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1.
Cad Saude Publica ; 40(2): e00009923, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381863

RESUMO

The habit of eating specific meals has been addressed in several studies, but the evaluation of meal patterns has received less attention. This study aimed to describe the meal patterns of the Brazilian population. A complex sampling design was used to select the 46,164 ≥ 10-year-old individuals examined in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey. Food consumption was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls applied throughout a one-week period. The exploratory data analysis approach was used to determine the meal patterns, i.e., how individuals combined the main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) and snacks (morning, afternoon, evening/night) throughout the day. The most common meal patterns were three main meals + one snack, reported by 25.1% of the individuals, and three main meals + two snacks (24.6%). Other meal patterns identified were: three main meals + three snacks (18.5%); three main meals and no snacks (10.9%); one or two main meals + two snacks (7.4%); one or two main meals + one snack (6.9%); one or two main meals + three snacks (4.2%); and one or two main meals and no snacks (2.3%). Meal patterns varied according to gender and age group, and on typical versus atypical food consumption days. We found that eight patterns characterized the daily meal consumption in Brazil. Furthermore, around 80% of the population had three main meals every day and about 13% did not report having any snacks. The characterization of meal habits is important for tailoring and targeting health promotion actions.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Refeições , Lanches , Humanos , Brasil , Dieta , População da América do Sul
2.
Br J Nutr ; 131(9): 1591-1599, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38174420

RESUMO

This study evaluated changes in the use of sweeteners over one decade and the relationship between socio-demographics, diet and weight status with the type of sweetener. Data came from the Brazilian National Dietary Surveys of 2008-2009 and 2017-2018, including ≥ 10-year-old individuals (n 32 749; n 44 744, respectively, after excluding pregnant and lactating women). The use of table sugar, non-caloric sweeteners (NCS), both or none was reported through a specific question. Food consumption was assessed using two non-consecutive food records (2008-2009) and 24-h recalls (2017-2018). For the last survey, means of energy, macro and micronutrient intake, food groups' contribution (%) to daily energy intake and age- and energy-adjusted nutrient intake were estimated according to the type of sweetener used. Differences in means and proportions across the categories of sweeteners used were evaluated based on the 95 % CI. All analyses were stratified by sex and considered sample design and weights. Over 10 years, the use of table sugar decreased by 8 %, while the habit of not using any sweetener increased almost three times, and the use of NCS remained stable. Larger reductions in the use of table sugar were observed in the highest income level and among men. Regardless of sex, compared with NCS users, table sugar users had greater mean intake of energy, carbohydrates and added sugar and lower micronutrient intake means. Although table sugar is still the most used sweetener, the increased choice of 'no sweetener' is noteworthy in Brazil.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Adolescente , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dieta , Adoçantes não Calóricos/administração & dosagem , Edulcorantes , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 40(2): e00009923, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534116

RESUMO

The habit of eating specific meals has been addressed in several studies, but the evaluation of meal patterns has received less attention. This study aimed to describe the meal patterns of the Brazilian population. A complex sampling design was used to select the 46,164 ≥ 10-year-old individuals examined in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey. Food consumption was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls applied throughout a one-week period. The exploratory data analysis approach was used to determine the meal patterns, i.e., how individuals combined the main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) and snacks (morning, afternoon, evening/night) throughout the day. The most common meal patterns were three main meals + one snack, reported by 25.1% of the individuals, and three main meals + two snacks (24.6%). Other meal patterns identified were: three main meals + three snacks (18.5%); three main meals and no snacks (10.9%); one or two main meals + two snacks (7.4%); one or two main meals + one snack (6.9%); one or two main meals + three snacks (4.2%); and one or two main meals and no snacks (2.3%). Meal patterns varied according to gender and age group, and on typical versus atypical food consumption days. We found that eight patterns characterized the daily meal consumption in Brazil. Furthermore, around 80% of the population had three main meals every day and about 13% did not report having any snacks. The characterization of meal habits is important for tailoring and targeting health promotion actions.


