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1.
Front Neurosci ; 18: 1281840, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356649

RESUMO

Introduction: Alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiome have been reported in idiopathic epilepsy (IE), however, interactions of gut microbes with the enteric nervous system (ENS) in this context require further study. This pilot study examined how gastrointestinal microbiota (GIM), their metabolites, and nutrients contained in intestinal contents communicate with the ENS. Methods: Fecal supernatants (FS) from healthy dogs and dogs with IE, including drug-naïve, phenobarbital (PB) responsive, and PB non-responsive dogs, were applied to cultured myenteric neurons to test their activation using voltage-sensitive dye neuroimaging. Additionally, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the FS were quantified. Results: Our findings indicate that FS from all examined groups elicited neuronal activation. Notably, FS from PB non-responsive dogs with IE induced action potential discharge in a higher proportion of enteric neurons compared to healthy controls, which exhibited the lowest burst frequency overall. Furthermore, the highest burst frequency in enteric neurons was observed upon exposure to FS from drug-naïve dogs with IE. This frequency was significantly higher compared to that observed in PB non-responsive dogs with IE and showed a tendency to surpass that of healthy controls. Discussion: Although observed disparities in SCFA concentrations across the various FS samples might be associated with the induced neuronal activity, a direct correlation remains elusive at this point. The obtained results hint at an involvement of the ENS in canine IE and set the basis for future studies.

2.
Animals (Basel) ; 14(2)2024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38254385

RESUMO

Bile acid metabolism is a key pathway modulated by intestinal microbiota. Peptacetobacter (Clostridium) hiranonis has been described as the main species responsible for the conversion of primary into secondary fecal unconjugated bile acids (fUBA) in dogs. This multi-step biochemical pathway is encoded by the bile acid-inducible (bai) operon. We aimed to assess the correlation between P. hiranonis abundance, the abundance of one specific gene of the bai operon (baiCD), and secondary fUBA concentrations. In this retrospective study, 133 fecal samples were analyzed from 24 dogs. The abundances of P. hiranonis and baiCD were determined using qPCR. The concentration of fUBA was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The baiCD abundance exhibited a strong positive correlation with secondary fUBA (ρ = 0.7377, 95% CI (0.6461, 0.8084), p < 0.0001). Similarly, there was a strong correlation between P. hiranonis and secondary fUBA (ρ = 0.6658, 95% CI (0.5555, 0.7532), p < 0.0001). Animals displaying conversion of fUBA and lacking P. hiranonis were not observed. These results suggest P. hiranonis is the main converter of primary to secondary bile acids in dogs.

3.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(1): e17046, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273535

RESUMO

Declining oxygen concentrations in the deep waters of lakes worldwide pose a pressing environmental and societal challenge. Existing theory suggests that low deep-water dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations could trigger a positive feedback through which anoxia (i.e., very low DO) during a given summer begets increasingly severe occurrences of anoxia in following summers. Specifically, anoxic conditions can promote nutrient release from sediments, thereby stimulating phytoplankton growth, and subsequent phytoplankton decomposition can fuel heterotrophic respiration, resulting in increased spatial extent and duration of anoxia. However, while the individual relationships in this feedback are well established, to our knowledge, there has not been a systematic analysis within or across lakes that simultaneously demonstrates all of the mechanisms necessary to produce a positive feedback that reinforces anoxia. Here, we compiled data from 656 widespread temperate lakes and reservoirs to analyze the proposed anoxia begets anoxia feedback. Lakes in the dataset span a broad range of surface area (1-126,909 ha), maximum depth (6-370 m), and morphometry, with a median time-series duration of 30 years at each lake. Using linear mixed models, we found support for each of the positive feedback relationships between anoxia, phosphorus concentrations, chlorophyll a concentrations, and oxygen demand across the 656-lake dataset. Likewise, we found further support for these relationships by analyzing time-series data from individual lakes. Our results indicate that the strength of these feedback relationships may vary with lake-specific characteristics: For example, we found that surface phosphorus concentrations were more positively associated with chlorophyll a in high-phosphorus lakes, and oxygen demand had a stronger influence on the extent of anoxia in deep lakes. Taken together, these results support the existence of a positive feedback that could magnify the effects of climate change and other anthropogenic pressures driving the development of anoxia in lakes around the world.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos , Humanos , Clorofila A/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Retroalimentação , Hipóxia , Fósforo/análise , Oxigênio , Eutrofização
4.
Vet Sci ; 11(1)2024 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38250937

