*J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(18)2022 Mar 03.*

##### RESUMO

Designing materials with advanced functionalities is the main focus of contemporary solid-state physics and chemistry. Research efforts worldwide are funneled into a few high-end goals, one of the oldest, and most fascinating of which is the search for an ambient temperature superconductor (A-SC). The reason is clear: superconductivity at ambient conditions implies being able to handle, measure and access a single, coherent, macroscopic quantum mechanical state without the limitations associated with cryogenics and pressurization. This would not only open exciting avenues for fundamental research, but also pave the road for a wide range of technological applications, affecting strategic areas such as energy conservation and climate change. In this roadmap we have collected contributions from many of the main actors working on superconductivity, and asked them to share their personal viewpoint on the field. The hope is that this article will serve not only as an instantaneous picture of the status of research, but also as a true roadmap defining the main long-term theoretical and experimental challenges that lie ahead. Interestingly, although the current research in superconductor design is dominated by conventional (phonon-mediated) superconductors, there seems to be a widespread consensus that achieving A-SC may require different pairing mechanisms.In memoriam, to Neil Ashcroft, who inspired us all.

*Nanoscale Adv ; 3(16): 4756-4766, 2021 Aug 10.*

##### RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) magnets such as chromium trihalides CrX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) represent a frontier for spintronics applications and, in particular, CrCl3 has attracted research interest due its relative stability under ambient conditions without rapid degradation, as opposed to CrI3. Herein, mechanically exfoliated CrCl3 flakes are characterized at the atomic scale and the electronic structures of pristine, oxidized, and defective monolayer CrCl3 phases are investigated employing density functional theory (DFT) calculations, scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), core level X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and valence band XPS and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). As revealed by atomically resolved transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, the CrCl3 flakes show spontaneous surface oxidation upon air exposure with an extrinsic long-range ordered oxidized O-CrCl3 structure and amorphous chromium oxide formation on the edges of the flakes. XPS proves that CrCl3 is thermally stable up to 200 °C having intrinsically Cl vacancy-defects whose concentration is tunable via thermal annealing up to 400 °C. DFT calculations, supported by experimental valence band analysis, indicate that pure monolayer (ML) CrCl3 is an insulator with a band gap of 2.6 eV, while the electronic structures of oxidized and Cl defective phases of ML CrCl3, extrinsically emerging in exfoliated CrCl3 flakes, show in-gap spin-polarized states and relevant modifications of the electronic band structures.

*Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1340, 2020 Mar 12.*

##### RESUMO

We show that Cs intercalated bilayer graphene acts as a substrate for the growth of a strained Cs film hosting quantum well states with high electronic quality. The Cs film grows in an fcc phase with a substantially reduced lattice constant of 4.9 Å corresponding to a compressive strain of 11% compared to bulk Cs. We investigate its electronic structure using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and show the coexistence of massless Dirac and massive Schrödinger charge carriers in two dimensions. Analysis of the electronic self-energy of the massive charge carriers reveals the crystallographic direction in which a two-dimensional Fermi gas is realized. Our work introduces the growth of strained metal quantum wells on intercalated Dirac matter.

*ACS Nano ; 14(1): 1055-1069, 2020 Jan 28.*

##### RESUMO

A flat energy dispersion of electrons at the Fermi level of a material leads to instabilities in the electronic system and can drive phase transitions. Here we show that the flat band in graphene can be achieved by sandwiching a graphene monolayer by two cesium (Cs) layers. We investigate the flat band by a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiment and the calculations. Our work highlights that charge transfer, zone folding of graphene bands, and the covalent bonding between C and Cs atoms are the origin of the flat energy band formation. Analysis of the Stoner criterion for the flat band suggests the presence of a ferromagnetic instability. The presented approach is an alternative route for obtaining flat band materials to twisting bilayer graphene which yields thermodynamically stable flat band materials in large areas.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(33): 334001, 2019 Aug 21.*

##### RESUMO

Within recent developments of density functional theory, its numerical implementation and of the superconducting density functional theory is nowadays possible to predict the superconducting critical temperature, [Formula: see text], with sufficient accuracy to anticipate the experimental verification. In this paper we present an analytical derivation of the isotope coefficient within the superconducting density functional theory. We calculate the partial derivative of [Formula: see text] with respect to atomic masses. We verified the final expression by means of numerical calculations of isotope coefficient in monatomic superconductors (Pb) as well as polyatomic superconductors (CaC6). The results confirm the validity of the analytical derivation with respect to the finite difference methods, with considerable improvement in terms of computational time and calculation accuracy. Once the critical temperature is calculated (at the reference mass(es)), various isotope exponents can be simply obtained in the same run. In addition, we provide the expression of interesting quantities like partial derivatives of the deformation potential, phonon frequencies and eigenvectors with respect to atomic masses, which can be useful for other derivations and applications.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(28): 284001, 2019 Jul 17.*

