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1.
JASA Express Lett ; 4(2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299984

RESUMO

The effects of different acoustic representations and normalizations were compared for classifiers predicting perception of children's rhotic versus derhotic /ɹ/. Formant and Mel frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) representations for 350 speakers were z-standardized, either relative to values in the same utterance or age-and-sex data for typical /ɹ/. Statistical modeling indicated age-and-sex normalization significantly increased classifier performances. Clinically interpretable formants performed similarly to MFCCs and were endorsed for deep neural network engineering, achieving mean test-participant-specific F1-score = 0.81 after personalization and replication (σx = 0.10, med = 0.83, n = 48). Shapley additive explanations analysis indicated the third formant most influenced fully rhotic predictions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Fonológico , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico , Acústica , Engenharia , Modelos Estatísticos , Redes Neurais de Computação
2.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297530, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324559

RESUMO

Given the increasing prevalence of online data collection, it is important to know how behavioral data obtained online compare to samples collected in the laboratory. This study compares online and in-person measurement of speech perception in older children and adolescents. Speech perception is important for assessment and treatment planning in speech-language pathology; we focus on the American English /ɹ/ sound because of its frequency as a clinical target. Two speech perception tasks were adapted for web presentation using Gorilla: identification of items along a synthetic continuum from rake to wake, and category goodness judgment of English /ɹ/ sounds in words produced by various talkers with and without speech sound disorder. Fifty typical children aged 9-15 completed these tasks online using a standard headset. These data were compared to a previous sample of 98 typical children aged 9-15 who completed the same tasks in the lab setting. For the identification task, participants exhibited smaller boundary widths (suggestive of more acute perception) in the in-person setting relative to the online setting. For the category goodness judgment task, there was no statistically significant effect of modality. The correlation between scores on the two tasks was significant in the online setting but not in the in-person setting, but the difference in correlation strength was not statistically significant. Overall, our findings agree with previous research in suggesting that online and in-person data collection do not yield identical results, but the two contexts tend to support the same broad conclusions. In addition, these results suggest that online data collection can make it easier for researchers connect with a more representative sample of participants.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Transtorno Fonológico , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Idioma , Julgamento , Som , Fala
3.
Neuropsychologia ; 193: 108763, 2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141965

RESUMO

Despite reading being an essential and almost universal skill in the developed world, reading proficiency varies substantially from person to person. To study why, the fMRI field is beginning to turn from single-word or nonword reading tasks to naturalistic stimuli like connected text and listening to stories. To study reading development in children just beginning to read, listening to stories is an appropriate paradigm because speech perception and phonological processing are important for, and are predictors of, reading proficiency. Our study examined the relationship between behavioral reading-related skills and the neural response to listening to stories in the fMRI environment. Functional MRI were gathered in a 3T TIM-Trio scanner. During the fMRI scan, children aged approximately 7 years listened to professionally narrated common short stories and answered comprehension questions following the narration. Analyses of the data used inter-subject correlation (ISC), and representational similarity analysis (RSA). Our primary finding is that ISC reveals areas of increased synchrony in both high- and low-performing emergent readers previously implicated in reading ability/disability. Of particular interest are that several previously identified brain regions (medial temporal gyrus (MTG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), inferior temporal gyrus (ITG)) were found to "synchronize" across higher reading ability participants, while lower reading ability participants had idiosyncratic activation patterns in these regions. Additionally, two regions (superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and another portion of ITG) were recruited by all participants, but their specific timecourse of activation depended on reading performance. These analyses support the idea that different brain regions involved in reading follow different developmental trajectories that correlate with reading proficiency on a spectrum rather than the usual dichotomy of poor readers versus strong readers.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Criança , Humanos , Leitura , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/fisiologia
4.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 154(3): 1932-1944, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37768114

RESUMO

Fricatives have noise sources that are filtered by the vocal tract and that typically possess energy over a much broader range of frequencies than observed for vowels and sonorant consonants. This paper introduces and refines fricative measurements that were designed to reflect underlying articulatory and aerodynamic conditions These show differences in the pattern of high-frequency energy for sibilants vs non-sibilants, voiced vs voiceless fricatives, and non-sibilants differing in place of articulation. The results confirm the utility of a spectral peak measure (FM) and low-mid frequency amplitude difference (AmpD) for sibilants. Using a higher-frequency range for defining FM for female voices for alveolars is justified; a still higher range was considered and rejected. High-frequency maximum amplitude (Fh) and amplitude difference between low- and higher-frequency regions (AmpRange) capture /f-θ/ differences in English and the dynamic amplitude range over the entire spectrum. For this dataset, with spectral information up to 15 kHz, a new measure, HighLevelD, was more effective than previously used LevelD and Slope in showing changes over time within the frication. Finally, isolated words and connected speech differ. This work contributes improved measures of fricative spectra and demonstrates the necessity of including high-frequency energy in those measures.