RESUMO

While shifts in gut microbiota have been studied in diseased states, the temporal variability of the microbiome in cats has not been widely studied. This study investigated the temporal variability of the feline dysbiosis index (DI) and the abundance of core bacterial groups in healthy adult cats. The secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between the fecal abundance of Clostridium hiranonis and the fecal concentrations of unconjugated bile acids. A total of 142 fecal samples collected from 17 healthy cats were prospectively included: nine cats with weekly collection over 3 weeks (at least four time points), five cats with monthly collection over 2 months (three time points), and three cats with additional collections for up to 10 months. The DI remained stable within the reference intervals over two months for all cats (Friedman test, p > 0.2), and 100% of the DI values (n = 142) collected throughout the study period remained within the RI. While some temporal individual variation was observed for individual taxa, the magnitude was minimal compared to cats with chronic enteropathy and antibiotic exposure. Additionally, the abundance of Clostridium hiranonis was significantly correlated with the percentage of fecal primary bile acids, supporting its role as a bile acid converter in cats.

5.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 77, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228637

RESUMO

Lake trophic state is a key ecosystem property that integrates a lake's physical, chemical, and biological processes. Despite the importance of trophic state as a gauge of lake water quality, standardized and machine-readable observations are uncommon. Remote sensing presents an opportunity to detect and analyze lake trophic state with reproducible, robust methods across time and space. We used Landsat surface reflectance data to create the first compendium of annual lake trophic state for 55,662 lakes of at least 10 ha in area throughout the contiguous United States from 1984 through 2020. The dataset was constructed with FAIR data principles (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reproducible) in mind, where data are publicly available, relational keys from parent datasets are retained, and all data wrangling and modeling routines are scripted for future reuse. Together, this resource offers critical data to address basic and applied research questions about lake water quality at a suite of spatial and temporal scales.

6.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(23)2023 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38066947

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to further describe the oral microbiota of healthy dogs by DNA shotgun sequencing and compare those to dogs with oral tumors. Oral swabs (representative of all niches of the oral cavity) were collected from healthy dogs (n = 24) and from dogs with different oral tumors (n = 7). DNA was extracted from the swabs and shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed. Only minor differences in microbiota composition were observed between the two groups. At the phylum level, the Bacteroidota, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota, Desulfobacterota and Firmicutes were most abundant in both groups. Observed Operational Taxonomic Units-OTUs (species richness) was significantly higher in the healthy patients, but there was no significant difference in the Shannon diversity index between the groups. No significant difference was found in beta diversity between the groups. The core oral microbiota consisted of 67 bacterial species that were identified in all 24 healthy dogs. Our study provides further insight into the composition of the oral microbiota of healthy dogs and in dogs with oral tumors.

7.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(17)2023 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37685017

RESUMO

Chronic enteropathy (CE) in cats encompasses food-responsive enteropathy, chronic inflammatory enteropathy (or inflammatory bowel disease), and low-grade intestinal T-cell lymphoma. While alterations in the gut metabolome have been extensively studied in humans and dogs with gastrointestinal disorders, little is known about the specific metabolic profile of cats with CE. As lipids take part in energy storage, inflammation, and cellular structure, investigating the lipid profile in cats with CE is crucial. This study aimed to measure fecal concentrations of various fatty acids, sterols, and bile acids. Fecal samples from 56 cats with CE and 77 healthy control cats were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, targeting 12 fatty acids, 10 sterols, and 5 unconjugated bile acids. Fecal concentrations of nine targeted fatty acids and animal-derived sterols were significantly increased in cats with CE. However, fecal concentrations of plant-derived sterols were significantly decreased in cats with CE. Additionally, an increased percentage of primary bile acids was observed in a subset of cats with CE. These findings suggest the presence of lipid maldigestion, malabsorption, and inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of cats with CE. Understanding the lipid alterations in cats with CE can provide insights into the disease mechanisms and potential future therapeutic strategies.

