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2.
Ther Innov Regul Sci ; 58(1): 175-183, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37872439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care inequity includes the lack of adequate representation of various populations in clinical trials. Government, academic and industry organizations have highlighted these issues and committed to actions to improve. In order to assess the current status and future success of these initiatives a quantitative objective measure to assess the state of clinical trial diversity is needed. METHODS: FDA review documents for all novel drug approvals from January 2022 through March 2023 were assessed using a scorecard that considers diversity across different demographic subgroups including age (≥ 65 years old), sex (female), race (Black and Asian) and ethnicity (Hispanic/Latino). The scorecard assigns each drug a letter grade, between A and F, for each subgroup (and overall) based on (1) the percent of each sub-population included in the trials and grades relative to the percent of the US population per the 2020 Census, (2) the number of participants from each subpopulation that received the novel new drug in the trials, (3) the incidence or prevalence of the disease/condition in each of the sub-populations. RESULTS: The FDA approved 49 novel new drugs for 50 indications (one drug was simultaneously approved for two indications). There was good representation of elderly and females with only two drugs receiving a D grade in either of these sub-populations. In contrast, Black (5 F grades) and Hispanic (4 F grades) representation was often inadequate. There were 10 drugs (20.0%) where there were no Black participants receiving the novel new drug and 16 (32.0%) approvals where there were 1-9 Black participants receiving the novel drug. In the Hispanic/Latino population there were 4 (8.0%) approvals with no Hispanic participants receiving the novel drug and 15 (30.0%) approvals where there were 1-9 Hispanic participants receiving the drug. CONCLUSIONS: This scorecard provides an objective quantitative approach to assess the current state of diversity in clinical trials supporting new drug approvals. Substantial improvement in racial and ethnic representation is needed. Meaningful change will require actions and cooperation among all stakeholders to address this multifaceted issue and will take commitment, perseverance, and appropriate incentives.


Assuntos
Aprovação de Drogas , Etnicidade , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Estados Unidos , Projetos de Pesquisa , United States Food and Drug Administration , Indústrias
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 12(24): e030042, 2023 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38108253

RESUMO

The United States witnessed a nearly 4-fold increase in personal health care expenditures between 1980 and 2010. Despite innovations and obvious benefits to health, participants enrolled in clinical trials still do not accurately represent the racial and ethnic composition of patients nationally or globally. This lack of diversity in cohorts limits the generalizability and significance of results among all populations and has deep repercussions for patient equity. To advance diversity in clinical trials, robust evidence for the most effective strategies for recruitment of diverse participants is needed. A major limitation of previous literature on clinical trial diversity is the lack of control or comparator groups for different strategies. To date, interventions have focused primarily on (1) community-based interventions, (2) institutional practices, and (3) digital health systems. This review article outlines prior intervention strategies across these 3 categories and considers health policy and ethical incentives for substantiation before US Food and Drug Administration approval. There are no current studies that comprehensively compare these interventions against one another. The American Heart Association Strategically Focused Research Network on the Science of Diversity in Clinical Trials represents a multicenter, collaborative network between Stanford School of Medicine and Morehouse School of Medicine created to understand the barriers to diversity in clinical trials by contemporaneous head-to-head interventional strategies accessing digital, institutional, and community-based recruitment strategies to produce informed recruitment strategies targeted to improve underrepresented patient representation in clinical trials.