Os hábitos de consumo de refeições específicas têm sido abordados em diversos estudos, no entanto, a avaliação dos padrões refeições tem recebido menos atenção. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os padrões de refeições da população brasileira. Um desenho amostral complexo foi utilizado para selecionar os 46.164 indivíduos de ≥ 10 anos examinados no Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação de 2017-2018. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por meio de dois recordatórios de 24 horas não consecutivos, aplicados durante um período de uma semana. A análise exploratória de dados foi utilizada para determinar os padrões de refeições, ou seja, como os indivíduos combinam as principais refeições (café da manhã, almoço, jantar) e lanches (manhã, tarde, noite) ao longo do dia. Os padrões de refeições mais frequentes foram três refeições principais + um lanche, conforme relatado por 25,1% dos indivíduos, e três refeições principais + dois lanches (24,6%). Outros padrões de refeições identificados foram: três refeições principais + três lanches (18,5%); três refeições principais e nenhum lanche (10,9%); uma ou duas refeições principais + dois lanches (7,4%); uma ou duas refeições principais + um lanche (6,9%); uma ou duas refeições principais + três lanches (4,2%); e uma ou duas refeições principais e nenhum lanche (2,3%). Os padrões de refeições variaram de acordo com o sexo e a faixa etária, e nos dias típicos em comparação com os atípicos de consumo alimentar. Verificou-se que oito padrões caracterizaram o consumo diário de refeições no Brasil. Além disso, cerca de 80% da população realizava três refeições principais diárias e cerca de 13% reportaram não lanchar. A caracterização dos padrões de refeições é importante para adequar e direcionar ações de promoção da saúde.


Los hábitos alimenticios específicos se han abordado en varios estudios, sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la evaluación de los patrones de alimentación. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir el patrón de alimentación de la población brasileña. Se utilizó un diseño de muestra complejo para seleccionar a 46.164 individuos de ≥ 10 años quienes participaron en la Encuesta Nacional de Alimentación 2017-2018. El consumo alimentario se evaluó mediante dos registros de 24 horas no consecutivos, aplicados durante una semana. Para determinar el patrón de alimentación, se aplicó el análisis exploratorio, es decir, cómo las personas combinan las comidas principales (desayuno, almuerzo, cena) y las meriendas (mañana, tarde, noche) a lo largo del día. Los patrones de alimentación más frecuentes fueron tres comidas principales + una merienda según informan el 25,1% de los individuos, y tres comidas principales + dos meriendas (24,6%). Otros patrones identificados destacaron tres comidas principales + tres meriendas (18,5%); tres comidas principales sin merienda (10,9%); una o dos comidas principales + dos meriendas (7,4%); una o dos comidas principales + una merienda (6,9%); una o dos comidas principales + tres meriendas (4,2%); y una o dos comidas principales sin merienda (2,3%). Los patrones de alimentación tuvieron una variación según el sexo y el grupo de edad, y en días típicos en comparación con los atípicos de consumo de alimentos. Se encontró que ocho patrones caracterizan el consumo diario de comidas en Brasil. Por lo tanto, aproximadamente el 80% de la población tienen tres comidas principales al día y aproximadamente el 13% informan que no tienen merienda. Es importante caracterizar los patrones de alimentación para adaptar y orientar las acciones de promoción de la salud.