8.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0291028, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37682941

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing (NGS) studies in healthy equine eyes have shown a more diverse ocular surface microbiota compared to culture-based techniques. This study aimed to compare the bacterial ocular surface microbiota in both eyes of horses with unilateral ulcerative keratitis (UK) with controls free of ocular disease. Conjunctival swabs were obtained from both ulcerated eyes and unaffected eyes of 15 client-owned horses with unilateral UK following informed consent, as well as from one eye of 15 healthy horses. Genomic DNA was extracted from the swabs and sequenced on an Illumina platform using primers that target the V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA. Data were analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Molecular Ecology (QIIME2). The ocular surface of ulcerated eyes had significantly decreased species richness compared with unaffected fellow eyes (Chao1 q = 0.045, Observed ASVs p = 0.045) with no differences in evenness of species (Shannon q = 0.135). Bacterial community structure was significantly different between either eye of horses with UK and controls (unweighted UniFrac: control vs. unaffected, p = 0.03; control vs. ulcerated, p = 0.003; unaffected vs. ulcerated, p = 0.016). Relative abundance of the gram-positive taxonomic class, Bacilli, was significantly increased in ulcerated eyes compared with controls (q = 0.004). Relative abundance of the taxonomic family Staphylococcaceae was significantly increased in ulcerated and unaffected eyes compared with controls (q = 0.030). The results suggest the occurrence of dysbiosis in infected eyes and reveal alterations in beta diversity and taxa of unaffected fellow eyes. Further investigations are necessary to better understand the role of the microbiome in the pathophysiology of ocular surface disease.


Assuntos
Úlcera da Córnea , Ceratite , Cavalos , Animais , Úlcera da Córnea/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Olho , Face
9.
Front Vet Sci ; 10: 1213287, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37680388

RESUMO

The gut microbiome is critical for maintaining host health. In healthy humans, the aging process is one of the main factors modulating the changes in the intestinal microbiota. However, little is known about the relationship between gut health, microbiota, and the aging process in dogs. The present study aims to explore the differences in the intestinal microbiota and intestinal health based on fecal biomarkers in a population of dogs of different ages. The study involved 106 dogs of different breeds aged between 0.2 and 15 years categorized as senior (>7 years; n = 40), adult (2-7 years; n = 50), and junior (< 2 years; n = 16). Fecal samples were collected during the same period at the same facilities. The analysis included the following gut health indicators: 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the differences in the fecal microbiota; qPCR to determine the dysbiosis index; fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations; fecal calprotectin; and immunoglobulin A. Beta diversity analysis revealed a significant difference with a small effect size (p = 0.003; R = 0.087) among age categories based on the unweighted UniFrac metric, but no significance was observed based on the weighted UniFrac metric or Bray-Curtis distances. There were no significant differences in the alpha diversity measures or the fecal dysbiosis index among age categories. Senior dogs had significantly higher relative abundance proportions in phyla Bacteroidota and Pseudomonadota and the genus Faecalibacterium, but not on qPCR analysis. At the family level, Ruminococcaceae, Uncl. Clostridiales.1, Veillonellaceae, Prevotellaceae, Succinivibrionaceae, and Bacteroidaceae abundances were higher in the senior category than in the adult and/or junior categories. Relative proportions, but not concentrations of fecal acetate, were higher in the senior category, while butyrate, isovaleric acid, and valeric acid were lower. The valeric acid concentration was significantly lower in the senior category than in the adult category. Calprotectin and immunoglobulin A levels did not differ significantly across groups. In conclusion, this study observed multiple minor changes in the fecal microbiota composition and the relative amount of short-chain fatty acids in dogs among different age groups, but studies in larger populations representative of all ages are warranted to refine the present results.

