strains of Bisifusarium domesticum, Mucor circinelloides and Penicillium camemberti, a decrease of aw had the same impact on radial growth rate regardless of the aw belonging to their growth range. For the strains of Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium herbarum, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor lanceolatus, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium fuscoglaucum, Penicillium nalgiovense, Paecilomyces niveus, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium solitum and Scopulariopsis asperula, the impact of a decrease in aw was more pronounced at high aw than at low aw. A mathematical model was suggested to describe this impact on the radial growth rate. For all tested species, radial growth was more sensitive to NaCl than glycerol. The ionic strength of NaCl mainly explains the difference in the effects of the two solutes.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio , Água , Laticínios/microbiologia , Glicerol , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
4.
Microorganisms ; 10(4)2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456786

RESUMO

In Algeria, Smen is a fermented butter produced in households using empirical methods. Smen fermentation is driven by autochthonous microorganisms; it improves butter shelf-life and yields highly fragrant products used as ingredients in traditional dishes as well as in traditional medicine. The present study is aimed at investigating microbial diversity and dynamics during Algerian Smen fermentation using both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches, as well as by monitoring volatile organic compound production. To reach this goal, fifteen Smen samples (final products) produced in households from different regions in Algeria were collected and analyzed. In addition, microbial and volatile compound dynamics at the different stages of Smen manufacturing were investigated for one Smen preparation. The results showed that Smen is a microbiologically safe product, as all hygiene and safety criteria were respected. The dominant microorganisms identified by both techniques were LAB and yeasts. Lactococcus spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus were the main bacterial species involved in spontaneous raw milk fermentation preceding butter-making, while lactobacilli and enterococci were the only bacteria found to be viable during Smen maturation. Regarding fungal diversity, yeast species were only recovered from two mature Smen samples by culturing, while different species (e.g., Geotrichum candidum, Moniliella sp.) were identified in all samples by the culture-independent approach. Using microbial analysis of a single batch, many of these were found viable during manufacturing. Concerning the volatile profiles, they were highly diverse and characterized by a high prevalence of short chain fatty acids, methylketones, and esters. Correlation analysis between microbial diversity and volatile profiles showed that several yeast (Moniliella sp., K. marxianus) and LAB (e.g., Lactococcus spp., S. thermophilus) species were strongly correlated with one or more volatile organic compound families, including several ethyl esters and methyl ketones that can be linked to pleasant, sweetly floral, fruity, buttery, and creamy odors. This study clearly identified key microorganisms involved in Smen fermentation and maturation that could be used in the future for better fermentation control and improvement of quality attributes.

5.
Food Res Int ; 155: 111069, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400447

RESUMO

Nyons table olives, named after the French city where they are processed, are naturally fermented black table olives. Their specificity relies on the use of the "Tanche" olive variety harvested at full maturity and their slow spontaneous fermentation in 10% salt brine driven by yeast populations. This study aimed at investigating the benefit of inoculating autochthonous consortia to produce Nyons table olives by fermentation in 10% salt brine and in reduced salt conditions (8%). Two strategies were evaluated: inoculation with a defined autochthonous consortium and inoculation by spent brine backslopping. To define the consortium, yeasts were selected among 48 autochthonous isolates and key features included high halotolerance, low pectinolytic and proteolytic activities, however none had ß-glucosidase activities. The consortium included eight yeast strains with distinct technological properties belonging to five dominant species, i.e. Citeromyces nyonsensis, Pichia membranifaciens, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Zygotorulaspora mrakii and Candida atlantica. Fermentation trials were conducted over a year and compared by evaluating microbial community shifts (16S and ITS metagenetics) and volatile profiles (GC-MS). Regarding fermentations with the defined consortium, four out of five species implanted in early stages while one, Pichia membranifaciens, persisted and largely dominated by the end of the fermentation. Altogether, inoculation with the defined consortium did not disrupt microbial shifts compared to traditional fermentations although minor differences were observed in volatile profiles. The backslopping method yielded the highest impact on microbial populations and olive volatile profiles, with higher ester abundances at the end of fermentation. Finally, reduced salt in brine gave very promising results as no deleterious effects on microbial communities, volatile dynamics but also safety criteria of the olives were observed compared to traditional fermented olives.