Assuntos
Idioma , Fala , Feminino , Humanos
5.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; : 1-23, 2023 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37611182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examines how ultrasound biofeedback and intensive treatment distribution affect speech sound generalization during an evidence-based treatment, Speech Motor Chaining, for children with persisting speech errors associated with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). METHOD: In a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial, children ages 9-17 years meeting CAS criteria were randomized to receive (a) a distributed treatment (20 sessions twice weekly over 10 weeks) or intensive treatment (20 hr in 5 weeks, with 10 hr in Week 1) and (b) treatment with or without biofeedback. Due to the COVID pandemic, some participants were randomized to distributed/intensive telepractice treatment only. The primary outcome was percent target sounds correct on untreated phrases (i.e., generalization) at the 10-week time point. More than 50,000 narrow phonetic transcriptions were analyzed. RESULTS: Forty-eight participants completed treatment. Intensive treatment significantly increased generalization at all time points. The effect of biofeedback was significant at 5 weeks from the start of treatment but not significant at the primary 10-week time point. However, when comparing each group immediately after their 20 hr of treatment finished, generalization was significantly greater in intensive over distributed treatment and greater in ultrasound over no-ultrasound treatment (with a significant interaction favoring intensive treatment with ultrasound). Only the advantage of intensive treatment remained significant 5 weeks after groups finished treatment. There was no significant difference between face-to-face and telepractice modalities. CONCLUSIONS: When the number of treatment hours is fixed, an intensive schedule of Speech Motor Chaining facilitated greater improvement than a distributed schedule. Ultrasound biofeedback initially accelerated learning, but the benefits may dissipate as treatment continues or after it ends.

6.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; : 1-18, 2023 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37642523

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The current standard for clinical diagnosis of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is expert clinician judgment. The psychometric properties of this standard are not well understood; however, they are important for improving clinical diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which experts agree on the clinical diagnosis of CAS using two cohorts of children with mixed speech sound disorders (SSDs). METHOD: Speech samples of children with SSDs were obtained from previous and ongoing research from video recordings of children aged 3-8 years (n = 36) and audio recordings of children aged 8-17 years (n = 56). A total of 23 expert, English-speaking clinicians were recruited internationally. Three of these experts rated each speech sample to provide a description of the observed features and a diagnosis. Intrarater reliability was acceptable at 85% agreement. RESULTS: Interrater reliability on the presence or absence of CAS among experts was poor both as a categorical diagnosis (κ = .187, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.089, 0.286]) and on a continuous "likelihood of CAS" scale (0-100; intraclass correlation = .183, 95% CI [.037, .347]). Reliability was similar across the video-recorded and audio-only samples. There was greater agreement on other diagnoses (such as articulation disorder) than on the diagnosis of CAS, although these too did not meet the predetermined standard. Likelihood of CAS was greater in children who presented with more American Speech-Language-Hearing Association CAS consensus features. CONCLUSIONS: Different expert raters had different thresholds for applying the diagnosis of CAS. If expert clinician judgment is to be used for diagnosis of CAS or other SSDs, further standardization and calibration is needed to increase interrater reliability. Diagnosis may require operationalized checklists or reliable measures that operate along a diagnostic continuum. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.23949105.