10.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(16)2023 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37627387

RESUMO

DNA shotgun sequencing is an untargeted approach for identifying changes in relative abundances, while qPCR allows reproducible quantification of specific bacteria. The canine dysbiosis index (DI) assesses the canine fecal microbiota by using a mathematical algorithm based on qPCR results. We evaluated the correlation between qPCR and shotgun sequencing using fecal samples from 296 dogs with different clinical phenotypes. While significant correlations were found between qPCR and sequencing, certain taxa were only detectable by qPCR and not by sequencing. Based on sequencing, less than 2% of bacterial species (17/1190) were consistently present in all healthy dogs (n = 76). Dogs with an abnormal DI had lower alpha-diversity compared to dogs with normal DI. Increases in the DI correctly predicted the gradual shifts in microbiota observed by sequencing: minor changes (R = 0.19, DI < 0 with any targeted taxa outside the reference interval, RI), mild-moderate changes (R = 0.24, 0 < DI < 2), and significant dysbiosis (R = 0.54, 0.73, and 0.91 for DI > 2, DI > 5, and DI > 8, respectively), compared to dogs with a normal DI (DI < 0, all targets within the RI), as higher R-values indicated larger dissimilarities. In conclusion, the qPCR-based DI is an effective indicator of overall microbiota shifts observed by shotgun sequencing in dogs.

11.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(15)2023 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37570250

RESUMO

The role of Clostridioides (C.) difficile as an enteropathogen in dogs is controversial. In humans, intestinal bile acid-dysmetabolism is associated with C. difficile prevalence. The relationship between fecal qPCR-based dysbiosis index (DI) and especially the abundance of bile acid-converting Clostridium hiranonis with the presence of C. difficile in dogs was explored across the following 4 cohorts: 358 fecal samples submitted for routine diagnostic work-up, 33 dogs with chronic enteropathy, 14 dogs with acute diarrhea, and 116 healthy dogs. Dogs that tested positive for C. difficile had significantly higher DI (median, 4.4 (range from 0.4 to 8.6)) and lower C. hiranonis (median, 0.1 (range from 0.0 to 7.5) logDNA/g) than dogs that tested negative for C. difficile (median DI, -1 (range from -7.2 to 8.9); median C. hiranonis abundance, 6.2 (range from 0.1 to 7.5) logDNA/g; p < 0.0001, respectively). In 33 dogs with CE and 14 dogs with acute diarrhea, the treatment response did not differ between C. difficile-positive and -negative dogs. In the group of clinically healthy dogs, 9/116 tested positive for C. difficile, and 6/9 of these had also an abnormal DI. In conclusion, C. difficile is strongly linked to intestinal dysbiosis and lower C. hiranonis levels in dogs, but its presence does not necessitate targeted treatment.