Assuntos
Olea , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Pichia , Sais , Cloreto de Sódio , Leveduras
6.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 737140, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803951

RESUMO

Dry fermented sausages are produced worldwide by well-controlled fermentation processes involving complex microbiota including many bacterial and fungal species with key technological roles. However, to date, fungal diversity on sausage casings during storage has not been fully described. In this context, we studied the microbial communities from dry fermented sausages naturally colonized or voluntarily surface inoculated with molds during storage using both culture-dependent and metabarcoding methods. Staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria largely dominated in samples, although some halotolerant genera (e.g., Halomonas, Tetragenococcus, and Celerinatantimonas spp.) were also frequently observed. Fungal populations varied from 7.2 to 9.8 log TFU/cm2 sausage casing during storage, suggesting relatively low count variability among products. Fungal diversity identified on voluntarily inoculated casings was lower (dominated by Penicillium nalgiovense and Debaryomyces hansenii) than naturally environment-inoculated fermented sausages (colonized by P. nalgiovense, Penicillium nordicum, and other Penicillium spp. and sporadically by Scopulariopsis sp., D. hansenii, and Candida zeylanoïdes). P. nalgiovense and D. hansenii were systematically identified, highlighting their key technological role. The mycotoxin risk was then evaluated, and in situ mycotoxin production of selected mold isolates was determined during pilot-scale sausage productions. Among the identified fungal species, P. nalgiovense was confirmed not to produce mycotoxins. However, some P. nordicum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium bialowienzense, Penicillium brevicompactum, and Penicillium citreonigrum isolates produced one or more mycotoxins in vitro. P. nordicum also produced ochratoxin A during pilot-scale sausage productions using "worst-case" conditions in the absence of biotic competition. These data provide new knowledge on fermented sausage microbiota and the potential mycotoxin risk during storage.

7.
Food Res Int ; 144: 110344, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053540

RESUMO

This study aimed at investigating the influence of the process environment and raw materials as sources of microorganisms during Nyons black table olive fermentations. Fermented olives and/or brine from spoiled fermentation tanks were analyzed and compared to good quality samples from fermentations collected during 3 consecutive harvest years. Fresh olives, salt and different process environment samples were also analyzed. Microbial diversity of all samples was analyzed using 16S and ITS2 amplicon sequencing and SourceTracker tool was used to investigate links between environment, raw materials and fermentation samples. First, comparison of microbial diversity in control and most spoiled fermentations revealed striking differences in bacterial composition with an overall higher diversity in spoiled fermentations especially for lactic acid bacteria with Lentilactobacillus buchneri, Lentilactobacillus parafarraginis dominating in brine and Pediococcus parvulus, Pediococcus ethanolidurans dominating in olive fruits. Fungal communities were similar in composition although higher abundances of Pichia membranifaciens and Penicillium carneum/roqueforti were observed in spoiled samples. Secondly, process environment samples were characterized by high bacterial and fungal diversity, especially compared to fresh olive fruits. Overall, dominant fungal species in control fermentations were also found in most environmental samples revealing a "house mycobiota". SourceTracker analysis further highlighted the contribution of brine and water from the optical sorter as a source of fungi. Most interestingly, spoilage fungi and most bacteria were retrieved in brine and environmental samples while others such as P. ethanolidurans were only found in environmental samples indicating that the studied spoilage originated from a fermentation deviation rather than a punctual contamination. Taken altogether, these results highlighted the positive and negative influence of the process environment and emphasized the relevance of studying it to better understand microbial vectors occurring during food fermentations, especially natural ones.