7.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 66(9): 3223-3241, 2023 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37524116

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Children with residual speech sound disorders (RSSD) have shown differences in neural function for speech production, as compared to their typical peers; however, information about how these differences may change over time and relative to speech therapy is needed. To address this gap, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine functional activation and connectivity on adaptations of the syllable repetition task (SRT-Early Sounds and SRT-Late Sounds) in children with RSSD before and after a speech therapy program. METHOD: Sixteen children with RSSD completed an fMRI experiment before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) a speech therapy program with ultrasound visual feedback for /ɹ/ misarticulation. Progress in therapy was measured via perceptual ratings of productions of untreated /ɹ/ word probes. To control for practice effects and developmental change in patterns of activation and connectivity, 17 children with typical speech development (TD) completed the fMRI at Time 1 and Time 2. Functional activation was analyzed using a region-of-interest approach and functional connectivity was analyzed using a seed-to-voxel approach. RESULTS: Children with RSSD showed a range of responses to therapy. After correcting for multiple comparisons, we did not observe any statistically significant cross-sectional differences or longitudinal changes in functional activation. A negative relationship between therapy effect size and functional activation in the left visual association cortex was on the SRT-Late Sounds after therapy, but it did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Significant longitudinal changes in functional connectivity were observed for the RSSD group on SRT-Early Sounds and SRT-Late Sounds, as well as for the TD group on the SRT-Early Sounds. RSSD and TD groups showed connectivity differences near the left insula on the SRT-Late Sounds at Time 2. CONCLUSION: RSSD and treatment with ultrasound visual feedback may thus be associated with neural differences in speech motor and visual association processes recruited for speech production.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtorno Fonológico , Gagueira , Humanos , Criança , Fala/fisiologia , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Fonológico/terapia , Fonoterapia/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/métodos
8.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 66(6): 1986-2009, 2023 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37319018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Publicly available speech corpora facilitate reproducible research by providing open-access data for participants who have consented/assented to data sharing among different research teams. Such corpora can also support clinical education, including perceptual training and training in the use of speech analysis tools. PURPOSE: In this research note, we introduce the PERCEPT (Perceptual Error Rating for the Clinical Evaluation of Phonetic Targets) corpora, PERCEPT-R (Rhotics) and PERCEPT-GFTA (Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation), which together contain over 36 hr of speech audio (> 125,000 syllable, word, and phrase utterances) from children, adolescents, and young adults aged 6-24 years with speech sound disorder (primarily residual speech sound disorders impacting /ɹ/) and age-matched peers. We highlight PhonBank as the repository for the corpora and demonstrate use of the associated speech analysis software, Phon, to query PERCEPT-R. A worked example of research with PERCEPT-R, suitable for clinical education and research training, is included as an appendix. Support for end users and information/descriptive statistics for future releases of the PERCEPT corpora can be found in a dedicated Slack channel. Finally, we discuss the potential for PERCEPT corpora to support the training of artificial intelligence clinical speech technology appropriate for use with children with speech sound disorders, the development of which has historically been constrained by the limited representation of either children or individuals with speech impairments in publicly available training corpora. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the use of PERCEPT corpora, PhonBank, and Phon for clinical training and research questions appropriate to child citation speech. Increased use of these tools has the potential to enhance reproducibility in the study of speech development and disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Fonológico , Fala , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Distúrbios da Fala , Fonética
9.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 66(4): 1252-1273, 2023 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36930986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study collected measures of auditory-perceptual and oral somatosensory acuity in typically developing children and adolescents aged 9-15 years. We aimed to establish reference data that can be used as a point of comparison for individuals with residual speech sound disorder (RSSD), especially for RSSD affecting American English rhotics. We examined concurrent validity between tasks and hypothesized that performance on at least some tasks would show a significant association with age, reflecting ongoing refinement of sensory function in later childhood. We also tested for an inverse relationship between performance on auditory and somatosensory tasks, which would support the hypothesis of a trade-off between sensory domains. METHOD: Ninety-eight children completed three auditory-perceptual tasks (identification and discrimination of stimuli from a "rake"-"wake" continuum and category goodness judgment for naturally produced words containing rhotics) and three oral somatosensory tasks (bite block with auditory masking, oral stereognosis, and articulatory awareness, which involved explicit judgments of relative tongue position for different speech sounds). Pairwise associations were examined between tasks within each domain and between task performance and age. Composite measures of auditory-perceptual and somatosensory functions were used to investigate the possibility of a sensory trade-off. RESULTS: Statistically significant associations were observed between the identification and discrimination tasks and the bite block and articulatory awareness tasks. In addition, significant associations with age were found for the category goodness and bite block tasks. There was no statistically significant evidence of a trade-off between auditory-perceptual and somatosensory domains. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a multidimensional characterization of speech-related sensory function in older children/adolescents. Complete materials to administer all experimental tasks have been shared, along with measures of central tendency and dispersion for scores in two subgroups of age. Ultimately, we hope to apply this information to make customized treatment recommendations for children with RSSD based on sensory profiles.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Percepção da Fala , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Fala , Fonética , Estimulação Acústica , Sensação
10.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 32(2): 629-644, 2023 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36848673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Both Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment (ReST) and ultrasound biofeedback are effective approaches to treating childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). The purpose of the study was to compare outcomes from these two motor-based treatment approaches for school-age children with CAS. METHOD: In a single site, single blind randomized control trial, 14 children with CAS ages 6-13 years were randomly assigned to 12 sessions over 6 weeks of either of ultrasound biofeedback treatment (with a speech motor chaining practice structure) or ReST. Treatment was delivered at The University of Sydney by students trained and supervised by certified speech-language pathologists. Transcriptions from blinded assessors were used to compare the two groups on speech sound accuracy (percent phonemes correct) and prosodic severity (lexical stress errors and syllable segregation) in untreated words and sentences at three time points: pretreatment, immediately posttreatment, and 1-month posttreatment (i.e., retention). RESULTS: Both groups showed significant improvement on treated items indicating a treatment effect. At no time was there a difference between groups. Both groups showed a significant improvement in speech sound accuracy on untreated words and sentences from pre to post and neither group showed an improvement in prosody pre-post. Changes to speech sound accuracy were retained by both groups at 1-month follow-up. Significant improvement in prosodic accuracy was reported at the 1-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: ReST and ultrasound biofeedback were equally effective. Either ReST or ultrasound biofeedback may be viable treatment options for school-age children with CAS. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.22114661.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Fala , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Projetos Piloto , Método Simples-Cego , Fonoterapia , Apraxias/terapia , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica
11.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 32(1): 18-36, 2023 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623212