Assuntos
American Heart Association , Instalações de Saúde , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Política de Saúde , Assistência Médica , Diversidade Cultural , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37883184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive BP lowering in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) produced acute decreases in kidney function and higher risk for AKI. We evaluated the effect of intensive BP lowering on long-term changes in kidney function using trial and outpatient electronic health record (EHR) creatinine values. METHODS: SPRINT data were linked with EHR data from 49 (of 102) study sites. The primary outcome was the total slope of decline in eGFR for the intervention phase and the post-trial slope of decline during the observation phase using trial and outpatient EHR values. Secondary outcomes included a ≥30% decline in eGFR to <60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 and a ≥50% decline in eGFR or kidney failure among participants with baseline eGFR ≥60 and <60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , respectively. RESULTS: EHR creatinine values were available for a median of 8.3 years for 3041 participants. The total slope of decline in eGFR during the intervention phase was -0.67 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 per year (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.79 to -0.56) in the standard treatment group and -0.96 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 per year (95% CI, -1.08 to -0.85) in the intensive treatment group ( P < 0.001). The slopes were not significantly different during the observation phase: -1.02 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 per year (95% CI, -1.24 to -0.81) in the standard group and -0.85 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 per year (95% CI, -1.07 to -0.64) in the intensive group. Among participants without CKD at baseline, intensive treatment was associated with higher risk of a ≥30% decline in eGFR during the intervention (hazard ratio, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.43 to 4.40), but not during the postintervention observation phase. In those with CKD at baseline, intensive treatment was associated with a higher hazard of eGFR decline only during the intervention phase (hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.03 to 3.70). CONCLUSIONS: Intensive BP lowering was associated with a steeper total slope of decline in eGFR and higher risk for kidney events during the intervention phase of the trial, but not during the postintervention observation phase.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37174180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhancement of diversity within the U.S. research workforce is a recognized need and priority at a national level. Existing comprehensive programs, such as the National Research Mentoring Network (NRMN) and Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI), have the dual focus of building institutional research capacity and promoting investigator self-efficacy through mentoring and training. METHODS: A qualitative comparative analysis was used to identify the combination of factors that explain the success and failure to submit a grant proposal by investigators underrepresented in biomedical research from the RCMI and non-RCMI institutions. The records of 211 participants enrolled in the NRMN Strategic Empowerment Tailored for Health Equity Investigators (NRMN-SETH) program were reviewed, and data for 79 early-stage, underrepresented faculty investigators from RCMI (n = 23) and non-RCMI (n = 56) institutions were included. RESULTS: Institutional membership (RCMI vs. non-RCMI) was used as a possible predictive factor and emerged as a contributing factor for all of the analyses. Access to local mentors was predictive of a successful grant submission for RCMI investigators, while underrepresented investigators at non-RCMI institutions who succeeded with submitting grants still lacked access to local mentors. CONCLUSION: Institutional contexts contribute to the grant writing experiences of investigators underrepresented in biomedical research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Tutoria , Humanos , Fortalecimento Institucional , Grupos Minoritários/educação , Mentores
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37174259

RESUMO

The National Research Mentoring Network (NRMN) Strategic Empowerment Tailored for Health Equity Investigators (SETH) study evaluates the value of adding Developmental Network to Coaching in the career advancement of diverse Early-Stage Investigators (ESIs). Focused NIH-formatted Mock Reviewing Sessions (MRS) prior to the submission of grants can significantly enhance the scientific merits of an ESI's grant application. We evaluated the most prevalent design, analysis-related factors, and the likelihood of grant submissions and awards associated with going through MRS, using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and logistic regression methods. A total of 62 out of 234 applications went through the MRS. There were 69.4% that pursued R grants, 22.6% career development (K) awards, and 8.0% other grant mechanisms. Comparing applications that underwent MRS versus those that did not (N = 172), 67.7% vs. 38.4% were submitted for funding (i.e., unadjusted difference of 29.3%; OR = 4.8, 95% CI = (2.4, 9.8), p-value < 0.0001). This indicates that, relative to those who did not undergo MRS, ESIs who did, were 4.8 times as likely to submit an application for funding. Also, ESIs in earlier cohorts (1-2) (a period that coincided with the pre COVID-19 era) as compared to those who were recruited at later cohorts (3-4) (i.e., during the peak of COVID-19 period) were 3.8 times as likely to submit grants (p-value < 0.0001). The most prevalent issues that were identified included insufficient statistical design considerations and plans (75%), conceptual framework (28.3%), specific aims (11.7%), evidence of significance (3.3%), and innovation (3.3%). MRS potentially enhances grant submissions for extramural funding and offers constructive feedback allowing for modifications that enhance the scientific merits of research grants.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , COVID-19 , Equidade em Saúde , Tutoria , Humanos , Estados Unidos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mentores
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36981658