12.
Front Vet Sci ; 10: 1148849, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37051512

RESUMO

Objectives: While feline chronic bronchitis (CB) is known as neutrophilic bronchial inflammation (NI), feline asthma (FA) is defined as an eosinophilic airway inflammation (EI). Feline chronic bronchial disease refers to both syndromes, with similar clinical presentations and applied treatment strategies. Recent studies described alterations of the microbiota composition in cats with FA, but little is known about the comparison of the lung microbiota between different types of feline bronchial disease. The study aimed to describe the bacterial microbiota of the lower respiratory tracts of cats with FA and CB and to identify potential differences. Methods: Twenty-two client-owned cats with FA (n = 15) or CB (n = 7) confirmed via bronchoalveolar-lavage (BALF)-cytology were included. Next-generation sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes was performed on bacterial DNA derived from BALF samples. QIIME was used to compare microbial composition and diversity between groups. Results: Evenness and alpha-diversity-indices did not significantly differ between cats with FA and CB (Shannon p = 0.084, Chao 1 p = 0.698, observed ASVs p = 0.944). Based on a PERMANOVA analysis, no significant differences were observed in microbial composition between animals of both groups (Bray-Curtis metric, R-value 0.086, p = 0.785; unweighted UniFrac metric, R-value -0.089, p = 0.799; weighted Unifrac metric, R-value -0.072, p = 0.823). Regarding taxonomic composition, significant differences were detected for Actinobacteria on the phylum level (p = 0.026), Mycoplasma spp. (p = 0.048), and Acinetobacteria (p = 0.049) on the genus level between cats with FA and CB, with generally strong interindividual differences seen. There was a significant difference in the duration of clinical signs before diagnosis in animals dominated by Bacteriodetes (median 12 months, range 2-58 months) compared to animals dominated by Proteobacteria (median 1 month, range 1 day to 18 months; p = 0.003). Conclusions and relevance: Lung microbiota composition is very similar in cat populations with spontaneous FA and CB besides small differences in some bacterial groups. However, with disease progression, the lung microbiome of cats with both diseases appears to shift away from dominantly Proteobacteria to a pattern more dominated by Bacteriodetes. A substantial proportion of cats tested positive for Mycoplasma spp. via sequencing, while none of them tested positive using classical PCR.

13.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(8)2023 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37106941

RESUMO

Cobalamin deficiency is a common sequela of chronic enteropathies (CE) in dogs. Studies comparing the intestinal microbiome of CE dogs with cobalamin deficiency to those that are normocobalaminemic are lacking. Therefore, our aim was to describe the fecal microbiome in a prospective, comparative study evaluating 29 dogs with CE and cobalamin deficiency, 18 dogs with CE and normocobalaminemia, and 10 healthy control dogs. Dogs with cobalamin deficiency were also analyzed after oral or parenteral cobalamin supplementation. Overall microbiome composition (beta diversity) at baseline was significantly different in CE dogs with cobalamin deficiency when compared to those with normocobalaminemia (p = 0.001, R = 0.257) and to healthy controls (p = 0.001, R = 0.363). Abundances of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were significantly increased (q = 0.010 and 0.049), while those of Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria were significantly decreased (q = 0.002 and 0.014) in CE dogs with cobalamin deficiency when compared to healthy controls. Overall microbiome composition in follow-up samples remained significantly different after 3 months in both dogs receiving parenteral (R = 0.420, p = 0.013) or oral cobalamin supplementation (R = 0.251, p = 0.007). Because cobalamin supplementation, in combination with appropriate therapy, failed to restore the microbiome composition in the dogs in our study, cobalamin is unlikely to be the cause of those microbiome changes but rather an indicator of differences in underlying pathophysiology that do not influence clinical severity but result in a significant aggravation of dysbiosis.

14.
Vet Sci ; 10(4)2023 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37104426

RESUMO

Chronic enteropathies (CE) are common in dogs, but not all affected dogs respond to standard therapy. Successful responses to faecal microbial transplantation (FMT) in dogs with non-responsive CE have been reported in two case series. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical effects of FMT as an adjunctive therapy in a larger population of dogs with CE. Forty-one dogs aged 0.6-13.0 years (median 5.8) under treatment for CE at one referral animal hospital were included. Dogs were treated with 1-5 (median 3) FMTs as a rectal enema at a dose of 5-7 g/kg body weight. The canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI) was compared at baseline versus after the last FMT. Stored faecal samples (n = 16) were analysed with the dysbiosis index. CIBDAI at baseline was 2-17 (median 6), which decreased to 1-9 (median 2; p < 0.0001) after FMT. Subsequently, 31/41 dogs responded to treatment, resulting in improved faecal quality and/or activity level in 24/41 and 24/41 dogs, respectively. The dysbiosis index at baseline was significantly lower for good responders versus poor responders (p = 0.043). Results suggest that FMT can be useful as an adjunctive therapy in dogs with poorly responsive CE.

