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Environ Monit Assess ; 196(3): 300, 2024 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401000


The rupture of the Fundão dam is considered the largest mining failure in history, which had a particularly detrimental impact on fish populations, as the mud from the ore tailings significantly altered the water quality and habitat of Doce River basin. This study aimed to assess the trophic structure of fish communities in areas impacted and not impacted by the dam rupture in the Doce River basin. To evaluate the food web structure, community-wide trophic niche, and trophic positions of fish, stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) were utilized across ten sites (seven impacted and three control). In general, fish appeared to assimilate resources such as invertebrates, algae, and periphyton, although the importance of each resource varied among sites. The site closest to the dam rupture exhibited a more simplified trophic structure compared to the control sites and those nearer the river mouth. In this site, most fish species occupied a similar trophic position. Trophic niches also exhibited the greatest dissimilarity between the site closest to the dam failure and those farther away from it, with an expansion of trophic niche breadth observed with an increase in the distance from the dam rupture. Our study provided valuable insights into the trophic structure of fish communities within the Doce River basin, shedding light on the trophic ecology of the 59 fish species investigated. We also emphasize the importance of our study for future assessments of ore tailings dam failure disasters and evaluating the effectiveness of mitigation measures for Doce River basin recovery.

Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Rios/química , Cadeia Alimentar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Peixes
Sci Total Environ ; 881: 163417, 2023 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37044347


The development of multimetric indices (MMIs) to measure the biotic condition of aquatic habitats is based on metrics derived from biological assemblages. Considering fish assemblages, the inconsistencies in metrics responses outside of the places where they were developed limit MMI transferability and applicability to other locations, requiring local calibration. The factors behind the low transferability of these MMIs are still poorly understood. We investigated how environmental dissimilarity and spatial distance influence the transferability of metrics generated from local stream fish assemblages to other regions. We also tested whether functional and taxonomic metrics respond differently to the spatial distance. We used data from 239 fish assemblages from streams distributed across a Brazilian, the upper Parana basin and characterized each site according to the level of anthropogenic disturbance at the landscape scale using an Anthropogenic Pressure Index (API). We divided the upper Parana basin into sub-basins and used two of them to create template response models of the metrics in relation to the API. We used these response models to predict the responses outside the template sub-basins. Our response variable representing a metric of transferability was the absolute difference between metric's predicted and observed value for each site (prediction error). We thus modeled the prediction error in relation to the predictor variables that were i) the environmental dissimilarity between each site with the average of the sites from template sub-basins (climatic, topographic and soil type variables) and ii) the spatial distance (overland and watercourse distance) between each site and the center of the template sub-basin. We found that errors in metric predictions were associated with both environmental dissimilarity and spatial distance. Furthermore, functional and taxonomic metrics responded equally to spatial distance. These results indicate the need for local calibration of metrics when developing MMIs, especially if the protocols already available come from distant and environmentally dissimilar places.

Biomarcadores Ambientais , Rios , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ecossistema , Peixes
Sci Total Environ ; 876: 162795, 2023 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36907404


Changes in physical habitat that are associated with anthropogenic disturbances facilitate the establishment and expansion of non-native species in receiving environments. Here, we evaluated the relative importance of ecosystem variables for the presence and abundance of the invasive fish Poecilia reticulata in Brazil. We collected fish species and assessed environmental variables through an established physical habitat protocol in 220 stream sites located in southeastern and midwestern Brazil. A total of 14,816 P. reticulata individuals were collected in 43 stream sites, and 258 variables that describe the physical characteristics of streams were assessed, including measures of channel morphology, substrate size and type, habitat complexity and cover, riparian vegetation cover and structure, and human influence. Dimensionality reduction methods were employed to limit redundancy, resulting in a smaller set of the most relevant environmental variables. Subsequently, we used random forest models to assess the relative importance of these variables in determining the presence and abundance of P. reticulata. The presence of this invasive fish was primarily explained by human disturbance variables related to urbanization (total impact, pavement, artificial structure areal cover, riparian canopy cover, electrical conductivity, mean thalweg depth, and sand), whereas channel morphology (mean bank full height) and fish cover variables (natural fish cover, and aquatic macrophyte areal cover) were important predictors of its abundance. Identifying which ecosystem variables are favorable to the establishment of non-native species is an important step in preventing future biological invasions, as well as managing those that already occur.