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly taxed scientific research and seems to have exacerbated existing inequities within the research field, particularly for early-stage investigators (ESIs). This study examines the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on traditionally underrepresented ESIs enrolled in an NIH-supported study evaluating the effectiveness of developmental networks, grant writing coaching, and mentoring on research career advancement. The survey consisted of 24 closed-ended (quantitative) and 4 open-ended questions (qualitative) linked to a participant's ability to meet grant submission deadlines, research and professional development disruptions, stress level, career transition level, self-efficacy and management of scholarly tasks, and familial responsibilities. Results from 32 respondents (53%) suggest that COVID-19 adversely impacted the continuity of research (81%) and grant submissions (63%). On average, grant submissions were delayed by 6.69 months (i.e., greater than one grant cycle). We also conducted additional analyses characterizing nonresponse and found that there were no significant predictors of nonresponse, indicating a limited threat to the validity of our findings. The disruption caused by COVID-19 to the careers of ESIs from underrepresented groups in the biomedical workforce has been profound in the short term. The long-term consequences to the future success of these groups are unknown but is a worthwhile area of research and potential innovation.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , COVID-19 , Equidade em Saúde , Tutoria , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tutoria/métodos , Mentores
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36981709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper reports on the implementation and evaluation of a strategy to promote collaborations and team science among investigators at the Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI). The strategy presented in this paper was a hands-on workshop that allowed the application of strategic team science through structured dialogue, asset sharing, and systematic exploration of opportunities for collaboration. METHODS: The workshop was attended by more than 100 participants, including RCMI and non-RCMI investigators, practice-based research network (PBRN) supplement program directors, and an NIH Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Program Officer. RESULTS: A post-workshop survey was administered to collect participant feedback, assess the relevance of the workshop to the participants' professional development goals, and gauge the applicability of the tool as a support strategy to promote collaborative research. Most of the participants acknowledged that the session met the conference objectives (95.8%), and 93.7% noted that the workshop, to a high degree, met their personal goals and objectives. During the workshop, participants shared 35 resources they were willing and able to offer for prospective collaborative projects. CONCLUSION: The experience reported and evaluated in this paper paves the way to understanding methods for disseminating effective strategies for inter-institutional collaborations for the sustainable growth and operation of PBRNs.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Pesquisa Translacional Biomédica , Humanos , Pesquisa Translacional Biomédica/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Grupos Minoritários , Saúde das Minorias
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19797, 2022 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396674