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This tutorial summarizes current practices using visual-acoustic biofeedback (VAB) treatment to improve speech outcomes for individuals with speech sound difficulties. Clinical strategies will focus on residual distortions of /ɹ/. METHOD: Summary evidence related to the characteristics of VAB and the populations that may benefit from this treatment are reviewed. Guidelines are provided for clinicians on how to use VAB with clients to identify and modify their productions to match an acoustic representation. The clinical application of a linear predictive coding spectrum is emphasized. RESULTS: Successful use of VAB requires several key factors including clinician and client comprehension of the acoustic representation, appropriate acoustic target and template selection, as well as appropriate selection of articulatory strategies, practice schedules, and feedback models to scaffold acquisition of new speech sounds. CONCLUSION: Integrating a VAB component in clinical practice offers additional intervention options for individuals with speech sound difficulties and often facilitates improved speech sound acquisition and generalization outcomes. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.21817722.


Assuntos
Fonética , Transtorno Fonológico , Humanos , Acústica , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Fala , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Fonológico/terapia
12.
Clin Linguist Phon ; 37(2): 169-195, 2023 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243947

RESUMO

Speech sound disorders can pose a challenge to communication in children that may persist into adulthood. As some speech sounds are known to require differential control of anterior versus posterior regions of the tongue body, valid measurement of the degree of differentiation of a given tongue shape has the potential to shed light on development of motor skill in typical and disordered speakers. The current study sought to compare the success of multiple techniques in quantifying tongue shape complexity as an index of degree of lingual differentiation in child and adult speakers. Using a pre-existing data set of ultrasound images of tongue shapes from adult speakers producing a variety of phonemes, we compared the extent to which three metrics of tongue shape complexity differed across phonemes/phoneme classes that were expected to differ in articulatory complexity. We then repeated this process with ultrasound tongue shapes produced by a sample of young children. The results of these comparisons suggested that a modified curvature index and a metric representing the number of inflection points best reflected small changes in tongue shapes across individuals differing in vocal tract size. Ultimately, these metrics have the potential to reveal delays in motor skill in young children, which could inform assessment procedures and treatment decisions for children with speech delays and disorders.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Fonética , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos , Fala , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos
13.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(8): 2860-2880, 2022 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944047

