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Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(12): 123907, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972440


In photoelectron spectroscopy, the measured electron momentum range is intrinsically related to the excitation photon energy. Low photon energies <10 eV are commonly encountered in laser-based photoemission and lead to a momentum range that is smaller than the Brillouin zones of most materials. This can become a limiting factor when studying condensed matter with laser-based photoemission. An additional restriction is introduced by widely used hemispherical analyzers that record only electrons photoemitted in a solid angle set by the aperture size at the analyzer entrance. Here, we present an upgrade to increase the effective solid angle that is measured with a hemispherical analyzer. We achieve this by accelerating the photoelectrons toward the analyzer with an electric field that is generated by a bias voltage on the sample. Our experimental geometry is comparable to a parallel plate capacitor, and therefore, we approximate the electric field to be uniform along the photoelectron trajectory. With this assumption, we developed an analytic, parameter-free model that relates the measured angles to the electron momenta in the solid and verify its validity by comparing with experimental results on the charge density wave material TbTe3. By providing a larger field of view in momentum space, our approach using a bias potential considerably expands the flexibility of laser-based photoemission setups.

Nature ; 484(7395): 493-7, 2012 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22538612


A quantum critical point (QCP) arises when a continuous transition between competing phases occurs at zero temperature. Collective excitations at magnetic QCPs give rise to metallic properties that strongly deviate from the expectations of Landau's Fermi-liquid description, which is the standard theory of electron correlations in metals. Central to this theory is the notion of quasiparticles, electronic excitations that possess the quantum numbers of the non-interacting electrons. Here we report measurements of thermal and electrical transport across the field-induced magnetic QCP in the heavy-fermion compound YbRh(2)Si(2) (refs 2, 3). We show that the ratio of the thermal to electrical conductivities at the zero-temperature limit obeys the Wiedemann-Franz law for magnetic fields above the critical field at which the QCP is attained. This is also expected for magnetic fields below the critical field, where weak antiferromagnetic order and a Fermi-liquid phase form below 0.07 K (at zero field). At the critical field, however, the low-temperature electrical conductivity exceeds the thermal conductivity by about 10 per cent, suggestive of a non-Fermi-liquid ground state. This apparent violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law provides evidence for an unconventional type of QCP at which the fundamental concept of Landau quasiparticles no longer holds. These results imply that Landau quasiparticles break up, and that the origin of this disintegration is inelastic scattering associated with electronic quantum critical fluctuations--these insights could be relevant to understanding other deviations from Fermi-liquid behaviour frequently observed in various classes of correlated materials.