RESUMO

The World Health Organization recently defined hypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2D) as modifiable comorbidities leading to dementia and Alzheimer's disease. In the United States (US), hypertension and T2D are health disparities, with higher prevalence seen for Black and Hispanic minority groups compared to the majority White population. We hypothesized that elevated prevalence of hypertension and T2D risk factors in Black and Hispanic groups may be associated with dementia disparities. We interrogated this hypothesis using a cross-sectional analysis of participant data from the All of Us (AoU) Research Program, a large observational cohort study of US residents. The specific objectives of our study were: (1) to compare the prevalence of dementia, hypertension, and T2D in the AoU cohort to previously reported prevalence values for the US population, (2) to investigate the association of hypertension, T2D, and race/ethnicity with dementia, and (3) to investigate whether race/ethnicity modify the association of hypertension and T2D with dementia. AoU participants were recruited from 2018 to 2019 as part of the initial project cohort (R2019Q4R3). Participants aged 40-80 with electronic health records and demographic data (age, sex, race, and ethnicity) were included for analysis, yielding a final cohort of 125,637 individuals. AoU participants show similar prevalence of hypertension (32.1%) and T2D (13.9%) compared to the US population (32.0% and 10.5%, respectively); however, the prevalence of dementia for AoU participants (0.44%) is an order of magnitude lower than seen for the US population (5%). AoU participants with dementia show a higher prevalence of hypertension (81.6% vs. 31.9%) and T2D (45.9% vs. 11.4%) compared to non-dementia participants. Dominance analysis of a multivariable logistic regression model with dementia as the outcome shows that hypertension, age, and T2D have the strongest associations with dementia. Hispanic was the only race/ethnicity group that showed a significant association with dementia, and the association of sex with dementia was non-significant. The association of T2D with dementia is likely explained by concurrent hypertension, since > 90% of participants with T2D also had hypertension. Black race and Hispanic ethnicity interact with hypertension, but not T2D, to increase the odds of dementia. This study underscores the utility of the AoU participant cohort to study disease prevalence and risk factors. We do notice a lower participation of aged minorities and participants with dementia, revealing an opportunity for targeted engagement. Our results indicate that targeting hypertension should be a priority for risk factor modifications to reduce dementia incidence.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensão , Saúde da População , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hipertensão/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(3): e23535, 2022 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35302506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A critical unmet need for underserved patients with diabetes is regular access to sufficient support for diabetes self-management. Although advances in digital technologies have made way for eHealth applications that provide a scalable path for tailored interventions for self-management of chronic conditions, health and digital literacy has remained an obstacle to leveraging these technologies for effective diabetes self-management education. Studies have shown that the availability of coaches helps to maintain engagement in internet-based studies and improves self-efficacy for behavior change. However, little is known about the substances involved in these interactions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the content of conversations between patient-coach pairs that achieved their self-management goals and those that did not. The context is a clinical implementation study of diabetes self-management behavior change using Health360x within the practices of the Morehouse Choice Accountable Care Organization in the Atlanta metro area. Health360x is a coach-assisted consumer health information technology designed to support self-management skills acquisition and behavior among underserved, high-risk patients with diabetes. METHODS: We provide a novel analysis of the discursive emphasis on patients and coaches. We examined transcripts of visits using a structural topic model to estimate topic content and prevalence as a function of patient and coach characteristics. We compared topics between patient-coach pairs that achieved diabetes-related self-management goals and those who did not. We also estimated a regression in which utterances are the units, the dependent variable is the proportion of an utterance that is about a given topic, and the independent variables are speaker types and explored other themes. RESULTS: Transcripts from 50 patients who were recruited and consented, starting in February 2015, were analyzed. A total of 44 topics were estimated for patient-coach pairs that achieved their intended health goals and 50 topics for those who did not. Analysis of the structural topic model results indicated that coaches in patient-coach pairs that were able to achieve self-management goals provided more contextual feedback and probed into patients' experience with technology and trust in consumer information technologies. We also found that discussions around problem areas and stress, support (ßCoach=.015; P<.001), initial visits (ßCoach=.02; P<.001), problems with technology (ßCoach=.01; P<.001), health eating goals (ßCoach=.01; P=.04), diabetes knowledge (ßCoach=.02; P<.001), managing blood sugar (ßCoach=.03; P<.001), and using Health360x (ßCoach=.003; P=.03) were dominated by coaches. CONCLUSIONS: Coach-facilitated, technology-based diabetes self-management education can help underserved patients with diabetes. Our use of topic modeling in this application sheds light on the actual dynamics in conversations between patients and coaches. Knowledge of the key elements for successful coach-patient interactions based on the analysis of transcripts could be applied to understanding everyday patient-provider encounters, given the recent paradigm shift around the use of telehealth.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Tutoria , Autogestão , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Tecnologia
12.
Vasc Med ; 27(1): 13-20, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549642