Assuntos
Olea , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Pediococcus , Penicillium , Pichia , Leveduras
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 345: 109130, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735781

RESUMO

Pélardon is an artisanal French raw goat's milk cheese, produced using natural whey as a backslop. The aim of this study was to identify key microbial players involved in the acidification and aroma production of this Protected Designation of Origin cheese. Microbial diversity of samples, collected from the raw milk to 3-month cheese ripening, was determined by culture-dependent (MALDI-TOF analysis of 2877 isolates) and -independent (ITS2 and 16S metabarcoding) approaches and linked to changes in biochemical profiles (volatile compounds and acids). In parallel, potential dominant autochthonous microorganism reservoirs were also investigated by sampling the cheese-factory environment. Complex and increasing microbial diversity was observed by both approaches during ripening although major discrepancies were observed regarding Lactococcus lactis and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei fate. By correlating microbial shifts to biochemical changes, Lactococcus lactis was identified as the main acidifying bacterium, while L. mesenteroides and Geotrichum candidum were prevalent and associated with amino acids catabolism after the acidification step. The three species were dominant in the whey (backslop). In contrast, L. paracasei, Enterococcus faecalis, Penicillium commune and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, which dominated during ripening, likely originated from the cheese-making environment. All these four species were positively correlated to major volatile compounds responsible for the goaty and earthy Pélardon cheese aroma. Overall, this work highlighted the power of MALDI-TOF and molecular techniques combined with volatilome analyses to dynamically follow and identify microbial communities during cheese-making and successively identify the key-players involved in aroma production and contributing to the typicity of Pélardon cheese.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Queijo/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecalis/metabolismo , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Geotrichum/isolamento & purificação , Geotrichum/metabolismo , Cabras , Lacticaseibacillus paracasei/isolamento & purificação , Lacticaseibacillus paracasei/metabolismo , Lactococcus lactis/isolamento & purificação , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Microbiota , Odorantes/análise , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Penicillium/metabolismo , Scopulariopsis/isolamento & purificação , Scopulariopsis/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
9.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 586614, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133054

RESUMO

French PDO Nyons black table olives are produced according to a traditional slow spontaneous fermentation in brine. The manufacture and unique sensorial properties of these olives thus only rely on the autochthonous complex microbiota. This study aimed at unraveling the microbial communities and dynamics of Nyons olives during a 1.5-year-long spontaneous fermentation to determine the main microbial drivers and link microbial species to key metabolites. Fermentations were monitored at a local producer plant at regular time intervals for two harvests and two olive types (organically and conventionally grown) using culture-dependent and metabarcoding (ITS2 for fungi, V3-V4 region for bacteria) approaches. Olives and brines were also sampled for volatiles, organic acids and phenolic compounds. No major differences in microbiota composition were observed according to olive type or harvest period. Throughout the fermentation, yeasts were clearly the most dominant. ITS2 sequencing data revealed complex fungal diversity dominated by Citeromyces nyonsensis, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Zygotorulaspora mrakii, Candida boidinii and Pichia membranifaciens species. Bacterial communities were dominated by the Celerinatantimonas genus, while lactic acid bacteria remained scarce. Clear shifts in microbial communities and biochemical profiles were observed during fermentation and, by correlating metabolites and microbiota changes, four different phases were distinguished. During the first 7 days, phase I, a fast decrease of filamentous fungal and bacterial populations was observed. Between days 21 and 120, phase II, W. anomalus and C. nyonsensis for fungi and Celerinatantimonas diazotrophica for bacteria dominated the fermentation and were linked to the pH decrease and citric acid production. Phase III, between 120 and 183 days, was characterized by an increase in acids and esters and correlated to increased abundances of Z. mrakii, P. membranifaciens and C. boidinii. During the last months of fermentation, phase IV, microbial communities were dominated by P. membranifaciens and C. boidinii. Both species were strongly correlated to an increase in fruity esters and alcohol abundances. Overall, this study provides an in-depth understanding about microbial species succession and how the microbiota shapes the final distinct olive characteristics. It also constitutes a first step to identify key drivers of this fermentation.