4.
Nutr Bull ; 48(4): 546-558, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37904632

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate characteristics and changes over a decade in dietary carbohydrate and lipid quality according to socio-demographic variables. Data was obtained from two Brazilian National Dietary Surveys 2008-2009 (n = 34 003) and 2017-2018 (n = 46 164) examining a nationwide representative sample of individuals ≥10 years old. Food intake was assessed by means of two non-consecutive diet records (2008-2009) and 24 h diet recalls (2017-2018). Carbohydrate Quality Index is a score ranging from 4 to 20 calculated from fibre intake, global dietary glycaemic index, solid/total carbohydrate (CHO) and whole grains/total grains CHO. Lipid Quality Index was estimated by dividing the sum of the dietary content of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids by the sum of saturated and trans fatty acids. Indices were categorised into five categories (1 for lowest and 5 for highest quality). Socio-demographic variables were sex, age, income, urban/rural area and place of food consumption. The estimates (95% CI) were generated separately for each survey and then compared to identify changes in time. Our main findings refer to changes in diet quality according to income. At the lowest income level, the proportions of individuals in the best carbohydrate and lipid quality categories reduced from 26.9% to 20.6% and from 30.0% to 24.9%, respectively. Alternatively, at the highest income level, these proportions increased from 22.9% to 26.6% and from 11.9% to 15.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the quality of lipids improved in women and among individuals reporting some away-from-home food consumption, while the quality of carbohydrates was reduced among adolescents and in rural areas.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta , Ácidos Graxos trans , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Brasil , Dieta , Renda
5.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1453, 2023 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37516844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials to treat childhood obesity show modest results, weight regain and high dropout rates. Children with obesity often live in families with habits that contribute to unhealthy weight gain. This study will test whether a family intervention with a Brazilian-adapted Planetary Healthy Diet (PHD) and reduced portion sizes, along with increased physical activity and reduced sedentary behavior, can reduce excessive weight gain. The protocol promotes the intake of in natura products and water and reduces ultra-processed foods, sugar, and sodium. It encourages family lifestyle changes and physical activities, with randomized allocation to experimental and control groups. The responsible family member will be evaluated during follow-up. The control group will receive a print of the Brazilian dietary guideline. METHODS: A factorial crossover design will also allocate families to receive reduced sodium salt plus anti-inflammatory herbs and a placebo salt. Both the control and intervention groups will be randomly assigned to the sequence of both salts. The approach aims to reduce body weight expectations and evaluate salt's impact on blood pressure. It includes a 1-month intervention, 1-month washout, and 1-month intervention with monthly clinic visits and teleservice by health professionals. The primary outcomes will be the variation in the Body Mass Index (BMI) of the children. BMI and the variation in the blood pressure of the pair (child/mother or father) as well as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) will also be measured. DISCUSSION: The project will test the effectiveness of the use of the recommendations of the PHD, physical activity and a salt-reduced sodium. The results of the present study will allow the refinement of interventions aimed at the treatment of childhood obesity and may help develop guidelines for the treatment of obesity in Brazilian children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered in the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (RBR-10 mm62vs). Registered 10 February 2023.


Assuntos
Obesidade Infantil , Criança , Humanos , Obesidade Infantil/prevenção & controle , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Aumento de Peso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Sódio , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Pediatr Obes ; 18(5): e13011, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36747355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet may play a role in the regulation of obesity-related low-grade chronic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: Assess the association of the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) with anthropometric indicators of adiposity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: Data were collected from 71 740 adolescents (12-17 years old) examined in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents. Food consumption was assessed by means of one 24-h dietary recall, and DII was estimated using 39 food parameters. The body mass index (weight/height2 ) for age and sex was used to define overweight (>1 z-score). Abdominal obesity was indicated by waist circumference (WC) values >80th percentile and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) > 0.50. The association between DII and anthropometric indicators was assessed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: The mean DII score was higher in girls than in boys (0.77; SD = 0.04 vs. 0.04; SD = 0.05). Adolescents in the 4th quartile of DII, compared with those in the 1st quartile, had increased odds of being overweight (boys: OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.37; 2.25; girls: OR = 1.63; 95%CI: 1.36; 1.95), having abdominal obesity (boys: OR = 1.61; 95%CI: 1.33; 1.95; girls: OR = 1.73; 95%CI: 1.48; 2.03), and having high WHtR (boys: OR = 1.91; 95%CI: 1.52; 2.39; girls: OR = 1.75; 95%CI: 1.46; 2.11). CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed a direct association between the dietary inflammatory potential measured by DII and adiposity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Sobrepeso , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Obesidade , Dieta , Índice de Massa Corporal , Circunferência da Cintura
7.
Am J Hum Biol ; 35(6): e23871, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36733224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: University students are vulnerable to unhealthy eating habits that characterize a proinflammatory diet. This study aimed to estimate the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and its association with the trajectory of body adiposity markers in university students. METHODS: The study analyzed data from 685 students entering a Brazilian public university in 2016 and 2017 and followed until 2018. DII was estimated from 39 dietary parameters obtained by 24-h dietary recall. Body adiposity was assessed by anthropometric markers and the percentage of body fat. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the trajectory of adiposity markers according to DII tertiles. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounding variables, at baseline, DII showed a positive association with increased percentage of body fat among men (ß = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.01; 1.03) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; ß = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.12; 0.18) and among women with all body adiposity markers: BMI (ß = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.30; 1.05), percentage of body fat (ß = 1.43; 95% CI: 0.74; 2.11), WC (ß = 1.15; 95% CI: 0.41; 1.89) and WHtR (ß = 0.13; 95% CI:0,10; 0.16). The rate of change of the outcome variables over time was not associated with DII at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: The diet of university students in this Brazilian cohort study was characterized as proinflammatory and it was associated with body adiposity markers.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Obesidade , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Universidades , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Estudantes , Fatores de Risco
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 28(2): 609-618, fev. 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421180