RESUMO

Arterial stiffness is a precursor for the development of hypertension and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity has been associated with lower arterial stiffness among largely White populations, but the types of activity required and whether these findings apply to Black adults remain unknown. We examined whether physical activity levels were associated with arterial stiffness among Black adults in two independent cohorts. In the Morehouse-Emory Cardiovascular (MECA) Center for Health Equity, 378 Black adults (age 52.8 ± 10.3, 39.7% male) without known CVD living in Atlanta, GA were recruited. Arterial stiffness was measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV). Total and domain-specific physical activity were assessed by self-report. Multiple linear regression models were used to investigate differences across physical activity levels after adjusting for age, sex, CVD risk factors, and socioeconomic status. Findings were validated in an independent cohort of Black adults (n = 55, age 50.4 ± 9.2, 23.6% male). After adjustment for covariates, lower arterial stiffness was associated with higher self-reported levels of sport/exercise (6.92 ± 1.13 vs 7.75 ± 1.14, p < 0.001, highest vs lowest quartile) and home/life activities (7.34 ± 1.24 vs 7.73 ± 1.07, p = 0.04, highest vs lowest quartile), but not work, active living, or the overall physical activity scores. These findings were replicated in the independent cohort where higher levels of sport/exercise remained associated with lower arterial stiffness (6.66 ± 0.57 vs 8.21 ± 0.66, p < 0.001, highest vs lowest quartile). Higher levels of sport/exercise and home/life-related physical activities (in comparison to occupational physical activity) are associated with lower arterial stiffness in Black adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco
13.
Ann Epidemiol ; 65: 120.e1-120.e10, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285258

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neighborhood environment is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of cardiovascular health (CVH) among Black adults. Most research to date has focused on negative aspects of the neighborhood environment, with little attention being paid to the specific positive features, in particular the social environment, that promote cardiovascular resilience among Black adults.We examined whether better neighborhood physical and social characteristics are associated with ideal CVH among Black adults, as measured by Life's Simple 7 (LS7) scores. METHODS: We recruited 392 Black adults (age 53 ± 10 years, 39% men) without known CV disease living in Atlanta, GA. Seven neighborhood domains were assessed via questionnaire: asthetic quality, walking environment, safety, food access, social cohesion, activity with neighbors, and violence. CVH was determined by LS7 scores calculated from measured blood pressure; glucose; cholesterol; body mass index (BMI); and self-reported exercise, diet, and smoking, and categorized into poor (0-8), intermediate (9-10), and ideal (11-14). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between neighborhood characteristics and the odds of intermediate/ideal CVH categories compared with poor CVH after adjustment for age, gender, household income, education, marital status, and employment status. RESULTS: Better scores in the neighborhood domains of social cohesion and activity with neighbors were significantly associated with higher adjusted odds of ideal LS7 scores (OR 2.02, 95% CI [1.36-3.01] and 1.71 [1.20-2.45] per 1 standard deviation [SD] increase in respective scores). These associations were stronger for both social cohesion (OR 2.61, 95% CI [1.48-4.61] vs. 1.40 [0.82-2.40]) and activity with neighbors (OR 1.82, 95% CI [1.15-2.86] vs. 1.53 [0.84-2.78]) in Black women than men. Specifically, better scores in social cohesion were associated with higher odds of ideal CVH in exercise (OR 1.73 [1.16-2.59]), diet (OR 1.90 [1.11-3.26]), and BMI (OR 1.52 [1.09-2.09]); better scores in activity with neighbors were also similarly associated with higher odds of ideal CVH in exercise (OR 1.48 [1.00-2.19]), diet (OR 2.15 [1.23-3.77]), and BMI (OR 1.45 [1.07-1.98]; per 1 SD in respective scores). CONCLUSIONS: More desirable neighborhood characteristics, particularly social cohesion and activity with neighbors, were associated with better CVH among Black adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Equidade em Saúde , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características da Vizinhança , Fatores de Risco
14.
PLOS Digit Health ; 1(10): e0000119, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36812567