10.
Microorganisms ; 8(10)2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096724

RESUMO

The fungal phytopathogen Colletotrichum lupini is responsible for lupin anthracnose, resulting in significant yield losses worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying this infectious process are yet to be elucidated. This study proposes to evaluate C. lupini gene expression and protein synthesis during lupin infection, using, respectively, an RNAseq-based transcriptomic approach and a mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach. Patterns of differentially-expressed genes in planta were evaluated from 24 to 84 hours post-inoculation, and compared to in vitro cultures. A total of 897 differentially-expressed genes were identified from C. lupini during interaction with white lupin, of which 520 genes were predicted to have a putative function, including carbohydrate active enzyme, effector, protease or transporter-encoding genes, commonly described as pathogenicity factors for other Colletotrichum species during plant infection, and 377 hypothetical proteins. Simultaneously, a total of 304 proteins produced during the interaction were identified and quantified by mass spectrometry. Taken together, the results highlight that the dynamics of symptoms, gene expression and protein synthesis shared similarities to those of hemibiotrophic pathogens. In addition, a few genes with unknown or poorly-described functions were found to be specifically associated with the early or late stages of infection, suggesting that they may be of importance for pathogenicity. This study, conducted for the first time on a species belonging to the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex, presents an opportunity to deepen functional analyses of the genes involved in the pathogenicity of Colletotrichum spp. during the onset of plant infection.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655533

RESUMO

Water supply, in hydroponic greenhouses, can originate from groundwater, surface water or rainwater stored in open tanks. To limit contamination of water supply, several methods have been used including active and passive methods such as slow filtration techniques which consist in passing the nutrient solutions slowly through filters. The purpose of this study was to describe the microbiota associated with water sampled before entering greenhouses and in recirculating nutrient solutions, either before or after running through a biofiltration system. Metabarcoding analysis revealed that water ecosystems were unique niches for diverse bacterial and fungal communities. Microbial composition varied greatly across storage conditions (groundwater vs. rainwater) and among greenhouses, suggesting that water microbiota is site- and storage-condition-specific. Nonetheless, we found that microbiota structure in open-stored water (either coming from ground or rain) shared a higher degree of similarity than with water directly pumped out of the ground. Open-stored waters were characterized by predominant taxa, notably those involved in aerobic chemoheterotrophy, such as the Sphingomonadaceae and Hyphomicrobiaceae families. Water directly collected from the ground showed the lowest levels of fungal and bacterial richness while also characterized by a significantly higher level of bacterial equitability and an enrichment in taxa involved in N-cycling. Slow filtration allowed reducing cultivable bacterial loads as well Pythium spp. and Fusarium oxysporum propagules, based on culture-dependent results, without compromising microbiota richness and diversity. Although compositional structure was similar following biofiltration, significant differences in bacterial (but not fungal) taxa abundance were reported, with primarily an enrichment of Chelativorans, Mycobacterium, and Gemmata as well as a depletion of Rhodobacter, Aminobacter, and Ellin329. The exact mechanisms by which such taxa would be favored at the expense of other remained unknown. Besides the accurate description of microbiota found in water at both taxonomical and predicted functional levels, our study allowed comparing the water microbiota between various storage system and following biofiltration. Although preliminary, our results provide a first insight into the potential microbial diversity, which can increase ecosystem functionality.

12.
Plant Dis ; 104(3): 938-950, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935344

RESUMO

Although lupin anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lupini is a significant threat for spring and winter lupin crops, it has been poorly studied so far. This study aimed at characterizing the (i) phylogenetic, (ii) morphological, and (iii) physiological diversity of collected isolates from anthracnose-affected lupins. The genetic identification of representative isolates (n = 71) revealed that they were all C. lupini species, further confirming that lupin anthracnose is caused by this species. However, multilocus sequencing on these isolates and 16 additional reference strains of C. lupini revealed a separation into two distinct genetic groups, both of them characterized by a very low genetic diversity. The diversity of morphological characteristics of a selected subset of C. lupini isolates was further evaluated. To the best of our knowledge, microsclerotia production observed for some isolates has never been reported so far within the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex. Finally, the modeling of growth responses of a subset of C. lupini strains revealed the capacity of some strains to grow in vitro at 5°C. This ability was also evidenced in planta, because C. lupini DNA was detectable in plants from 14 days postinoculation at 5°C onward, whereas symptoms began to appear a week later, although at a very low level. Since lupin crops are planted during winter or early spring, growth studies in vitro and in planta demonstrated the capability of the species to grow at temperatures ranging from 5 to 30°C, with an optimum close to 25°C. In this study, C. lupini-specific primers were also designed for real-time quantitative PCR on fungal DNA and allowed the detection of C. lupini in asymptomatic field samples. These results open perspectives to detect earlier and limit the development of this pathogen in lupin crops.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Temperatura , Virulência
13.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(1): 24-31, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655861