Ecossistema , Poecilia , Humanos , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Peixes , Rios/química , Brasil
Ecology ; 104(4): e3713, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476708


The Neotropical region hosts 4225 freshwater fish species, ranking first among the world's most diverse regions for freshwater fishes. Our NEOTROPICAL FRESHWATER FISHES data set is the first to produce a large-scale Neotropical freshwater fish inventory, covering the entire Neotropical region from Mexico and the Caribbean in the north to the southern limits in Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, and Uruguay. We compiled 185,787 distribution records, with unique georeferenced coordinates, for the 4225 species, represented by occurrence and abundance data. The number of species for the most numerous orders are as follows: Characiformes (1289), Siluriformes (1384), Cichliformes (354), Cyprinodontiformes (245), and Gymnotiformes (135). The most recorded species was the characid Astyanax fasciatus (4696 records). We registered 116,802 distribution records for native species, compared to 1802 distribution records for nonnative species. The main aim of the NEOTROPICAL FRESHWATER FISHES data set was to make these occurrence and abundance data accessible for international researchers to develop ecological and macroecological studies, from local to regional scales, with focal fish species, families, or orders. We anticipate that the NEOTROPICAL FRESHWATER FISHES data set will be valuable for studies on a wide range of ecological processes, such as trophic cascades, fishery pressure, the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation, and the impacts of species invasion and climate change. There are no copyright restrictions on the data, and please cite this data paper when using the data in publications.

Peixes , Água Doce , Animais , Ecossistema , México , Região do Caribe , Biodiversidade
Oecologia ; 197(2): 485-500, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480229


Historically, anthropogenic fixed nitrogen has been purposely increased to benefit food production and global development. One consequence of this increase has been to raise concentrations of nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate whether nitrogen pollution promotes changes in the estimates of niche space of fish communities, we examined 16 sites along a Brazilian river basin highly impacted by anthropogenic activities, especially discharge of domestic and industrial sewage from a region with more than 5 million inhabitants. We analysed the carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios of fish species and both autochthonous (periphyton) and allochthonous (course and fine particulate organic matter) basal food resources. To estimate the magnitude of nitrogen pollution, we measured the nitrate and ammonium concentrations at each site. Sampling was conducted in the dry and wet seasons to evaluate the influence of seasonality. Nitrogen pollution generally increased estimates of niche space, and seasonality influenced only the niche estimates of fish communities from polluted sites. In addition, isotopic analyses of nitrogen polluted sites yielded unrealistic estimates of trophic positioning (detritivores at the top of the food web). We conclude that changes in niche space estimates reflect both alterations in baseline isotopic values and differential trophic behaviour among fishes. Our study suggests that under conditions of high pollution, other factors appear to influence isotopic estimates of niche, such as isotopically distinct sources that have not been sampled, and/or differences in δ15N turnover rates between fish tissue and basal resources, creating isotopic baselines that are challenging to interpret.

Ecossistema , Nitrogênio , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Rios
Environ Manage ; 68(4): 445-452, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341867


The Tocantins-Araguaia Basin is one of the largest river systems in South America, located entirely within Brazilian territory. In the last decades, capital-concentrating activities such as agribusiness, mining, and hydropower promoted extensive changes in land cover, hydrology, and environmental conditions. These changes are jeopardizing the basin's biodiversity and ecosystem services. Threats are escalating as poor environmental policies continue to be formulated, such as environmentally unsustainable hydropower plants, large-scale agriculture for commodity production, and aquaculture with non-native fish. If the current model persists, it will deepen the environmental crisis in the basin, compromising broad conservation goals and social development in the long term. Better policies will require thought and planning to minimize growing threats and ensure the basin's sustainability for future generations.

Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(1): e200071, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1287435


Dams often cause drastic changes in freshwater environments and can compromise the quality and availability of food resources in rivers. This study aims to analyze the influence of a dam on the trophic structure of fish assemblages in lotic areas located both upstream and downstream of the Irapé Hydroelectric Power Plant. Fish sampling occurred before (2003 to 2005) and after (2011 to 2017) the impoundment, which began in 2006. The trophic structure and species composition before dam construction were similar upstream of the reservoir and downstream of the dam. After the building of the dam, both aspects of the assemblages changed along the lotic stretches - the upstream incurred an increase in biomass of detritivores and a decrease of piscivores and omnivores, while downstream went exactly the opposite, causing a differentiation between the two assemblages. Because lotic areas upstream of reservoirs are also impacted by river damming, efforts for impact mitigation should also focus on these areas.(AU)