RESUMO

Digital health innovations, such as telehealth and remote monitoring, have shown promise in addressing patient barriers to accessing evidence-based programs and providing a scalable path for tailored behavioral interventions that support self-management skills, knowledge acquisition and promotion of relevant behavioral change. However, significant attrition continues to plague internet-based studies, a result we believe can be attributed to characteristics of the intervention, or individual user characteristics. In this paper, we provide the first analysis of determinants of non usage attrition in a randomized control trial of a technology-based intervention for improving self-management behaviors among Black adults who face increased cardiovascular risk factors. We introduce a different way to measure nonusage attrition that considers usage over a specific period of time and estimate a cox proportional hazards model of the impact of intervention factors and participant demographics on the risk of a nonusage event. Our results indicated that not having a coach (compared to having a coach) decreases the risk of becoming an inactive user by 36% (HR = .63, P = 0.04). We also found that several demographic factors can influence Non-usage attrition: The risk of nonusage attrition amongst those who completed some college or technical school (HR = 2.91, P = 0.04) or graduated college (HR = 2.98, P = 0.047) is significantly higher when compared to participants who did not graduate high school. Finally, we found that the risk of nonsage attrition among participants with poor cardiovascular from "at-risk" neighborhoods with higher morbidity and mortality rates related to CVD is significantly higher when compared to participants from "resilient" neighborhoods (HR = 1.99, P = 0.03). Our results underscore the importance of understanding challenges to the use of mhealth technologies for cardiovascular health in underserved communities. Addressing these unique barriers is essential, because a lack of diffusion of digital health innovations exacerbates health disparities.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831759

RESUMO

Introduction: Adding developmental networks (DN) to grant-writing coaching can significantly enhance ESIs' research careers. Herein, we present study design, ESIs' characteristics and encountered challenges/lessons learned and their resolutions when deploying/implementing (a) NCR algorithm(s), (b) recruitment/retention and (c) implementing DN intervention. Methods: Nested Cluster Randomization (NCR) design governs this study implementation. The sample size is 220 ESIs intending to submit an NIH K, R, U, and/or Minority Supplement application(s). Primary outcome: intensity/sustainability of grant submission(s)/funding(s), measured by time to/between application(s). Outcome(s) analyses modes: summaries, Kaplan Meir and Cox proportional hazard models as a function of randomization groups and other predictors of outcomes. Results: In the present study, we recruited two cohorts of ESIs (N = 85): 39% African Americans, 18% Latinx, 18% Whites, 20% Asians and 6% Hawaiian/Pacific Islander/other ethnicities; 65% are women; 73% are assistant professors, 4% are Associate Professors and 23% are instructors/scientists/post-doctoral. Participants' disciplines: 32% basic/biomedical, 36% clinical/translational and 32% social/behavioral. Proposal(s) mechanisms: 61% research grants (R series), 31% career development (K series), 7% support of competitive research (SCORE) and 1% National Science Foundation applications. NCR did produce balance in the distribution of ESIs' demographics, sex at birth, ethnicity, professional appointments, background disciplines, and mechanism of sought funding. Lessons learned/challenges: NCR implementation was methodologically challenged during implementation by added constraints (e.g., assigning coaches to the same randomization arm of their participants as well as blinding them to ESIs' randomization group). Recruitment and retention were hampered by the COVID-19 pandemic and more progressive and innovative strategies were needed to heighten the visibility and outreach of this program. DN delivery was also affected by the pandemic and monitoring of ESIs' engagement and facilitation of communications interventions were needed. Resolution of these challenges effectively reconfigured NCR algorithms, recruitment/retention plans, and DN intervention delivery. We intend to recruit an additional 135 ESIs focusing on underrepresented scholars from RCMIs, CTSAs, and other programs. COVID-19 rendered this program 100% virtual, with recruitment/retention challenges and substantial disruption of ESIs' research. We may extend the grant writing period, coaching, and Mock Study Section support.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , COVID-19 , Tutoria , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 14(9): e007904, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early trauma (general, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse before age 18 years) has been associated with both cardiovascular disease risk and lifestyle-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity. Despite higher prevalence, the association between early trauma and cardiovascular health (CVH) has been understudied in Black Americans, especially those from low-income backgrounds, who may be doubly vulnerable. Therefore, we investigated the association between early trauma and CVH, particularly among low-income Black Americans. METHODS: We recruited 457 Black adults (age 53±10, 38% male) without known cardiovascular disease from the Atlanta, GA, metropolitan area using personalized, community-based recruitment methods. The Early Trauma Inventory was administered to assess overall early traumatic life experiences which include physical, sexual, emotional abuse, and general trauma. Our primary outcome was the American Heart Association Life's Simple 7, which is a set of 7 CVH metrics, including 4 lifestyle-related factors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three physiologically measured health factors (blood pressure, total blood cholesterol, and blood glucose). We used linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and depression to test the association between early trauma and CVH and tested the early trauma by household income (<$50 000) interaction. RESULTS: Higher levels of early trauma were associated with lower Life's Simple 7 scores (ß, -0.05 [95% CI, -0.09 to -0.01], P=0.02, per 1 unit increase in the Early Trauma Inventory score) among lower, but not higher, income Black participants (P value for interaction=0.04). Subtypes of early trauma linked to Life's Simple 7 were general trauma, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse. Exploratory analyses demonstrated that early trauma was only associated with the body mass index and smoking components of Life's Simple 7. CONCLUSIONS: Early trauma, including general trauma, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse, may be associated with worse CVH among low-, but not higher-income Black adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Equidade em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Negro ou Afro-Americano , American Heart Association , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915812