RESUMO

Despite the fact that camel milk represents a valuable food source, the fungal diversity of raw camel milk has been poorly studied so far. Here, we investigated the fungal and bacterial communities found in dromedary camel milk from Ghardaia, a representative region of Algerian Sahara. The application of both culture-dependent and independent molecular techniques, based on dHPLC analysis and metabarcoding of ITS region, provided a complementary biodiversity assessment of camel milk fungi which was composed of 15 different taxa. Yeast species belonged to Filobasidium, Naganishia, Malassezia, Mrakia, Rhodotorula, and Yarrowia genera; and mold species belonged to Fusarium, Cladosporium, and Penicillium genera. All three techniques revealed that the fungal community was dominated by species belonging to the former genus Cryptococcus (Filobasidium and Naganishia) although none of them was able to encompass the entire fungal diversity alone. In addition, massive parallel 16S rRNA tag sequencing was applied to gain an insight into the diversity of bacterial communities which were dominated by Pseudomonas spp. Our results provide an initial insight about fungal and bacterial population found in dromedary camel milk from Algerian Sahara.


Assuntos
Microbiota/genética , Leite/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Animais , Biodiversidade , Camelus , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , Pseudomonas/genética
14.
Food Microbiol ; 82: 160-170, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027770

RESUMO

In the context of a demand for "preservative-free" food products, biopreservation appears as a promising alternative to either replace or reduce the use of chemical preservatives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of a collection of lactic acid bacteria (n = 194), and then to evaluate the applicability and efficacy of selected ones used as bioprotective cultures against mold spoilers in dairy and bakery products. First, lactic acid bacteria were isolated from various Algerian raw milk samples and Amoredj, a traditional fermented product. Secondly, in vitro screening tests against Mucor racemosus UBOCC-A-109155, Penicillium commune UBOCC-A-116003, Yarrowia lipolytica UBOCC-A-216006, Aspergillus tubingensis AN, Aspergillus flavus T5 and Paecilomyces formosus AT allowed for the selection of 3 active strains, namely Lactobacillus plantarum CH1, Lactobacillus paracasei B20 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides L1. In situ tests were then performed to validate their activity in actual products (sour cream and sourdough bread) challenged with fungal spoilers. These tests showed that antifungal LAB could slow the fungal target growth and could be candidates of interest for industrial applications. Finally, organic acids and various antifungal compounds produced in sour cream and sourdough bread by the selected LAB, and thus potentially supporting the observed antifungal activity, were identified and quantified by HPLC and LC-QTOF.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Laticínios/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Lactobacillales/fisiologia , Animais , Antibiose , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Pão/microbiologia , Alimentos Fermentados/microbiologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/metabolismo , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Leite/microbiologia
15.
Food Microbiol ; 81: 76-88, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910090

RESUMO

Filamentous fungi are frequently involved in food spoilage and cause important food losses and substantial economic damage. Their rapid and accurate identification is a key step to better manage food safety and quality. In recent years, MALDI-TOF MS has emerged as a powerful tool to identify microorganisms and has successfully been applied to the identification of filamentous fungi especially in the clinical context. The aim of this study was to implement a spectral database representative of food spoilage molds. To this end, after application of a standardized extraction protocol, 6477 spectra were acquired from 618 fungal strains belonging to 136 species and integrated in the VITEK MS database. The performances of this database were then evaluated by cross-validation and ∼95% of correct identification to the species level was achieved, independently of the cultivation medium and incubation time. The database was also challenged with external isolates belonging to 52 species claimed in the database and 90% were correctly identified to the species level. To our best knowledge, this is the most comprehensive database of food-relevant filamentous fungi developed to date. This study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS could be an alternative to conventional techniques for the rapid and reliable identification of spoilage fungi in food and industrial environments.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Fungos/classificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica/normas , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/normas
16.
Food Microbiol ; 81: 97-107, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910092