Barragens causam mudanças drásticas em ambientes de água doce e podem comprometer a qualidade e a disponibilidade de recursos alimentares nos rios. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influência de uma barragem na estrutura trófica da assembleia de peixes em áreas lóticas localizadas a montante e a jusante da usina hidrelétrica de Irapé. A amostragem de peixes ocorreu antes (2003 a 2005) e após (2011 a 2017) o fechamento das comportas, iniciado em 2006. A estrutura trófica e a composição das espécies antes da construção da barragem eram semelhantes a montante do reservatório e a jusante da barragem. Após a construção da barragem, ambos os aspectos das assembleias mudaram ao longo dos trechos lóticos - a montante ocorreu um aumento na biomassa de detritívoros e diminuição de piscívoros e onívoros, enquanto a jusante ocorreu exatamente o oposto, causando uma diferenciação entre as duas assembleias. Como as áreas lóticas a montante dos reservatórios também são impactadas por barramentos, esforços para mitigação de impactos também devem se concentrar nessas áreas.(AU)

Animais , Barragens , Reservatórios de Água , Energia Hidrelétrica/análise , Níveis Tróficos , Peixes
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(2): e200097, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279487


Although biotelemetry studies bring useful information, tagging is a highly invasive procedure. For this reason, we assess if intracoelomic tagging alters survivorship, weight gain and/or reproductive capacity of a neotropical migratory fish. In August 2016, 60 fish were equally and randomly distributed among 3 treatments: Control (anesthesia), sham surgery (anesthesia and surgery), and true surgery (anesthesia, surgery and tagging). Surveys for weight and tag expulsion were performed periodically from surgery through spawning (November/2016), with a final survey occurring in May/2017. Mortality was higher in true surgery (25% died) and for males. Twenty percent expelled tags, and initial weight loss followed by gain were verified for all treatments. Females of all treatments spawned, and fecundity and fertility were not different. Then, future studies should consider the losses due to death and tag expulsion when defining the sample number. We also encourage further investigations about differences in mortality between sex and weight variation, as well as any other factor that leads to increase in mortality. This is the first study that investigated tagging effects in reproduction of neotropical fishes, and since the methods and tags used are not species-specific, we infer that similar effects could occur in other species.(AU)

Embora estudos de biotelemetria gerem informações úteis, processos de marcação são invasivos. Por isso, avaliamos se a marcação intracelomática altera sobrevivência, ganho de peso e/ou capacidade reprodutiva de um peixe migrador neotropical. Em agosto de 2016, 60 peixes foram distribuídos igualmente e aleatoriamente entre os tratamentos controle (anestesia), cirurgia-falsa (anestesia e cirurgia) e cirurgia-verdadeira (anestesia, cirurgia e marcação). Vistorias para pesagem e observação de expulsão de marcas foram realizadas periodicamente da cirurgia até a desova (novembro/2016), com uma vistoria final em maio/2017. A mortalidade foi maior nos peixes marcados (25% morreram) e entre machos. Vinte por cento expulsaram as marcas e, para todos os tratamentos, foi observado perda de peso inicial com posterior recuperação. Fêmeas de todos os tratamentos desovaram; fecundidade e fertilidade não foram diferentes. Novos estudos devem considerar as perdas de marcas por mortalidade e rejeição na definição do número amostral. Também recomendamos estudos que investiguem a mortalidade diferencial entre sexos e variação de peso, bem como fatores causadores de mortalidade. Este é o primeiro estudo que investigou efeitos da marcação na reprodução de peixes neotropicais e, uma vez que métodos e marcas utilizadas não são espécie-específicos, inferimos que efeitos similares podem ocorrer em outras espécies.(AU)

Animais , Reprodução , Aumento de Peso , Characidae/cirurgia , Characidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Telemetria , Redução de Peso , Peixes
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 139878, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535283


Anthropogenic activities can have a great influence on water quality and in the availability of habitat and food resources, which can promote changes in the trophic diversity and carbon sources sustaining aquatic communities. The objective of this study was to evaluate if the trophic diversity and the main carbon sources sustaining fish communities change along a pollution gradient. The study was carried out at eight sites distributed along the Rio das Velhas, a Brazilian river highly impacted by anthropogenic activities, in which the discharge of domestic and industrial sewage from the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH) presents a major source of pollution. Using carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios, we identified the major carbon sources/food sources of common fish species and calculated six metrics of trophic diversity. Autochthonous primary producers (algae, periphyton, and macrophytes) were the main carbon sources for all trophic guilds at all sites, but notably, sewage-derived organic matter was an additional significant carbon source to the fish community in the most polluted testing site. Here, the community was composed mainly by detritivorous and omnivorous fishes and exhibited greater ranges of carbon and nitrogen isotopic values, large total areas, high trophic diversity, small trophic redundancy, and less even distribution of trophic niches than the less polluted sites. We conclude that the trophic guilds, trophic diversity metrics, and carbon sources sustaining fish communities in the Rio das Velhas are highly influenced by the presence of pollution. Besides favoring omnivorous and detritivorous fishes, the input of sewage also provided an important food source to sustain the fish community from sites close to the MRBH.