15.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 39(2): 381-397, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37121786

RESUMO

The fecal microbiome of the horse is reflective of the large colon and plays an important role in the health of the horse. The microbes of the gastrointestinal tract digest fiber and produce energy for the host. Healthy horses have Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucromicrobia as the most common phyla. During gastrointestinal disease such as colic or colitis, the microbiome shows less diversity and changes in bacterial community composition.


Assuntos
Cólica , Doenças dos Cavalos , Microbiota , Cavalos , Animais , Cólica/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Bactérias , Fezes/microbiologia
16.
Microorganisms ; 11(2)2023 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36838473

RESUMO

The aim was to evaluate the effects of yeast probiotic on diet digestibility, fermentative metabolites, and fecal microbiota of dogs submitted to dietary change. Sixteen dogs were divided into two groups of eight dogs each: control, without, and with probiotic, receiving 0.12 g/dog/day of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. The dogs were fed a lower protein and fiber diet for 21 days and then changed to a higher protein and fiber diet until day 49. Yeast supplementation did not statistically influence diet digestibility. The probiotic group had a lower fecal concentration of total biogenic amines (days 21 and 49), ammonia (day 23), and aromatic compounds and a higher fecal concentration of butyrate (p < 0.05). The probiotic group showed a lower dysbiosis index, a higher abundance (p < 0.05) of Bifidobacterium (days 35 and 49) and Turicibacter, and a lower abundance of Lactobacillus and E. coli (p < 0.05). Beta diversity demonstrated a clear differentiation in the gut microbiota between the control and probiotic groups on day 49. The control group showed upregulation in genes related to virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and osmotic stress. The results indicated that the live yeast evaluated can have beneficial effects on intestinal functionality of dogs.

17.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(3)2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36766392

RESUMO

Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are considered to be interesting energy sources for dogs affected by chronic enteropathies (CE). This study analyzed the clinical scores, fecal microbiota, and metabolomes of 18 CE dogs fed a home-cooked diet (HCD) supplemented with virgin coconut oil (VCO), a source of MCFA, at 10% of metabolizable energy (HCD + VCO). The dogs were clinically evaluated with the Canine Chronic Enteropathy Activity Index (CCECAI) before and at the end of study. Fecal samples were collected at baseline, after 7 days of HCD, and after 30 days of HCD + VCO, for fecal score (FS) assessment, microbial analysis, and determination of bile acids (BA), sterols, and fatty acids (FA). The dogs responded positively to diet change, as shown by the CCECAI improvement (p = 0.001); HCD reduced fecal fat excretion and HCD + VCO improved FS (p < 0.001), even though an increase in fecal moisture occurred due to HCD (p = 0.001). HCD modified fecal FA (C6:0: +79%, C14:0: +74%, C20:0: +43%, C22:0: +58%, C24:0: +47%, C18:3n-3: +106%, C20:4n-6: +56%, and monounsaturated FA (MUFA): -23%, p < 0.05) and sterol profile (coprostanol: -27%, sitostanol: -86%, p < 0.01). VCO increased (p < 0.05) fecal total saturated FA (SFA: +28%, C14:0: +142%, C16:0 +21%, C22:0 +33%) and selected MCFAs (+162%; C10:0 +183%, C12:0 +600%), while reducing (p < 0.05) total MUFA (-29%), polyunsaturated FA (-26%), campesterol (-56%) and phyto-/zoosterols ratio (0.93:1 vs. 0.36:1). The median dysbiosis index was <0 and, together with fecal BA, was not significantly affected by HCD nor by VCO. The HCD diet increased total fecal bacteria (p = 0.005) and the abundance of Fusobacterium spp. (p = 0.028). This study confirmed that clinical signs, and to a lesser extent fecal microbiota and metabolome, are positively influenced by HCD in CE dogs. Moreover, it has been shown that fecal proportions of MCFA increased when MCFAs were supplemented in those dogs. The present results emphasize the need for future studies to better understand the intestinal absorptive mechanism of MCFA in dogs.