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed at assessing the association between psychosocial aspects and fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescents. Cross-sectional study developed with 327 adolescents from a public school in Brazil. A questionnaire developed for adolescents was applied to assess the influence of self-efficacy, family, peers, and body image on the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Specific questions assessed the intake frequency of fruits and vegetables, and the mean consumption was estimated using two 24-hour recalls. Scores related to psychosocial aspects were described as mean and median and the weight status was classified based on the body mass index. The average daily consumption of fruits and vegetables was 36.2 g and 45.4 g, respectively. Self-efficacy and the influence of peers were associated with an increase in the amount and frequency of fruits and vegetables consumption. Adolescents with higher scores of self-efficacy had greater average consumption of fruits and vegetables when compared to those with lower scores. The same was observed for the influence of peers. Self-efficacy and the influence of peers were the factors that most influenced the consumption of fruits and vegetables in adolescents.


Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a associação entre aspectos psicossociais e o consumo de frutas e hortaliças em adolescentes. Estudo transversal desenvolvido com 327 adolescentes de uma escola pública do Brasil. Um questionário desenvolvido para adolescentes foi aplicado para avaliar a influência da autoeficácia, família, pares e imagem corporal sobre o consumo de frutas e hortaliças. Questões específicas avaliaram a frequência de ingestão de frutas e hortaliças e o consumo foi estimado por meio de dois recordatórios de 24 horas. Os escores relacionados aos aspectos psicossociais foram descritos por média e mediana e a condição de peso foi classificada com base no índice de massa corporal. O consumo diário médio de frutas e hortaliças foi de 36,2 g e 45,4 g, respectivamente. A autoeficácia e a influência dos pares associaram-se ao aumento da quantidade e da frequência de consumo de frutas e hortaliças. Os adolescentes com maiores valores no escore para autoeficácia apresentaram maior média de consumo de frutas e hortaliças quando comparados àqueles com menores escores. O mesmo foi observado para a influência dos pares. A autoeficácia e a influência dos pares foram os fatores que mais influenciaram o consumo de frutas e hortaliças em adolescentes.

9.
Br J Nutr ; 130(7): 1179-1189, 2023 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627814

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the dietary Fe intake and the prevalence of inadequate Fe intake over two post-fortification periods in Brazil. The intake was analysed according to sex, life stage, geographic region and stratum of family income per capita. Excluding pregnant and lactating women, this population-based study included 32 749 and 44 744 participants aged ≥ 10 years from the National Dietary Survey-Brazilian Household Budget Surveys 2008-2009 and 2017-2018, respectively. The National Cancer Institute method was used to predict usual dietary Fe intakes. The prevalence of Fe intake inadequacy was estimated following a probabilistic approach for women of childbearing age or with the Estimated Average Requirement cut-off point method. Over an interval of 10 years, the mean Fe intake remained almost unchanged for most sex-age groups, except for women of childbearing age. In this specific group, the prevalence of Fe intake inadequacy was > 20 % in 2008-2009 and have increased to > 25 % in 2017-2018, with the highest reductions in mean Fe intake found in the highest income strata and richest Brazilian regions. Meanwhile, the highest prevalence of Fe intake inadequacy (> 40 %) occurred among the poorest women aged 31-50 years from the lowest family income stratum, irrespective of the study period. Beans were the main Fe source, while fortified breads, pastas, pizzas, cakes and cookies contributed approximately 40 % of the Fe intake. The results provide important insights into the long-standing dietary impacts of food fortification, which can guide future (re)formulation of effective public health strategies to combat Fe deficiency.


