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2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1804, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38413573

RESUMO

Excitons are realizations of a correlated many-particle wave function, specifically consisting of electrons and holes in an entangled state. Excitons occur widely in semiconductors and are dominant excitations in semiconducting organic and low-dimensional quantum materials. To efficiently harness the strong optical response and high tuneability of excitons in optoelectronics and in energy-transformation processes, access to the full wavefunction of the entangled state is critical, but has so far not been feasible. Here, we show how time-resolved photoemission momentum microscopy can be used to gain access to the entangled wavefunction and to unravel the exciton's multiorbital electron and hole contributions. For the prototypical organic semiconductor buckminsterfullerene (C60), we exemplify the capabilities of exciton tomography and achieve unprecedented access to key properties of the entangled exciton state including localization, charge-transfer character, and ultrafast exciton formation and relaxation dynamics.

3.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 35(47)2023 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37586386

RESUMO

The adsorption of heptacene (7 A) on Cu(110) and Cu(110)-(2 × 1)-O was studied with scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission orbital tomography and density functional calculations to reveal the influence of surface passivation on the molecular geometry and electronic states. We found that the charge transfer into the 7 A molecules on Cu(110) is completely suppressed for the oxygen-modified Cu surface. The molecules are aligned along the Cu-O rows and uncharged. They are tilted due to the geometry enforced by the substrate and the ability to maximize intermolecular π-π overlap, which leads to strong π-band dispersion. The HOMO-LUMO gap of these decoupled molecules is significantly larger than that reported on weakly interacting metal surfaces. Finally, the Cu-O stripe phase was used as a template for nanostructured molecular growth and to assess possible confinement effects.

4.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 10(22): e2300223, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37199683

RESUMO

Molecule-based functional devices may take advantage of surface-mediated spin state bistability. Whereas different spin states in conventional spin crossover complexes are only accessible at temperatures well below room temperature, and the lifetimes of the high-spin state are relatively short, a different behavior exhibited by prototypical nickel phthalocyanine is shown here. Direct interaction of the organometallic complex with a copper metal electrode mediates the coexistence of a high spin and a low spin state within the 2D molecular array. The spin state bistability is extremely non-volatile, since no external stimuli are required to preserve it. It originates from the surface-induced axial displacement of the functional nickel cores, which generates two stable local minima. Spin state unlocking and the full conversion to the low spin state are only possible by a high temperature stimulus. This spin state transition is accompanied by distinct changes in the molecular electronic structure that might facilitate the state readout at room temperature, as evidenced by valence spectroscopy. The non-volatility of the high spin state up to elevated temperatures and the controllable spin bistability render the system extremely intriguing for applications in molecule-based information storage devices.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(46): 28540-28547, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411984

RESUMO

We have experimentally determined the adsorption structure, charge state, and metalation state of porphin, the fundamental building block of porphyrins, on ultrathin Ag(001)-supported MgO(001) films by scanning tunneling microscopy and photoemission spectroscopy, supported by calculations based on density functional theory. By tuning the substrate work function to values below and above the critical work function for charging, we succeeded in the preparation of 2H-P monolayers which contain negatively charged and uncharged molecules. It is shown that the porphin molecules self-metalate at room temperature, forming the corresponding Mg-porphin, irrespective of their charge state. This is in contrast to self-metalation of tetraphenyl porphyrin (TPP), which occurs on planar MgO(001) only if the molecules are negatively charged. The different reactivity is explained by the reduced molecule-substrate distance of the planar porphin molecule compared to the bulkier TPP. The results of this study shed light on the mechanism of porphyrin self-metalation on oxides and highlight the role of the adsorption geometry on the chemical reactivity.

6.
ACS Nano ; 16(10): 17435-17443, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36239301

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic compounds with fused benzene rings offer an extraordinary versatility as next-generation organic semiconducting materials for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics due to their tunable characteristics, including charge-carrier mobility and optical absorption. Nonplanarity can be an additional parameter to customize their electronic and optical properties without changing the aromatic core. In this work, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study in which we directly observe large, geometry-induced modifications in the frontier orbitals of a prototypical dye molecule when adsorbed on an atomically thin dielectric interlayer on a metallic substrate. Experimentally, we employ angle-resolved photoemission experiments, interpreted in the framework of the photoemission orbital tomography technique. We demonstrate its sensitivity to detect geometrical bends in adsorbed molecules and highlight the role of the photon energy used in experiment for detecting such geometrical distortions. Theoretically, we conduct density functional calculations to determine the geometric and electronic structure of the adsorbed molecule and simulate the photoemission angular distribution patterns. While we found an overall good agreement between experimental and theoretical data, our results also unveil limitations in current van der Waals corrected density functional approaches for such organic/dielectric interfaces. Hence, photoemission orbital tomography provides a vital experimental benchmark for such systems. By comparison with the state of the same molecule on a metallic substrate, we also offer an explanation why the adsorption on the dielectric induces such large bends in the molecule.