Carbono , Rios , Animais , Brasil , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233733, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453798


Understanding how assemblages are structured in space and the factors promoting their distributions is one of the main goals in Ecology, however, studies regarding the distribution of organisms at larger scales remain biased towards terrestrial groups. We attempt to understand if the structure of stream fish metacommunities across a Neotropical ecoregion (Upper Paraná-drainage area of 820,000 km2) are affected by environmental variables, describing natural environmental gradient, anthropogenic impacts and spatial predictors. For this, we obtained 586 sampling points of fish assemblages in the ecoregion and data on environmental and spatial predictors that potentially affect fish assemblages. We calculated the local beta diversity (Local Contribution to Beta Diversity, LCBD) and alpha diversity from the species list, to be used as response variables in the partial regression models, while the anthropogenic impacts, environmental gradient and spatial factors were used as predictors. We found a high total beta diversity for the ecoregion (0.41) where the greatest values for each site sampled were located at the edges of the ecoregion, while richer communities were found more centrally. All sets of predictors explained the LCBD and alpha diversity, but the most important was dispersal variables, followed by the natural environmental gradient and anthropogenic impact. However, we found an increase in the models' prediction power through the shared effect. Results suggest that environmental filters (i.e. environmental variables such as climate, hydrology and anthropogenic impact) and dispersal limitation together shape fish assemblages of the Upper Paraná ecoregion, showing the importance of using multiple sets of predictors to understand the processes structuring biodiversity distribution.

Biodiversidade , Peixes/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Rios , Animais , Brasil
Environ Manage ; 65(5): 702-709, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086549


In freshwater systems, the abundance and diversity of long-distance migratory fish are limited by the maintenance of longitudinal connectivity and natural flow regimes of rivers. Using a graph-based view of each riverscape, we analyzed the river fragmentation process and overlapped with the probable number of migratory species in each remaining stretch. Applying this methodology in basins, we assess historical and potential scenarios quantifying segment extensions free from dams determining the fish richness based on the available habitat for each species. The highest number of migratory species was observed in fragments longer than 100 km. In the future scenario, there was an increase in the number of fragments, with an increase in the number of stretches shorter than 50 km, inadequate to maintain most of the migratory species. Segments of the highest classification order and located in the longest lotic fragments were considered the most important for the species habitat conservation. Dam construction in these segments could seriously affect the ecological processes at a regional level. The proposed analyses enable to approach basins with high diversity of species and nonsalmonid species, supporting the lack of base data concerning those areas, and determine priorities for studies and conservation.

Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Rios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Ecossistema , Peixes
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(1): e190045, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098405


This study aimed to evaluate if the presence of pollutants promotes changes in feeding habits of fish species from different trophic guilds: the detritivorous species, Hypostomus francisci, and the piscivorous, Hoplias intermedius. Both species were sampled at 12 sites (with different degrees of pollution) in the Rio das Velhas basin, which is heavily polluted by domestic and industrial sewage from the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH). Stable isotope analyses of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) of fish tissue and the main food resources were performed. Fishes from both trophic guilds altered their diets in degraded environments, but the detritivorous species showed greater trophic plasticity. The isotopic niche of both trophic guilds was broadest in unpolluted sites and more δ15N enriched in polluted regions. The detritivorous species presented high niche-breadth in unpolluted sites, probably due to the greater variety of resources consumed. In addition, the δ15N of the detritivorous was more enriched than the piscivorous species in polluted sites. In conclusion, fishes from both trophic guilds presented similar isotopic responses to environmental pollution. However, the detritivorous species was more sensitive to these alterations and therefore, is likely a better indicator of environmental condition than the piscivorous.(AU)

Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se a presença de poluentes promove mudanças nos hábitos alimentares de espécies de peixes de diferentes guildas tróficas: a espécie detritívora, Hypostomus francisci, e a piscívora, Hoplias intermedius. Ambas espécies foram amostradas em 12 locais (com diferentes níveis de poluição) na bacia do Rio das Velhas, que é altamente poluída por esgoto doméstico e industrial da Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (RMBH). Foram realizadas análises de isótopos estáveis de carbono (δ13C) e nitrogênio (δ15N) dos tecidos dos peixes e dos principais recursos alimentares. Espécies de ambas guildas tróficas alteraram suas dietas em ambientes degradados, mas a espécie detritívora apresentou maior plasticidade trófica. O nicho isotópico de ambas as espécies foi mais amplo em locais menos perturbados e mais enriquecido em δ15N em regiões poluídas. A espécie detritívora apresentou grande amplitude em seu nicho isotópico em locais menos perturbados, provavelmente devido à maior variedade de recursos consumidos. Além disso, o δ15N da espécie detritívora foi mais enriquecido que a espécie piscívora em locais poluídos. Em conclusão, ambas as espécies apresentaram respostas isotópicas semelhantes à poluição ambiental. No entanto, a espécie detritívora foi mais sensível a essas alterações e, portanto, é provavelmente uma melhor indicadora de condição ambiental do que a espécie piscívora.(AU)

Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/classificação , Marcação por Isótopo/veterinária , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Esgotos Domésticos
Sci Total Environ ; 681: 503-515, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128341


The objective of this study was to evaluate if aquatic pollution promote diet shifts in two livebearer fishes (Poeciliidae): an exotic species, the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), and a native livebearer (Phalloceros uai). The study was carried out in a Brazilian basin highly impacted by anthropogenic activities, especially discharge of domestic and industrial sewage from a region with more than five million human inhabitants. To evaluate the trophic ecology of both native and exotic species it was analysed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopes of fish tissue, food resources and, sewage. Moreover, stable isotopes analyses were coupled with gut contents of the two species to provide additional information about fish diet. Exotic guppy abundance was high in the most polluted site, where P. reticulata assimilated carbon directly from sewage. The native species was absent in the most polluted site, but presented wider niches than the exotic species in almost all other sites. Gut content analyses indicated high consumption of aquatic insects by both species. However, while the native species consumed a diverse suite of insect taxa, the exotic species consumed mainly Chironomidae larvae. We conclude that aquatic pollution promotes diet shifts in both native and exotic species, with both species changing their trophic niches in a similar way according to the level of degradation of the environment. The ability to directly assimilate sewage, together with its capacity to survive in environments with poor water quality and its reproductive strategy, may favour the establishment of exotic guppies in strongly polluted sites.

Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Brasil
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(2): e180072, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1012718


Details of migration dynamics of Neotropical fishes are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine upstream (spawning) and downstream (post-spawning) migration speeds, of curimatá-pioa (Prochilodus costatus) in the São Francisco River basin, southeast Brazil. Most upstream movements were recorded in October and November, in two well-defined migration windows, and downstream movements were frequent from December to March. Fish migrated upstream at an average migration speed of 34.4 km day-1 and no significant differences were detected in their speed between sexes and migration window they selected to migrate. No relationship was detected between upstream migration speed and biometric measures of tagged individuals. Upstream migrations speeds were significantly higher for fish that swam longer prior to reach telemetry stations in the same season, indicating that swimming performance may take some time to achieve its peak in upstream migration. Fish migrated downstream at an average migration speed of 97.7 km day-1, what is close to passive swimming in São Francisco River, and no significant differences in speed were detected between sexes or capture sites. The migration speeds measured here are the highest ever recorded for the genus Prochilodus and are among the highest reported for Neotropical migratory fish.(AU)

Detalhes acerca da dinâmica migratória de peixes neotropicais são pouco conhecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as velocidades em migração ascendente (reprodutiva) e descendente (pós-reprodutiva) da curimatá-pioa (Prochilodus costatus) no rio São Francisco, Brasil. A migração ascendente concentrou-se nos meses de outubro e novembro, em duas janelas migratórias, e a descendente de dezembro a março. Os peixes alcançaram velocidade migratória média de 34,4 km dia-1 em migração ascendente não sendo observadas diferenças nas velocidades em relação ao sexo e janela migratória em que o peixe migrou. Não foi observada relação entre velocidade migratória e características biométricas dos peixes. Diferenças nas velocidades migratórias ascendentes foram observadas para peixes que nadaram maiores distâncias antes de passar pelas estações de telemetria, indicando que o pico de desempenho natatório é alcançado algum tempo depois de iniciado o movimento ascendente. Em migração descendente a média de velocidade migratória foi de 97,7 km dia-1, próxima à natação passiva, e não foram observadas diferenças entre as velocidades em relação a sexo e ponto de marcação dos peixes. As velocidades migratórias medidas neste estudo são as maiores já registradas para o gênero Prochilodus e estão entre as maiores registradas para peixes migradores neotropicais.(AU)