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one killer of adults in the U.S., with marked ethnic/racial disparities in prevalence, risk factors, associated health behaviors, and death rates. In this study, we recruited and randomized Blacks with poor cardiovascular health in the Atlanta Metro area to receive an intervention comparing two approaches to engagement with a behavioral intervention technology for CVD. Generalized Linear Mixed Models results from a 6-month intervention indicate that 53% of all participants experienced a statistical improvement in Life's Simple 7 (LS7), 54% in BMI, 61% in blood glucose, and 53% in systolic blood pressure. Females demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in BMI and diastolic blood pressure and a reduction in self-reported physical activity. We found no significant differences in changes in LS7 or their constituent parts but found strong evidence that health coaches can help improve overall LS7 in participants living in at-risk neighborhoods. In terms of clinical significance, our result indicates that improvements in LS7 correspond to a 7% lifetime reduction of incident CVD. Our findings suggest that technology-enabled self-management can be effective for managing selected CVD risk factors among Blacks.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Autogestão , Adulto , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Tecnologia
18.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(10): e006638, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite well-documented cardiovascular disparities between racial groups, within-race determinants of cardiovascular health among Black adults remain understudied. Factors promoting cardiovascular resilience among Black adults in particular warrant further investigation. Our objective was to examine whether individual psychosocial resilience and neighborhood-level cardiovascular resilience were associated with better cardiovascular health in Black adults, measured utilizing Life's Simple 7 (LS7) scores. METHODS: We assessed LS7 scores in 389 Black adults (mean age, 53±10 years; 39% men) living in Atlanta, Georgia. A composite score of individual psychosocial resilience was created by assessing environmental mastery, purpose in life, optimism, resilient coping, and depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level cardiovascular resilience was separately determined by the census tract-level rates of cardiovascular mortality/morbidity events. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to examine the association between individual psychosocial resilience, neighborhood cardiovascular resilience, and LS7 scores. RESULTS: Higher individual psychosocial resilience was significantly associated with higher LS7 (ß=0.38 [0.16-0.59] per 1 SD) after adjustment for sociodemographic factors. Similarly, higher neighborhood-level cardiovascular resilience was significantly associated with higher LS7 (ß=0.23 [0.02-0.45] per 1 SD). When jointly examined, high individual psychosocial resilience (>median) was independently associated with higher LS7 (ß=0.73 [0.31-1.17]), whereas living in high-resilience neighborhoods (>median) was not. The largest difference in LS7 score was between those with high and low psychosocial resilience living in low-resilience neighborhoods (8.38 [7.90-8.86] versus 7.42 [7.04-7.79]). CONCLUSIONS: Individual psychosocial resilience in Black adults is associated with better cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Equidade em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Características de Residência , Resiliência Psicológica , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Raciais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(12): 1655-1663, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044494