Assuntos
Ferro da Dieta , Ferro , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Brasil/epidemiologia , Lactação , Alimentos Fortificados
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(2): 609-618, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651411

RESUMO

This study aimed at assessing the association between psychosocial aspects and fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescents. Cross-sectional study developed with 327 adolescents from a public school in Brazil. A questionnaire developed for adolescents was applied to assess the influence of self-efficacy, family, peers, and body image on the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Specific questions assessed the intake frequency of fruits and vegetables, and the mean consumption was estimated using two 24-hour recalls. Scores related to psychosocial aspects were described as mean and median and the weight status was classified based on the body mass index. The average daily consumption of fruits and vegetables was 36.2 g and 45.4 g, respectively. Self-efficacy and the influence of peers were associated with an increase in the amount and frequency of fruits and vegetables consumption. Adolescents with higher scores of self-efficacy had greater average consumption of fruits and vegetables when compared to those with lower scores. The same was observed for the influence of peers. Self-efficacy and the influence of peers were the factors that most influenced the consumption of fruits and vegetables in adolescents.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Humanos , Adolescente , Dieta , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento Alimentar
11.
Cad. saúde colet., (Rio J.) ; 31(4): e31040433, 2023. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528258

RESUMO

Resumo Introdução: A qualidade de vida (QDV) favorável tem sido associada a dietas de melhor qualidade nutricional. Objetivo: Identificar padrões alimentares e estimar sua associação com a QDV em docentes universitários. Método: Estudo seccional com 112 docentes de uma universidade do Rio de Janeiro. Foram obtidos dados sociodemográficos, laborais, de saúde, estilo de vida, QDV e desgaste psíquico utilizando questionário autopreenchido. Consumo alimentar foi avaliado por questionário de frequência alimentar. Os padrões alimentares foram identificados por análise fatorial com extração por componentes principais, e sua associação com a QDV foi estimada por regressão linear múltipla. Resultados: 65% eram mulheres, 45% tinham ≥45 anos de idade e 43% apresentavam excesso de peso. O escore médio de QDV geral foi 70. Foram identificados os padrões alimentares: "lanche", "fast food", "restrito" e "básico". O padrão "restrito", composto por manteiga/margarina, pão, suco de fruta, laticínios e bebidas cafeinadas, apresentou associação direta com QDV geral e domínios psicológico e relações sociais; o padrão "lanche", composto por vegetais, carnes, frutas e bebidas cafeinadas, se associou diretamente ao domínio psicológico. Conclusões: Os padrões que mais explicaram a ingestão alimentar dos docentes eram de baixa qualidade nutricional. Padrão com teor reduzido de carboidratos associou-se com melhor QVD geral.


Abstract Background: Favorable quality of life (QOL) has been associated with diets with better nutritional quality. Objective: To identify dietary patterns and estimate their association with QOL among university faculty. Method: Cross-sectional study with faculty members (n=112) from a university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Information on socioeconomic, work, health, lifestyle, QOL, and psychological distress characteristics were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by means of a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis with principal component extraction and their association with QOL scores was estimated using multiple linear regression models. Results: 65% were women, 45% were ≥45 years old, and 43% were overweight. The mean general QOL score was 70.0. Four dietary patterns were identified: "snack", "fast food", "controlled", and "basic". The "controlled" pattern, including butter/margarine, bread, fruit juice, dairy, and caffeinated beverages, was directly associated with general QOL and "social relationships" and "psychological" domains, the latter was also directly associated with the "snack" pattern, composed by vegetables, meats, fruits, caffeinated beverages, and butter/margarine. Conclusions: The eating patterns that most explained faculty food consumption presented low nutritional quality, while the pattern with limited carbohydrate content was associated with better general QOL.