Animais , Caraciformes/classificação , Caraciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corrente Jusante , Migração Humana
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204114, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231064


Several hypotheses are used to explain species richness patterns. Some of them (e.g. species-area, species-energy, environment-energy, water-energy, terrestrial primary productivity, environmental spatial heterogeneity, and climatic heterogeneity) are known to explain species richness patterns of terrestrial organisms, especially when they are combined. For aquatic organisms, however, it is unclear if these hypotheses can be useful to explain for these purposes. Therefore, we used a selection model approach to assess the predictive capacity of such hypotheses, and to determine which of them (combined or not) would be the most appropriate to explain the fish species distribution in small Brazilian streams. We perform the Akaike's information criteria for models selections and the eigenvector analysis to control the special autocorrelation. The spatial structure was equal to 0.453, Moran's I, and require 11 spatial filters. All models were significant and had adjustments ranging from 0.370 to 0.416 with strong spatial component (ranging from 0.226 to 0.369) and low adjustments for environmental data (ranging from 0.001 to 0.119) We obtained two groups of hypothesis are able to explain the richness pattern (1) water-energy, temporal productivity-heterogeneity (AIC = 4498.800) and (2) water-energy, temporal productivity-heterogeneity and area (AIC = 4500.400). We conclude that the fish richness patterns in small Brazilian streams are better explained by a combination of Water-Energy + Productivity + Temporal Heterogeneity hypotheses and not by just one.

Biodiversidade , Peixes/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Rios , Clima Tropical , Animais , Brasil , Geografia , Análise de Regressão , Especificidade da Espécie , Estatística como Assunto
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(4): e180003, out. 2018. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976300


Physical habitat simulation (PHABSIM) is an important step of the instream flow incremental methodology (IFIM), which is applied to establish environmental flow regimes. This study applied the PHABSIM in two reaches of the Velhas river basin, whose long-term discharges are similar but are under different degrees of impact. Suitability curves were obtained for fish species using traditional methods (Astyanax sp., Piabarchus stramineus, Piabina argentea and Serrapinnus heterodon) and generalized additive models for fish density (Astyanax sp., P. argentea and S. heterodon). The results of habitat use depended on the method for curves generation. Applying the suitability curves by traditional methods, different discharge scenarios were simulated. The flow increasing from a dry scenario to a discharge of 1 year of return promotes a possible habitat increase for all species. However, the same hydrological flow percentiles produce different habitat proportions in different rivers. This work demonstrates that regardless of how suitability curves for the Neotropical species are generated, caution should be taken when applying them. However, the PHABSIM method allows more complex analyses than the traditional approaches based on minimal flow estimations, which is usually applied in South America.(AU)

A simulação de habitat para espécies de peixes (PHABSIM) é uma etapa importante do método Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM), cuja aplicação está relacionada a determinação da vazão ecológica. O presente estudo aplicou PHABSIM em dois trechos da bacia do rio das Velhas, cujas vazões de médio prazo são semelhantes, mas sob condições de conservação ambiental diferente. Curvas de aptidão foram obtidas para Astyanax sp., Piabarchus stramineus, Piabina argentea e Serrapinnus heterodon através do método tradicional e ajustando modelo aditivos generalizados (Astyanax sp., P. argentea e S. heterodon). Os resultados sugerem uso de habitats diferentes dependendo do modelo utilizado para gerar as curvas. Aplicando as curvas obtidas pelo método tradicional no PHABSIM, diferentes cenários de vazão foram simulados. O aumento da vazão para cheia de um ano de retorno aumenta o habitat provável para todas as espécies. Entretanto, mesmo cenário de vazão, fornecido por análise de hidrológica de percentis de ocorrência, fornece diferente proporção de habitat em diferentes rios. O trabalho demonstra que curvas de aptidão para espécies neotropicais, independentemente da forma de geração, devem ser usadas com cautela. Entretanto, o método PHABSIM permite análises mais elaboradas do que as tradicionais estimativas de vazão mínima empregadas na América do Sul.(AU)