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify predictors of response to treatment for residual speech sound disorder (RSSD) affecting English rhotics. Progress was tracked during an initial phase of traditional motor-based treatment and a longer phase of treatment incorporating ultrasound biofeedback. Based on previous literature, we focused on baseline stimulability and sensory acuity as predictors of interest. METHOD: Thirty-three individuals aged 9-15 years with residual distortions of /ɹ/ received a course of individual intervention comprising 1 week of intensive traditional treatment and 9 weeks of ultrasound biofeedback treatment. Stimulability for /ɹ/ was probed prior to treatment, after the traditional treatment phase, and after the end of all treatment. Accuracy of /ɹ/ production in each probe was assessed with an acoustic measure: normalized third formant (F3)-second formant (F2) distance. Model-based clustering analysis was applied to these acoustic measures to identify different average trajectories of progress over the course of treatment. The resulting clusters were compared with respect to acuity in auditory and somatosensory domains. RESULTS: All but four individuals were judged to exhibit a clinically significant response to the combined course of treatment. Two major clusters were identified. The "low stimulability" cluster was characterized by very low accuracy at baseline, minimal response to traditional treatment, and strong response to ultrasound biofeedback. The "high stimulability" group was more accurate at baseline and made significant gains in both traditional and ultrasound biofeedback phases of treatment. The clusters did not differ with respect to sensory acuity. CONCLUSIONS: This research accords with clinical intuition in finding that individuals who are more stimulable at baseline are more likely to respond to traditional intervention, whereas less stimulable individuals may derive greater relative benefit from biofeedback. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.20422236.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Transtorno Fonológico , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/métodos , Humanos , Idioma , Fala/fisiologia , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Fonológico/terapia , Fonoterapia/métodos
14.
J Commun Disord ; 99: 106230, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728449

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Children with speech errors who have reduced motor skill may be more likely to develop residual errors associated with lifelong challenges. Drawing on models of speech production that highlight the role of somatosensory acuity in updating motor plans, this pilot study explored the relationship between motor skill and speech accuracy, and between somatosensory acuity and motor skill in children. Understanding the connections among sensorimotor measures and speech outcomes may offer insight into how somatosensation and motor skill cooperate during speech production, which could inform treatment decisions for this population. METHOD: Twenty-five children (ages 9-14) produced syllables in an /ɹ/ stimulability task before and after an ultrasound biofeedback treatment program targeting rhotics. We first tested whether motor skill (as measured by two ultrasound-based metrics of tongue shape complexity) predicted acoustically measured accuracy (the normalized difference between the second and third formant frequencies). We then tested whether somatosensory acuity (as measured by an oral stereognosis task) predicted motor skill, while controlling for auditory acuity. RESULTS: One measure of tongue shape complexity was a significant predictor of accuracy, such that higher tongue shape complexity was associated with lower accuracy at pre-treatment but higher accuracy at post-treatment. Based on the same measure, children with better somatosensory acuity produced /ɹ/ tongue shapes that were more complex, but this relationship was only present at post-treatment. CONCLUSION: The predicted relationships among somatosensory acuity, motor skill, and acoustically measured /ɹ/ production accuracy were observed after treatment, but unexpectedly did not hold before treatment. The surprising finding that greater tongue shape complexity was associated with lower accuracy at pre-treatment highlights the importance of evaluating tongue shape patterns (e.g., using ultrasound) prior to treatment, and has the potential to suggest that children with high tongue shape complexity at pre-treatment may be good candidates for ultrasound-based treatment.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtorno Fonológico , Gagueira , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Transtorno Fonológico/terapia
15.
J Commun Disord ; 93: 106145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After a stroke, it is highly likely that an individual will experience substantial fatigue that can significantly affect recovery and function; stroke survivors also have more than a 50% chance of having at least one speech-language disorder. Current reviews of post-stroke fatigue have not provided evidence focused on speech-language disorders or the potential influence they may have on post-stroke fatigue and related recovery. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to determine how speech-language disorders are represented in post-stroke fatigue research and to catalogue methods used to identify speech-language disorders and measure fatigue. METHODS: A systematic scoping review was conducted to identify studies measuring post-stroke fatigue. To identify these studies, a comprehensive literature search was conducted using relevant databases and grey literature sources, followed by several stages of review that adhered to PRISMA guidelines. We evaluated these studies using pre-established eligibility criteria and extracted data regarding the inclusion/exclusion of persons with speech-language disorders and the assessment methods used. RESULTS: The scoping review analysis was conducted on 161 studies. Of these, 41 (26%) excluded all speech-language disorders, 71 (44%) excluded severe speech-language disorders, and 49 (30%) included participants with speech-language disorders. Of the 120 studies that did not explicitly exclude all speech-language disorders, only 34 were confirmed to report data from at least one person with a speech-language disorder. Further, only 5 studies reported data that could be used to determine a relationship between speech-language disorders and fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: Persons with speech-language disorders are underrepresented in post-stroke fatigue research and very few studies have examined the relationship between post-stroke fatigue and speech-language disorders, limiting conclusions that can be drawn. This is problematic because medical professionals relying on this evidence to guide clinical practice are likely to be treating individuals with co-occurring fatigue and speech-language disorders and the current research does not provide enough information about the potential impact of fatigue on speech-language disorders or vice versa. To bridge this gap, we suggest methods of assessment that could provide ways to more accurately 1) reflect the real population in post-stroke fatigue studies, and 2) measure and document fatigue in post-stroke speech-language disorder studies. We also propose the Filter-Funnel Model of Post-Stroke Fatigue, which considers the role of speech-language disorders and communicative demands in the context of post-stroke fatigue.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Comunicação , Transtornos da Linguagem , Fadiga/etiologia , Humanos , Fala , Fonoterapia
16.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(4): 1819-1845, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232693