RESUMO

Importance: There are concerns with translating results from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) into clinical practice because the standardized protocol used to measure blood pressure (BP) may not be consistently applied in routine clinical practice. Objectives: To evaluate the concordance between BPs obtained in routine clinical practice and those obtained using the SPRINT protocol and whether concordance varied by target trial BP. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational prognostic study linking outpatient vital sign information from electronic health records (EHRs) with data from 49 of the 102 SPRINT sites was conducted from November 8, 2010, to August 20, 2015, among 3074 adults 50 years or older with hypertension without diabetes or a history of stroke. Statistical analysis was performed from May 21, 2019, to March 20, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Blood pressures measured in routine clinical practice and SPRINT. Results: Participant-level EHR data was obtained for 3074 participants (2482 men [80.7%]; mean [SD] age, 68.5 [9.1] years) with 3 or more outpatient and trial BP measurements. In the period from the 6-month study visit to the end of the study intervention, the mean systolic BP (SBP) in the intensive treatment group from outpatient BP recorded in the EHR was 7.3 mm Hg higher (95% CI, 7.0-7.6 mm Hg) than BP measured at trial visits; the mean difference between BP recorded in the outpatient EHR and trial SBP was smaller for participants in the standard treatment group (4.6 mm Hg [95% CI, 4.4-4.9 mm Hg]). Bland-Altman analyses demonstrated low agreement between outpatient BP recorded in the EHR and trial BP, with wide agreement intervals ranging from approximately -30 mm Hg to 45 mm Hg in both treatment groups. In addition, the difference between BP recorded in the EHR and trial BP varied widely by site. Conclusions and Relevance: Outpatient BPs measured in routine clinical practice were generally higher than BP measurements taken in SPRINT, with greater mean SBP differences apparent in the intensive treatment group. There was a consistent high degree of heterogeneity between the BPs recorded in the EHR and trial BPs, with significant variability over time, between and within the participants, and across clinic sites. These results highlight the importance of proper BP measurement technique and an inability to apply 1 common correction factor (ie, approximately 10 mm Hg) to approximate research-quality BP estimates when BP is not measured appropriately in routine clinical practice. Trial Registration: SPRINT ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01206062.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Sístole
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(9): e015247, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340530

RESUMO

Background Cardiovascular disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality have declined in the past several decades; however, disparities persist among subsets of the population. Notably, blacks have not experienced the same improvements on the whole as whites. Furthermore, frequent reports of relatively poorer health statistics among the black population have led to a broad assumption that black race reliably predicts relatively poorer health outcomes. However, substantial intraethnic and intraracial heterogeneity exists; moreover, individuals with similar risk factors and environmental exposures are often known to experience vastly different cardiovascular health outcomes. Thus, some individuals have good outcomes even in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors, a concept known as resilience. Methods and Results The MECA (Morehouse-Emory Center for Health Equity) Study was designed to investigate the multilevel exposures that contribute to "resilience" in the face of risk for poor cardiovascular health among blacks in the greater Atlanta, GA, metropolitan area. We used census tract data to determine "at-risk" and "resilient" neighborhoods with high or low prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, based on cardiovascular death, hospitalization, and emergency department visits for blacks. More than 1400 individuals from these census tracts assented to demographic, health, and psychosocial questionnaires administered through telephone surveys. Afterwards, ≈500 individuals were recruited to enroll in a clinical study, where risk biomarkers, such as oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers, endothelial progenitor cells, metabolomic and microRNA profiles, and subclinical vascular dysfunction were measured. In addition, comprehensive behavioral questionnaires were collected and ideal cardiovascular health metrics were assessed using the American Heart Association's Life Simple 7 measure. Last, 150 individuals with low Life Simple 7 were recruited and randomized to a behavioral mobile health (eHealth) plus health coach or eHealth only intervention and followed up for improvement. Conclusions The MECA Study is investigating socioenvironmental and individual behavioral measures that promote resilience to cardiovascular disease in blacks by assessing biological, functional, and molecular mechanisms. REGISTRATION URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03308812.


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia , Adulto , Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Prognóstico , Fatores Raciais , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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