7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5148, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055995

RESUMO

When a molecule interacts chemically with a metal surface, the orbitals of the molecule hybridise with metal states to form the new eigenstates of the coupled system. Spatial overlap and energy matching are determining parameters of the hybridisation. However, since every molecular orbital does not only have a characteristic spatial shape, but also a specific momentum distribution, one may additionally expect a momentum matching condition; after all, each hybridising wave function of the metal has a defined wave vector, too. Here, we report photoemission orbital tomography measurements of hybrid orbitals that emerge from molecular orbitals at a molecule-on-metal interface. We find that in the hybrid orbitals only those partial waves of the original orbital survive which match the metal band structure. Moreover, we find that the conversion of the metal's surface state into a hybrid interface state is also governed by momentum matching constraints. Our experiments demonstrate the possibility to measure hybridisation momentum-selectively, thereby enabling deep insights into the complicated interplay of bulk states, surface states, and molecular orbitals in the formation of the electronic interface structure at molecule-on-metal hybrid interfaces.

8.
Sci Adv ; 8(29): eabn0819, 2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867796

RESUMO

Tracing the modifications of molecules in surface chemical reactions benefits from the possibility to image their orbitals. While delocalized frontier orbitals with π character are imaged routinely with photoemission orbital tomography, they are not always sensitive to local chemical modifications, particularly the making and breaking of bonds at the molecular periphery. For such bonds, σ orbitals would be far more revealing. Here, we show that these orbitals can indeed be imaged in a remarkably broad energy range and that the plane wave approximation, an important ingredient of photoemission orbital tomography, is also well fulfilled for these orbitals. This makes photoemission orbital tomography a unique tool for the detailed analysis of surface chemical reactions. We demonstrate this by identifying the reaction product of a dehalogenation and cyclodehydrogenation reaction.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(16): 9118-9122, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383807

RESUMO

We report on the formation of a high-order commensurate (HOC) structure of 5,14-dihydro-5,7,12,14-tetraazapentacene (DHTAP) molecules on the highly corrugated Cu(110)-(2 × 1)O surface. Scanning tunnelling microscopy shows that the DHTAP molecules form a periodic uniaxial arrangement in which groups of seven molecules are distributed over exactly nine substrate lattice spacings along the [1̄10] direction. DFT-calculations reveal that this peculiar arrangement is associated with different tilting of the seven DHTAP molecules within the quasi one-dimensional HOC unit cell. The orientational degree of freedom thus adds a new parameter, which can efficiently stabilize complex molecular structures on corrugated surfaces.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(20): e202201916, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267236

RESUMO

Uncommon metal oxidation states in porphyrinoid cofactors are responsible for the activity of many enzymes. The F430 and P450nor co-factors, with their reduced NiI - and FeIII -containing tetrapyrrolic cores, are prototypical examples of biological systems involved in methane formation and in the reduction of nitric oxide, respectively. Herein, using a comprehensive range of experimental and theoretical methods, we raise evidence that nickel tetraphenyl porphyrins deposited in vacuo on a copper surface are reactive towards nitric oxide disproportionation at room temperature. The interpretation of the measurements is far from being straightforward due to the high reactivity of the different nitrogen oxides species (eventually present in the residual gas background) and of the possible reaction intermediates. The picture is detailed in order to disentangle the challenging complexity of the system, where even a small fraction of contamination can change the scenario.


Assuntos
Níquel , Óxido Nítrico , Cobre , Compostos Férricos , Metais , Oxirredução
11.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 126(10): 5036-5045, 2022 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35330758

RESUMO

Hexacene, composed of six linearly fused benzene rings, is an organic semiconductor material with superior electronic properties. The fundamental understanding of the electronic and chemical properties is prerequisite to any possible application in devices. We investigate the orientation and interface properties of highly ordered hexacene monolayers on Ag(110) and Cu(110) with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), photoemission orbital tomography (POT), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and density functional theory (DFT). We find pronounced differences in the structural arrangement of the molecules and the electronic properties at the metal/organic interfaces for the two substrates. While on Cu(110) the molecules adsorb with their long molecular axis parallel to the high symmetry substrate direction, on Ag(110), hexacene adsorbs in an azimuthally slightly rotated geometry with respect to the metal rows of the substrate. In both cases, molecular planes are oriented parallel to the substrate. A pronounced charge transfer from both substrates to different molecular states affects the effective charge of different C atoms of the molecule. Through analysis of experimental and theoretical data, we found out that on Ag(110) the LUMO of the molecule is occupied through charge transfer from the metal, whereas on Cu(110) even the LUMO+1 receives a charge. Interface dipoles are determined to a large extent by the push-back effect, which are also found to differ significantly between 6A/Ag(110) and 6A/Cu(110).