RESUMO

Purpose Research comparing different biofeedback types could lead to individualized treatments for those with residual speech errors. This study examines within-treatment response to ultrasound and visual-acoustic biofeedback, as well as generalization to untrained words, for errors affecting the American English rhotic /ɹ/. We investigated whether some children demonstrated greater improvement in /ɹ/ during ultrasound or visual-acoustic biofeedback. Each participant received both biofeedback types. Individual predictors of treatment response (i.e., age, auditory-perceptual skill, oral somatosensory skill, and growth mindset) were also explored. Method Seven children ages 9-16 years with residual rhotic errors participated in 10 treatment visits. Each visit consisted of two conditions: 45 min of ultrasound biofeedback and 45 min of visual-acoustic biofeedback. The order of biofeedback conditions was randomized within a single-case experimental design. Acquisition of /ɹ/ was evaluated through acoustic measurements (normalized F3-F2 difference) of selected nonbiofeedback productions during practice. Generalization of /ɹ/ was evaluated through acoustic measurements and perceptual ratings of pretreatment/posttreatment probes. Results Five participants demonstrated acquisition of practiced words during the combined treatment package. Three participants demonstrated a clinically significant degree of generalization to untreated words on posttreatment probes. Randomization tests indicated one participant demonstrated a significant advantage for visual-acoustic over ultrasound biofeedback. Participants' auditory-perceptual acuity on an /ɹ/-/w/ identification task was identified as a possible correlate of generalization following treatment. Conclusions Most participants did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in acoustic productions between the ultrasound and visual-acoustic conditions, but one participant showed greater improvement in /ɹ/ during visual-acoustic biofeedback. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14881101.


Assuntos
Transtorno Fonológico , Adolescente , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Criança , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Fala , Fonoterapia , Estados Unidos
17.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(6S): 2223-2233, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705667

RESUMO

Purpose This study investigated phonological and speech motor neural networks in children with residual speech sound disorder (RSSD) during an overt Syllable Repetition Task (SRT). Method Sixteen children with RSSD with /ɹ/ errors (6F [female]; ages 8;0-12;6 [years;months]) and 16 children with typically developing speech (TD; 8F; ages 8;5-13;7) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Children performed the SRT ("SRT-Early Sounds") with the phonemes /b, d, m, n, ɑ/ and an adapted version ("SRT-Late Sounds") with the phonemes /ɹ, s, l, tʃ, ɑ/. We compared the functional activation and transcribed production accuracy of the RSSD and TD groups during both conditions. Expected errors were not scored as inaccurate. Results No between-group or within-group differences in repetition accuracy were found on the SRT-Early Sounds or SRT-Late Sounds tasks at any syllable sequence length. On a first-level analysis of the tasks, the TD group showed expected patterns of activation for both the SRT-Early Sounds and SRT-Late Sounds, including activation in the left primary motor cortex, left premotor cortex, bilateral anterior cingulate, bilateral primary auditory cortex, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral insula. The RSSD group showed similar activation when correcting for multiple comparisons. In further exploratory analyses, we observed the following subthreshold patterns: (a) On the SRT-Early Sounds, greater activation was found in the left premotor cortex for the RSSD group, while greater activation was found in the left cerebellum for the TD group; (b) on the SRT-Late Sounds, a small area of greater activation was found in the right cerebellum for the RSSD group. No within-group functional differences were observed (SRT-Early Sounds vs. SRT-Late Sounds) for either group. Conclusions Performance was similar between groups, and likewise, we found that functional activation did not differ. Observed functional differences in previous studies may reflect differences in task performance, rather than fundamental differences in neural mechanisms for syllable repetition.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Percepção da Fala , Transtorno Fonológico , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Fala , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(3S): 1580-1588, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684299