12.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 36: e210180, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441032

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To identify the food environment healthy eating potential in the authorized food services on the campus of a Brazilian university. Methods This is an observational study carried out between March and April 2014 on a campus of a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The elements of the food environment were evaluated using an audit instrument, containing 86 questions: availability (amount of food services and types of food offered), convenience (days and hours of operation), incentives and barriers to healthy eating (nutrition information, payment strategies and food advertisements). Preparations based on whole grains and fresh or minimally processed products were considered healthy foods; and, preparations with high caloric density, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets, desserts, cookies, and savory snacks were considered unhealthy food. The questionnaire allowed us to calculate a score for each service, which could range from 0 to 36 points, and indicates the potential for promoting healthy eating in the establishment, with higher scores indicating a greater presence of elements that contribute to healthy eating. The different types of food service facilities were compared based on the scores (p<0.05 for statistical significance). Results Among the establishments evaluated, 24% were snack bars/cafeterias, 26%, restaurants, and 50% offered mixed services. Healthy food items were scarcely available in the establishments (fruits: 24%; vegetables: 20%; brown rice: 15%); while added-sugar beverages (98%), sweets and treats (76%) were widely offered. There was a higher frequency of advertising encouraging consumption of unhealthy items than that aimed at healthy foods (44% vs 30%). In general, the score was 13,2 points (SD=3.3) and the mean score for snack bars/cafeterias (9.3 points) was lower (p<0,05) than that of restaurants and mixed establishments (14,4 points). Conclusion On the campus assessed, the food environment had limited potential for healthy eating, since elements that did not favor healthy food choices were more frequent.


RESUMO Objetivo Identificar o potencial do ambiente alimentar para alimentação saudável em serviços permissionários no campus de uma universidade brasileira. Métodos Realizou-se um estudo observacional entre março e abril de 2014, em 54 serviços de alimentação permissionários de um campus de uma universidade pública do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os elementos do ambiente alimentar foram avaliados por meio de instrumento de auditoria contendo 86 questões: disponibilidade (quantidade de serviços de alimentação e tipos de alimentos comercializados), conveniência (dias e horários de funcionamento), estímulos e barreiras para a alimentação saudável (informação nutricional, estratégias de pagamento e propagandas de alimentos). As preparações à base de cereais integrais e produtos frescos ou minimamente processados foram considerados alimentos saudáveis e aquelas com elevada densidade calórica, bebidas com adição de açúcar, doces, sobremesas, guloseimas, biscoitos e lanches salgados foram considerados não saudáveis. O questionário permitiu calcular um escore, para cada serviço, que poderia variar entre 0 a 36 pontos, e indica o potencial para promoção da alimentação saudável no estabelecimento, sendo que escores mais elevados indicam maior presença de elementos que favorecem a alimentação saudável. Os diferentes tipos de serviços de alimentação permissionários foram comparados segundo os escores (p<0,05 para significância estatística). Resultados Dos estabelecimentos avaliados, 24% eram lanchonetes/cafeterias, 26%, restaurantes e 50%, mistos. Itens saudáveis eram disponibilizados de forma incipiente nos estabelecimentos (frutas: 24%; hortaliças: 20%; arroz integral: 15%), enquanto bebidas com adição de açúcar (98%) e doces e guloseimas (76%) eram amplamente ofertados. Havia maior frequência de propagandas incentivando o consumo de itens não saudáveis do que aquelas voltadas para alimentos saudáveis (44% vs 30%). De modo geral, o escore foi de 13,2 pontos (DP=3,3) e a média do escore de lanchonetes/cafeterias (9,3 pontos) era menor (p<0,05) do que a de restaurantes e estabelecimentos mistos (14,4 pontos). Conclusão O ambiente alimentar do campus avaliado apresentou potencial limitado para a alimentação saudável, uma vez que eram mais frequentes os elementos que não favoreciam escolhas alimentares saudáveis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Universidades , Alimentação Coletiva , Dieta Saudável , Restaurantes , Brasil , Inquéritos e Questionários , Lanches
13.
Nutr Bull ; 47(4): 449-460, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317893