RESUMO

Biopreservation represents a complementary approach to traditional hurdle technologies for reducing microbial contaminants (pathogens and spoilers) in food. In the dairy industry that is concerned by fungal spoilage, biopreservation can also be an alternative to preservatives currently used (e.g. natamycin, potassium sorbate). The aim of this study was to develop antifungal fermentates derived from two dairy substrates using a sequential approach including an in vitro screening followed by an in situ validation. The in vitro screening of the antifungal activity of fermentates derivating from 430 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (23 species), 70 propionibacteria (4 species) and 198 fungi (87 species) was performed against four major spoilage fungi (Penicillium commune, Mucor racemosus, Galactomyces geotrichum and Yarrowia lipolytica) using a cheese-mimicking model. The most active fermentates were obtained from Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum among the tested LAB, Propionibacterium jensenii among propionibacteria, and Mucor lanceolatus among the tested fungi. Then, for the 11 most active fermentates, culture conditions were optimized by varying incubation time and temperature in order to enhance their antifungal activity. Finally, the antifungal activity of 3 fermentates of interest obtained from Lactobacillus rhamnosus CIRM-BIA1952, P. jensenii CIRM-BIA1774 and M. lanceolatus UBOCC-A-109193 were evaluated in real dairy products (sour cream and semi-hard cheese) at a pilot-scale using challenge and durability tests. In parallel, the impact of these ingredients on organoleptic properties of the obtained products was also assessed. In semi-hard cheese, application of the selected fermentates on the cheese surface delayed the growth of spoilage molds for up to 21 days, without any effect on organoleptic properties, P. jensenii CIRM-BIA1774 fermentate being the most active. In sour cream, incorporation of the latter fermentate at 2 or 5% yielded a high antifungal activity but was detrimental to the product organoleptic properties. Determination of the concentration limit, compatible with product acceptability, showed that incorporation of this fermentate at 0.4% prevented growth of fungal contaminants in durability tests but had a more limited effect against M. racemosus and P. commune in challenge tests. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the workflow followed in this study, from in vitro screening using dairy matrix to scale-up in cheese and sour cream, is applied for production of natural ingredients relying on a large microbial diversity in terms of species and strains. This approach allowed obtaining several antifungal fermentates which are promising candidates for dairy products biopreservation.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Produtos Fermentados do Leite/microbiologia , Laticínios/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Queijo/microbiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Fermentação , Fungos/metabolismo , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mucor/efeitos dos fármacos , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionibacterium/metabolismo , Yarrowia/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(6): 4971-4976, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605322

RESUMO

In this study, we developed a high-throughput antifungal activity screening method using a cheese-mimicking matrix distributed in 24-well plates. This method allowed rapid screening of a large variety of antifungal agent candidates: bacterial fermented ingredients, bacterial isolates, and preservatives. Using the proposed method, we characterized the antifungal activity of 44 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermented milk-based ingredients and 23 LAB isolates used as protective cultures against 4 fungal targets (Mucor racemosus, Penicillium commune, Galactomyces geotrichum, and Yarrowia lipolytica). We also used this method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of a preservative, natamycin, against 9 fungal targets. The results underlined the strain-dependency of LAB antifungal activity, the strong effect of fermentation substrate on this activity, and the effect of the screening medium on natamycin minimum inhibitory concentration. Our method could achieved a screening rate of 1,600 assays per week and can be implemented to evaluate antifungal activity of microorganisms, fermentation products, or purified compounds compatible with dairy technology.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillales/fisiologia , Animais , Antibiose , Antifúngicos , Bovinos , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/fisiologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/imunologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Leite/microbiologia , Natamicina/farmacologia
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 33(10): 188, 2017 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965275