##### RESUMO

By means of ab initio calculations within the local density approximation to density functional theory, we investigate the electronic structure of the 60 K superconductor YSr2Cu3O6+x (YSCO). We focus on the effects of the Sr/Ba substitution and on the main structural modifications induced by this substitution experimentally found in the Sr compound, namely the tetragonal symmetry and the oxygen disorder in the basal plane. In the calculations, this disorder is simulated by using a supercell approach. Due to band structure effects, we find a larger stabilisation free energy of the orthorhombic structure in YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO). In YSCO, the tetragonal disordered phase is found to be stabilized by oxygen overdoping (x > 1) and by sufficiently large mass-enhancement factors, [Formula: see text]. The analysis of the atomic site projected density of states suggests that oxygen disorder in the CuO basal planes of YSCO induces hole localisation, which accounts for the large 30 K reduction of [Formula: see text] with respect to YBCO.

*ACS Nano ; 12(8): 7571-7582, 2018 Aug 28.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of bottom-up synthesized aligned armchair graphene nanoribbons of N = 7 carbon atoms width periodically doped by substitutional boron atoms (B-7AGNRs). Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we find that the dopant-derived valence and conduction band states are notably hybridized with electronic states of Au substrate and spread in energy. The interaction with the substrate leaves the bands with pure carbon character rather unperturbed. This results in an identical effective mass of ≈0.2 m0 for the next-highest valence band compared with pristine 7AGNRs. We probe the phonons of B-7AGNRs by ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) Raman spectroscopy and reveal the existence of characteristic splitting and red shifts in Raman modes due to the presence of substitutional boron atoms. Comparing the Raman spectra for three visible lasers (red, green, and blue), we find that interaction with gold suppresses the Raman signal from B-7AGNRs and the energy of the green laser (2.33 eV) is closer to the resonant E22 transition. The hybridized electronic structure of the B-7AGNR-Au interface is expected to improve electrical characteristics of contacts between graphene nanoribbon and Au. The Raman fingerprint allows the easy identification of B-7AGNRs, which is particularly useful for device fabrication.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(48): 485002, 2017 12 06.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate with scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations the surface structures and the electronic properties of Fe1+y Te thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Contrary to the regular arrangement of antiferromagnetic nanostripes previously reported on cleaved single-crystal samples, the surface of Fe1+y Te thin films displays a peculiar distribution of spatially inhomogeneous nanostripes. Both STM and DFT calculations show the bias-dependent nature of such features and support the interpretation of spin-polarized tunneling between the FeTe surface and an unintentionally magnetized tip. In addition, the spatial inhomogeneity is interpreted as a purely electronic effect related to changes in hybridization and Fe-Fe bond length driven by local variations in the concentration of excess interstitial Fe cations. Unexpectedly, the surface density of states measured by STS strongly evolves with temperature in close proximity to the antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic first-order transition, and reveals a large pseudogap of 180-250 meV at about 50-65 K. We believe that in this temperature range a phase transition takes place, and the system orders and locks into particular combinations of orbitals and spins because of the interplay between excess interstitial magnetic Fe and strongly correlated d-electrons.

*Sci Technol Adv Mater ; 13(5): 054402, 2012 Oct.*

##### RESUMO

We explore the electronic, transport and thermoelectric properties of Fe1+y Se x Te1-x compounds to clarify the mechanisms of superconductivity in Fe-based compounds. We carry out first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations of structural, electronic, magnetic and transport properties and measure resistivity, Hall resistance and Seebeck effect curves. All the transport properties exhibit signatures of the structural/magnetic transitions, such as discontinuities and sign changes of the Seebeck coefficient and of the Hall resistance. These features are reproduced by calculations provided that antiferromagnetic correlations are taken into account and experimental values of lattice constants are considered in DFT calculations. On the other hand, the temperature dependences of the transport properties can not be fully reproduced, and to improve the agreement between experiment and DFT calculations it is necessary to go beyond the constant relaxation time approximation and take into account correlation effects.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 107(13): 137006, 2011 Sep 23.*

##### RESUMO

K(3) picene is a superconducting molecular crystal with a critical temperature of T(c) = 7 or 18 K, depending on the preparation conditions. Using density functional theory we show that electron-phonon interaction accounts for T(c) 3-8 K. The average electron-phonon coupling, calculated by including the phonon energy scale in the electron-phonon scattering, is λ = 0.73 and ω(log) = 18.0 meV. Intercalant and intermolecular phonon modes contribute substantially (40%) to λ as also shown by the isotope exponents of potassium (0.19) and carbon (0.31). The relevance of these modes makes superconductivity in K-doped picene peculiar and different from that of fullerenes.