RESUMO

This study was aimed at describing the snack consumption among Brazilian adolescents. The Brazilian National Dietary Survey (2017-2018) is a nationwide representative cross-sectional study that collected food consumption data from 8264 adolescents (10 to 19 years old); data from one 24-h recall were used, in which all foods and beverages consumed throughout the day prior to the interview were described along with the amount, unit of measurement, time, place and occasion of consumption (breakfast, lunch, dinner or snack). Snacks were classified as follows: (a) Morning snack: "Snacks" consumed between 6 AM and 12 PM; (b) Afternoon snack: "Snacks" consumed between 1 PM and 5 PM; (c) Evening snack: "Snacks" consumed between 6 PM and 5 AM. Individuals were categorised according to the number of "Snacks" per day (zero, one, two or three or more). Among the evaluated adolescents, 52.8% were female and 23.0% were overweight. The consumption of at least one snack per day was mentioned by 88.2% of the adolescents, with an average of 2.33 snacks per day. An afternoon snack was consumed by 70.0% of the adolescents. Snack consumption was related to higher mean daily energy intake and a greater contribution of carbohydrates, added sugar and trans fat to the total daily energy intake. 'Cookies & Crackers' and 'Fast Foods' were the groups that contributed the most to the energy intake provided by snacks, showing, therefore, that less healthy foods were relevant components of the snacks consumed. For their important contribution to food intake, snacking habits deserve attention among the topics covered in dietary guidelines.


Assuntos
Dieta , Lanches , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Brasil , Hábitos
14.
Nutr Res ; 107: 65-74, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191403

RESUMO

Reducing salt intake is considered one of the most cost-effective interventions to decrease morbidity and mortality resulting from noncommunicable diseases. This study aimed to describe changes in sodium intake in the Brazilian population using data from the National Dietary Surveys (NDS) conducted in 2008-2009 and 2017-2018. We hypothesized that over the 10-year period evaluated, sodium intake has remained high in Brazil. Nationwide representative samples of 34,003 and 46,164 individuals (aged ≥10 years) from NDS 2008-2009 and 2017-2018, respectively, were evaluated. Food consumption data were obtained from 2 nonconsecutive food records (NDS 2008-2009) and two 24-hour food recalls (NDS 2017-2018). Trends, percentiles of distribution, and proportions of the population exceeding the age-specific tolerable upper intake level for sodium were estimated. Dietary sodium intake was also estimated as a function of energy intake (mg/1000 kcal). Overall, mean crude daily sodium intake was slightly lower in 2017-2018 than in 2008-2009 (2489 mg/d vs. 2529 mg/d). The decrease in sodium intake (mg/day) was statistically significant (P < .05) only among female adolescents and subjects in the highest income level. Additionally, an overall statistically significant increase in dietary sodium density was observed independent of age, sex, and income level for energy-adjusted data (P < .05). Our findings indicate that sodium intake has not significantly changed over time in the Brazilian population; thus, policies aimed at reducing sodium intake in Brazil are necessary.


Assuntos
Dieta , Sódio na Dieta , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Brasil , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia
16.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(7): e00249821, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894363

RESUMO

Existing methods for assessing food consumption are subject to measurement errors, especially the underreporting of energy intake, characterized by reporting energy intake below the minimum necessary to maintain body weight. This study aimed to compare the identification of energy intake underreporters using different predictive equations and instruments to collect dietary data. The study was conducted with 101 selected participants in the third wave of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo. For the dietary assessment, we applied a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), two 24-hour diet recall (24hR) using the GloboDiet software, and two 24hR using the Brasil-Nutri software. The energy intake underreport obtained from the FFQ was 13%, 16%, and 1% using the equations proposed by Goldberg et al. (1991), Black (2000), and McCrory et al. (2002), respectively. With these same equations, the 24hR described an underreport of 9.9%, 14.9%, and 0.9% respectively with the GloboDiet software and 14.7%, 15.8%, and 1.1% respectively with the Brasil-Nutri software. We verified a low prevalence of underreported energy intake among the three self-report-based dietary data collection methods (FFQ, 24hR with GloboDiet, and Brasil-Nutri). Though no statistically significant differences were found among three methods, the equations for each method differed among them. The agreement of energy intake between the methods was very similar, but the best was between GloboDiet and Brasil-Nutri.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Adulto , Brasil , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(6): e00144521, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703666