RESUMO

Fungi are commonly involved in dairy product spoilage and the use of bioprotective cultures can be a complementary approach to reduce food waste and economic losses. In this study, the antifungal activity of 89 Lactobacillus and 23 Pediococcus spp. isolates against three spoilage species, e.g., Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Penicillium brevicompactum, was first evaluated in milk agar. None of the tested pediococci showed antifungal activity while 3, 23 and 43 lactobacilli isolates showed strong antifungal activity or total inhibition against Y. lipolytica, R. mucilaginosa and P. brevicompactum, respectively. Then, the three most promising strains, Lactobacillus paracasei SYR90, Lactobacillus plantarum OVI9 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus BIOIII28 at initial concentrations of 105 and 107 CFU/ml were tested as bioprotective cultures against the same fungal targets in a yogurt model during a 5-week storage period at 10 °C. While limited effects were observed at 105 CFU/ml inoculum level, L. paracasei SYR90 and L. rhamnosus BIOIII28 at 107 CFU/ml respectively retarded the growth of R. mucilaginosa and P. brevicompactum as compared to a control without selected cultures. In contrast, growth of Y. lipolytica was only slightly affected. In conclusion, these selected strains may be good candidates for bioprotection of fermented dairy products.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Laticínios/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Pediococcus/fisiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Probióticos , Rhodotorula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Yarrowia/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 109(Pt 1): 439-451, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935499

RESUMO

While the reality of mycotoxin co-occurrence in food commodities is now established, their effects in mixtures are not well studied. The present study investigated the individual and combined effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin (T2), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and moniliformin (MON) fusariotoxins on cell viability and cell death mechanisms in proliferating HepaRG cells, a human derived liver cell line. In addition, DON-ZEA being one of the most widespread mycotoxin mixtures in grains worldwide, its effect on the expression levels of genes encoding for sets of hepatocyte-specific functions was studied. After 48 h, T2 appeared to be the most cytotoxic tested fusariotoxins, followed by NIV, DON and ZEA. Furthermore, at low cytotoxic doses, all tested fusariotoxin mixtures (DON-MON, DON-FB1, DON-ZEA and NIV-T2) acted synergistically on cell death. Interestingly, during the first 18 h of exposure, only FB1 and ZEA alone and in combination with DON seemed to induce cell apoptosis and necrosis. At the gene level, after only 1 h, DON-ZEA combination induced expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes contrary to individual exposures. Thus, the observed synergy of fusariotoxin mixtures suggested that their simultaneous presence in food commodities can induce a toxic risk that should be better taken into consideration.


Assuntos
Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxina T-2/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/citologia , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Toxicol Lett ; 280: 238-246, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865950

RESUMO

While numerous surveys highlighted the natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in food, data about their toxicological combined effects is still limited. This is especially the case for chronic exposure conditions, although the latter are more representative of the mycotoxin risk associated with food consumption than acute exposure. In the present study, cell viability and gene expression levels of relevant hepatocyte-specific functions were evaluated for the HepaRG human liver cell line exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) and/or zearalenone (ZEA) during 14, 28 and 42days at three subtoxic concentrations corresponding to i) the determined average exposure dose of French adult population, ii) the tolerable daily intake established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee and iii) the maximum level permitted by the European regulation in cereals intended for direct human consumption. For the latter, DON and DON+ZEA induced 90% cell mortality after 14days. In addition, depending on the considered toxin or mixture, doses and exposure periods, important variations of gene expression levels were observed. Despite the fact that in vitro conditions differ from the in vivo situation, the obtained results clearly highlighted that long-term toxicological effects of chronic exposure to mycotoxin combinations should be further investigated and, if necessary, taken into consideration at the regulatory level.


Assuntos
Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Tricotecenos/administração & dosagem , Zearalenona/administração & dosagem
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