Animais , Ecossistema , Peixes/classificação
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 14(3): e150116, 2016. tab, ilus, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: lil-794737


Effects of environmental variables at different spatial scales on freshwater fish assemblages are relatively unexplored in Neotropical ecosystems. However, those influences are important for developing management strategies to conserve fish diversity and water resources. We evaluated the influences of site- (in-stream) and catchment-scale (land use and cover) environmental variables on the abundance and occurrence of fish species in streams of the Upper Araguari River basin through use of variance partitioning with partial CCA. We sampled 38 1st to 3rd order stream sites in September 2009. We quantified site variables to calculate 11 physical habitat metrics and mapped catchment land use/cover. Site and catchment variables explained > 50% of the total variation in fish species. Site variables (fish abundance: 25.31%; occurrence: 24.51%) explained slightly more variation in fish species than catchment land use/cover (abundance: 22.69%; occurrence: 18.90%), indicating that factors at both scales are important. Because anthropogenic pressures at site and catchment scales both affect stream fish in the Upper Araguari River basin, both must be considered jointly to apply conservation strategies in an efficient manner.(AU)

Os efeitos das variáveis ambientais em diferentes escalas espaciais sobre as assembleias de peixes de água doce ainda é um tema pouco explorado na região Neotropical. Entretanto é um assunto de extrema relevância, pois gera subsídios para definições de estratégias de manejo e conservação de ictiofauna e dos recursos hídricos. Nós avaliamos a influência de variáveis ambientais em escalas local (dentro do rio) e da paisagem (uso e cobertura do solo) na abundância e ocorrência das espécies de peixes de riachos da bacia do alto rio Araguari através da partição da variância usando CCA parcial. Um total de 38 riachos de até 3ª ordem foi amostrado em setembro de 2009. Nós quantificamos variáveis locais para calcular 11 métricas de hábitats físicos e mapeamos o uso e cobertura do solo. O conjunto de dados (variáveis locais e da paisagem) explicou mais de 50% da variação total nas espécies de peixes. Variáveis em escala local (abundância: 25,31%; ocorrência: 24,51%) explicaram levemente uma maior variação nas assembleias de peixes do que o uso e cobertura do solo (abundância: 22,69%; ocorrência: 18,90%), indicando que os fatores em ambas as escalas de estudo são importantes. Uma vez que a influência antrópica em diferentes escalas afeta as espécies de peixes em riachos da bacia do alto rio Araguari, ambas devem ser consideradas juntamente para a adoção de estratégias de conservação de uma forma racional.(AU)

Animais , Peixes/anormalidades , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 37(4): 439-448, Oct.-Dec. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-875973


This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between parameters of fish communities and the habitat structure of a stream. Twenty three stretches six meters long were evaluated in the Samambaia stream located inside the Sumidouro Park, Rio das Velhas basin, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fish samplings and habitat characterization were made for each stretch. Seven variables of habitat (vegetal cover, width, depth, substrate, flow, presence of aquatic plants and leaf litter) and two variables characterizing the longitudinal gradient (altitude and distance from the Sumidouro lagoon) were assessed. The fish community responded to habitat changes, presenting variation in richness and composition of species. Richness was positively influenced by the presence of leaf litter and aquatic plants. Furthermore, through similarity data (NMDS) and habitat structure (PCA), it was possible to observe the separation of the 23 stretches into two groups with a dissimilarity of approximately 90%. We concluded that the variation in richness and composition of species throughout the stream was strongly related to the variables of habitat structure. This variation is clearer when considering the longitudinal gradient which highlights a great difference between stretches nearer and farther from the mouth of Samambaia stream.

Este trabalho buscou avaliar as relações entre parâmetros da ictiofauna e aspectos da estrutura física de um riacho. Vinte e três trechos com seis metros de comprimento foram avaliados no Córrego Samambaia, localizado no Parque Estadual do Sumidouro, bacia do Rio das Velhas, estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Em cada trecho, foi feita a coleta de peixes e a caracterização do habitat, tendo sido avaliadas sete variáveis do habitat (cobertura vegetal, largura, profundidade, substrato, vazão, presença de plantas aquáticas e folhiço) e duas variáveis que caracterizam o gradiente longitudinal (altitude e distanciamento à montante da Lagoa do Sumidouro). A ictiofauna respondeu às mudanças de habitat, apresentando variação na riqueza e na composição. A riqueza foi influenciada positivamente pela presença de folhiço e plantas aquáticas. Além disso, por meio dos dados de similaridade e habitat físico, foi possível observar a separação dos 23 trechos em dois grupos com dissimilaridade de aproximadamente 90%. Concluímos que a variação na riqueza e na composição de espécies ao longo do córrego está fortemente relacionada às variáveis da estrutura do habitat. Essa variação fica clara quando se considera o gradiente longitudinal, a qual evidencia uma grande diferença entre os trechos mais próximos e mais distantes da foz do córrego Samambaia.