19.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 933905, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35990279

RESUMO

Phenobarbital (PB) is one of the most important antiseizure drugs (ASDs) to treat canine idiopathic epilepsy (IE). The effect of PB on the taxonomic changes in gastrointestinal microbiota (GIM) and their functions is less known, which may explain parts of its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, especially its antiseizure effect and drug responsiveness or drug resistance as well as its effect on behavioral comorbidities. Fecal samples of 12 dogs with IE were collected prior to the initiation of PB treatment and 90 days after oral PB treatment. The fecal samples were analyzed using shallow DNA shotgun sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based dysbiosis index (DI), and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Behavioral comorbidities were evaluated using standardized online questionnaires, namely, a canine behavioral assessment and research questionnaire (cBARQ), canine cognitive dysfunction rating scale (CCDR), and an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) questionnaire. The results revealed no significant changes in alpha and beta diversity or in the DI, whereas only the abundance of Clostridiales was significantly decreased after PB treatment. Fecal SCFA measurement showed a significant increase in total fecal SCFA concentration and the concentrations of propionate and butyrate, while acetate concentrations revealed an upward trend after 90 days of treatment. In addition, the PB-Responder (PB-R) group had significantly higher butyrate levels compared to the PB-Non-Responder (PB-NR) group. Metagenomics of functional pathway genes demonstrated a significant increase in genes in trehalose biosynthesis, ribosomal synthesis, and gluconeogenesis, but a decrease in V-ATPase-related oxidative phosphorylation. For behavioral assessment, cBARQ analysis showed improvement in stranger-directed fear, non-social fear, and trainability, while there were no differences in ADHD-like behavior and canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) scores after 90 days of PB treatment. While only very minor shifts in bacterial taxonomy were detected, the higher SCFA concentrations after PB treatment could be one of the key differences between PB-R and PB-NR. These results suggest functional changes in GIM in canine IE treatment.

20.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(19): 5601-5629, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856254

RESUMO

Inland waters serve as important hydrological connections between the terrestrial landscape and oceans but are often overlooked in global carbon (C) budgets and Earth System Models. Terrestrially derived C entering inland waters from the watershed can be transported to oceans but over 83% is either buried in sediments or emitted to the atmosphere before reaching oceans. Anthropogenic pressures such as climate and landscape changes are altering the magnitude of these C fluxes in inland waters. Here, we synthesize the most recent estimates of C fluxes and the differential contributions across inland waterbody types (rivers, streams, lakes, reservoirs, and ponds), including recent measurements that incorporate improved sampling methods, small waterbodies, and dried areas. Across all inland waters, we report a global C emission estimate of 4.40 Pg C/year (95% confidence interval: 3.95-4.85 Pg C/year), representing a 13% increase from the most recent estimate. We also review the mechanisms by which the most globally widespread anthropogenically driven climate and landscape changes influence inland water C fluxes. The majority of these drivers are expected to influence terrestrial C inputs to inland waters due to alterations in terrestrial C quality and quantity, hydrological pathways, and biogeochemical processing. We recommend four research priorities for the future study of anthropogenic alterations to inland water C fluxes: (1) before-and-after measurements of C fluxes associated with climate change events and landscape changes, (2) better quantification of C input from land, (3) improved assessment of spatial coverage and contributions of small inland waterbodies to C fluxes, and (4) integration of dried and drawdown areas to global C flux estimates. Improved measurements of inland water C fluxes and quantification of uncertainty in these estimates will be vital to understanding both terrestrial C losses and the "moving target" of inland water C emissions in response to rapid and complex anthropogenic pressures.


Assuntos
Carbono , Lagos , Atmosfera , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Rios , Água
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