RESUMO

Purpose To assess the concurrent validity of two tasks used to inform diagnosis of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), this study evaluated the agreement between the Syllable Repetition Task (SRT) and the Maximum Repetition Rate of Trisyllables (MRR-Tri). Method A retrospective analysis was conducted with 80 children 7-16 years of age who were referred for treatment studies. All children had a speech sound disorder, and all completed both the SRT and the MRR-Tri. On each task, children were classified as meeting or not meeting the tool's threshold for CAS based on the sound sequencing errors demonstrated. Results The two tasks were in agreement for 47 participants (59% of the sample); both tasks classified 13 children as meeting the threshold for CAS and 34 children as not meeting the threshold for CAS. However, the two tasks disagreed on CAS classification for 33 children (41% of the sample). Overall, the MRR-Tri identified more children as having sound sequencing errors indicative of CAS (n = 39) than did the SRT (n = 20). Conclusions These two tasks of sound sequencing differ in the children they identify with CAS, possibly due to aspects of the underlying task requirements (e.g., time pressure). The SRT and the MRR-Tri should not be used in isolation to identify CAS but may be useful as part of a balanced CAS assessment battery that includes additional tasks that inform the nature of the impairment and that aid treatment planning. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14110280.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Transtorno Fonológico , Apraxias/diagnóstico , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fala , Distúrbios da Fala , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico
19.
Clin Linguist Phon ; 35(12): 1210-1219, 2021 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530759

RESUMO

The extent to which treatment of speech errors that are phonetic in nature (i.e., distortions) produces generalization to untrained sounds is not well understood. This case study reports a child referred for treatment of a velarized distortion of American English /ɹ/, who also demonstrated an inconsistent velarized distortion of /l/. Acoustic analysis revealed evidence of a covert contrast between /ɹ/ and /l/ prior to treatment. Ultrasound biofeedback treatment and perceptual training targeted /ɹ/ only, but progress was tracked for both /ɹ/ and /l/. Substantial improvements in perceptually rated accuracy and significant changes in acoustic features were observed for both sounds, indicating generalization. These results highlight that generalization from trained to untrained sounds is possible for children with residual speech errors characterized by phonetic distortions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Fonológico , Fala , Criança , Humanos , Fonética , Medida da Produção da Fala , Ultrassonografia , Estados Unidos
20.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(2): 452-463, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514264

RESUMO

Purpose Prior studies report conflicting descriptions of the relationships between phonological awareness (PA), vocabulary, and speech perception in preschoolers with speech disorders. This study sought to determine the nature of these relationships in a sample of school-aged children with residual speech sound errors affecting /ɹ/. Method Participants included 110 children aged 7;0-17;4 (years;months) with residual errors impacting /ɹ/. Data on perceptual acuity and perceptual bias in an /ɹ/ identification task, receptive vocabulary, and PA were obtained. A theoretically and empirically motivated path model was constructed with vocabulary mediating the relationship between two measures of speech perception and PA. Model parameters were determined through maximum likelihood estimation with standard errors that were robust to nonnormality. Monte Carlo simulation was used to examine achieved power at the current sample size. Results The saturated path model explained 19% of the variance in PA. The direct path between age-adjusted perceptual acuity and PA was significant, as was the direct path between vocabulary and PA. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no evidence in the current sample that vocabulary skill mediated the relationship between speech perception and PA. Each individual path was adequately powered at the current sample size. Conclusions The overall model provided evidence for a continued relationship between speech perception, measured by perceptual acuity of the sound in error, and PA in school-aged children with residual speech errors. Thus, measures of speech perception remain relevant to the assessment of school-aged children and adolescents in this population. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13641275.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Transtorno Fonológico , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Fonética , Instituições Acadêmicas , Vocabulário
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