Peixes , Água Doce
Genetica ; 143(5): 581-8, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26142058


The great freshwater fish diversity found in the neotropical region makes management and conservation actions challenging. Due to shortage of taxonomists and insufficient infrastructure to deal with such great biodiversity (i.e. taxonomic impediment), proposed remedies to accelerate species identification and descriptions include techniques that combine DNA-based identification and concise morphological description. The building of a DNA barcode reference database correlating meristic and genetic data was developed for 75 % of the Mucuri River basin's freshwater fish. We obtained a total of 141 DNA barcode sequences from 37 species belonging to 30 genera, 19 families, and 5 orders. Genetic distances within species, genera, and families were 0.74, 9.5, and 18.86 %, respectively. All species could be clearly identified by the DNA barcodes. Divergences between meristic morphological characteristics and DNA barcodes revealed two cryptic species among the Cyphocharax gilbert and Astyanax gr. bimaculatus specimens, and helped to identify two overlooked species within the Gymnotus and Astyanax taxa. Therefore, using a simplified model of neotropical biodiversity, we tested the efficiency of an integrative taxonomy approach for species discovery, identification of cryptic diversity, and accelerating biodiversity descriptions.

Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Peixes/genética , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Characidae/genética , Classificação , Biologia de Ecossistemas de Água Doce , Filogenia , Rios , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 12(4): 795-802, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-732616


The impact of hydropeaking by dams is still poorly understood. Studying the diet of fish subjected to that variation allows us to test the following hypotheses: 1) seasonal and daily changes in river flow, causes changes in the use of the feeding resources; 2) species presenting larger differences in diet between seasons will be those with larger diet changes due to hydropeaking; 3) hydropeaking effects will be more evident in species feeding on items that can be more affected by variable flows. Fish diet collected from the Grande River, downstream from Itutinga Dam, in January and July 2010, was characterized by the feeding index (IA). NMDS, ANOSIM and SIMPER analyses were used to compare the diets under different hydropeaking and season. Relationship among diet dissimilarity between treatments was tested using Pearson Correlation. Seasonality and flow effects were not resulted in changes in the diet of species (hypothesis 1 rejected). In July, there was correlation of differences in the diet between stable and hydropeaking periods with the divergence caused by seasonality (hypothesis 2 accepted). The invertivores guild was the most affected by hydropeaking effects (hypothesis 3 accepted). This is the first study in Brazil that evaluates hydropeaking effects on ichthyofauna.

O impacto da flutuação de vazão causada pelas barragens ainda é pouco entendido. Estudando a dieta dos peixes sujeitos à variação na vazão conseguimos testar as seguintes hipóteses: 1) mudanças sazonais e diárias na vazão do rio promovem mudanças no uso dos recursos alimentares; 2) espécies que apresentam maiores diferenças na dieta entre as estações serão aquelas com maiores mudanças causadas pela variação de vazão; 3) os efeitos da flutuação na dieta serão mais evidentes naquelas espécies que se alimentam dos itens potencialmente mais afetados pela variação de vazão. A dieta dos peixes coletados no rio Grande, à jusante da barragem de Itutinga, em janeiro e julho de 2010, foi caracterizada pelo Índice Alimentar (IA). NMDS, SIMPER e ANOSIM foram usados para comparar a dieta em diferentes períodos e estações. As relações entre a dissimilaridade das dietas entre tratamentos foram testadas utilizando Correlação de Pearson. Os efeitos da sazonalidade e flutuação não resultaram em mudanças na dieta das espécies (hipótese 1 rejeitada). Em julho, houve correlação das diferenças nas dietas entre os períodos de vazão estável e flutuante com a dissimilaridade provocada pela sazonalidade (hipótese 2 aceita). A guilda invertívoros foi a mais afetada pelo efeito de flutuação de vazão (hipótese 3 aceita). Este é o primeiro estudo no Brasil que avalia os efeitos da flutuação de vazão sobre a ictiofauna.

Animais , Barragens/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Dieta/veterinária , Biota/fisiologia