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have supported the hypothesis that dietary calcium intake is protective for adiposity. This study aimed to estimate the association of dietary calcium with adiposity indicators during adolescence. This is a cohort study with high school adolescents (n = 962) from selected schools of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which were followed from 2010 to 2012. Calcium intake was assessed by a validated self-reported food frequency questionnaire. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of dietary calcium intake were performed regarding body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (%BF), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). The analysis of variance was used for cross-sectional analysis with baseline data and linear mixed models applied to assess changes across the follow-up. At baseline, BMI, %BF, fat mass, and FMI (p for trend < 0.05) had lower means at the highest quintile of calcium intake whereas FFM and FFMI had higher means (p for trend < 0.05), especially for boys. During follow-up, boys had decreased FMI at the 4th and 5th quintiles of calcium intake (p < 0.05); among girls, only WC was significantly lower at the 4th quintile than in the 1st. These results support the hypothesis that low calcium intake increases adiposity among adolescents.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Cálcio da Dieta , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cálcio , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Obesidade
19.
Psychol Health Med ; 27(6): 1311-1325, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459044

RESUMO

Entering university brings on changes in lifestyle and psychological stress and has been associated with increased risk of 1988 in college students. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of depressive symptoms and associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors among university students. A dynamic cohort of freshmen was followed up for three years, starting at their entry to university (baseline) and then annually. A structured auto administered questionnaire was applied to obtain information on age, sex, economic class, living situation, smoking and drinking, sedentary and sleep behaviors, and change in physical activity after university admission. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionaire-9. Incidence and incidence rate of depressive symptoms were calculated. Poisson Regression with robust variance was used to identify risk factors associated to these disorders. A total of 1,034 students without depressive symptoms at baseline were investigated. The overall incidence of depressive symptoms was 28.3% and the incidence rate (IR) was 2.12, being greater for females (2.75) than males (1.65). The IR decreased over time for both males (from 2.61 to 0.41) and females (from 4.25 to 0.54). A greater risk of depressive symptoms was observed for younger male students compared to those ≥20 years old (IRRadj = 1.64) and for women who reported concomitant use of alcohol and tobacco compared to those that reported no smoking and no alcohol consumption. For both males (IRRadj = 2.80) and females (IRRadj = 1.91), severe stress level was associated with greater risk of depressive symptoms when compared to mild stress level. Depressive Symptoms occurred more significantly in females, in the early years of undergraduate course, in males <20 years old, and among those with high stress level. Understanding the possible causes of depression is essential to promote mental health and well-being among college student.


Assuntos
Depressão , Fatores Sociodemográficos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
Br J Nutr ; 128(8): 1638-1646, 2022 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776028

RESUMO

The objectives were to compare the evolution of dietary folate intake, to estimate the prevalence of folate inadequacy (POFI) and the contribution of food groups to folate intake (dietary folate plus folic acid from fortified foods) in two post-fortification periods in the Brazilian population, according to life stages, geographic regions and per capita income. Population-based study including representative data from the National Dietary Survey - Brazilian Household Budget Surveys (NDS-HBS) 2008-2009 and 2017-2018, with a total of 32 749 (2008-2009) and 44 744 (2017-2018) individuals aged ≥ 10 years old, excluding pregnant and lactating women. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the distributions of usual dietary folate intake. POFI was estimated according to estimated average requirement cut-off point method. After 10 years of the first NDS-HBS, POFI has increased in all sex-age groups, except for 10-13 years. POFI among women of reproductive age was around 30 and 40 % in 2008-2009 and 2017-2018. Higher POFI was observed in the North region. The top five food groups contributors to folate intake in Brazil were beans, breads, pasta and pizza, cakes and cookies and non-alcoholic beverages groups in both periods, differing in the rank order of the last two groups. Although being a country that has adopted mandatory folic acid flour fortification for almost two decades, increased POFI was observed in 2017-2018. This study brings significant scientific information, which can help understand folate dietary data in different contexts and consequently guide the approach for public health fortification strategies.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico , Lactação , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Brasil , Alimentos Fortificados , Prevalência
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