12.
Angew Chem Weinheim Bergstr Ger ; 134(20): e202201916, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505699

RESUMO

Uncommon metal oxidation states in porphyrinoid cofactors are responsible for the activity of many enzymes. The F430 and P450nor co-factors, with their reduced NiI- and FeIII-containing tetrapyrrolic cores, are prototypical examples of biological systems involved in methane formation and in the reduction of nitric oxide, respectively. Herein, using a comprehensive range of experimental and theoretical methods, we raise evidence that nickel tetraphenyl porphyrins deposited in vacuo on a copper surface are reactive towards nitric oxide disproportionation at room temperature. The interpretation of the measurements is far from being straightforward due to the high reactivity of the different nitrogen oxides species (eventually present in the residual gas background) and of the possible reaction intermediates. The picture is detailed in order to disentangle the challenging complexity of the system, where even a small fraction of contamination can change the scenario.

13.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 125(44): 24477-24486, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795810

RESUMO

Semiconducting O-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons constitute a class of molecules whose optoelectronic properties can be tailored by acting on the π-extension of the carbon-based frameworks and on the oxygen linkages. Although much is known about their photophysical and electrochemical properties in solution, their self-assembly interfacial behavior on solid substrates has remained unexplored so far. In this paper, we have focused our attention on the on-surface self-assembly of O-doped bi-perylene derivatives. Their ability to assemble in ordered networks on Cu(111) single-crystalline surfaces allowed a combination of structural, morphological, and spectroscopic studies. In particular, the exploitation of the orbital mapping methodology based on angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, with the support of scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction, allowed the identification of both the electronic structure of the adsorbates and their geometric arrangement. Our multi-technique experimental investigation includes the structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction data for a specific compound and demonstrates that the electronic structure of such large molecular self-assembled networks can be studied using the reconstruction methods of molecular orbitals from photoemission data even in the presence of segregated chiral domains.

14.
Small ; 17(50): e2104779, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643036

RESUMO

Molecular interfaces formed between metals and molecular compounds offer a great potential as building blocks for future opto-electronics and spintronics devices. Here, a combined theoretical and experimental spectro-microscopy approach is used to show that the charge transfer occurring at the interface between nickel tetraphenyl porphyrins and copper changes both spin and oxidation states of the Ni ion from [Ni(II), S = 0] to [Ni(I), S = 1/2]. The chemically active Ni(I), even in a buried multilayer system, can be functionalized with nitrogen dioxide, allowing a selective tuning of the electronic properties of the Ni center that is switched to a [Ni(II), S = 1] state. While Ni acts as a reversible spin switch, it is found that the electronic structure of the macrocycle backbone, where the frontier orbitals are mainly localized, remains unaffected. These findings pave the way for using the present porphyrin-based system as a platform for the realization of multifunctional devices where the magnetism and the optical/transport properties can be controlled simultaneously by independent stimuli.


Assuntos
Porfirinas , Cobre , Metais , Níquel , Temperatura
15.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 125(17): 9129-9137, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055126

RESUMO

Charge-transfer processes at molecule-metal interfaces play a key role in tuning the charge injection properties in organic-based devices and thus, ultimately, the device performance. Here, the metal's work function and the adsorbate's electron affinity are the key factors that govern the electron transfer at the organic/metal interface. In our combined experimental and theoretical work, we demonstrate that the adsorbate's orientation may also be decisive for the charge transfer. By thermal cycloreversion of diheptacene isomers, we manage to produce highly oriented monolayers of the rodlike, electron-acceptor molecule heptacene on a Cu(110) surface with molecules oriented either along or perpendicular to the close-packed metal rows. This is confirmed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images as well as by angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (ARUPS). By utilizing photoemission tomography momentum maps, we show that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is fully occupied and also, the LUMO + 1 gets significantly filled when heptacene is oriented along the Cu rows. Conversely, for perpendicularly aligned heptacene, the molecular energy levels are shifted significantly toward the Fermi energy, preventing charge transfer to the LUMO + 1. These findings are fully confirmed by our density functional calculations and demonstrate the possibility to tune the charge transfer and level alignment at organic-metal interfaces through the adjustable molecular alignment.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(24): 3050-3053, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625406

RESUMO

The sensitivity of photoemission tomography (PT) to directly probe single molecule on-surface intramolecular reactions will be shown here. PT application in the study of molecules possessing peripheral ligands and structural flexibility is tested on the temperature-induced dehydrogenation intramolecular reaction on Ag(100), leading from CoOEP to the final product CoTBP. Along with the ring-closure reaction, the electronic occupancy and energy level alignment of the frontier orbitals, as well as the oxidation state of the metal ion, are elucidated for both the CoOEP and CoTBP systems.

17.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 125(5): 2918-2925, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603943

RESUMO

Longer acenes such as heptacene are promising candidates for optoelectronic applications but are unstable in their bulk structure as they tend to dimerize. This makes the growth of well-defined monolayers and films problematic. In this article, we report the successful preparation of a highly oriented monolayer of heptacene on Ag(110) by thermal cycloreversion of diheptacenes. In a combined effort of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we characterize the electronic and structural properties of the molecule on the surface in detail. Our investigations allow us to unambiguously confirm the successful fabrication of a highly oriented complete monolayer of heptacene and to describe its electronic structure. By comparing experimental momentum maps of photoemission from frontier orbitals of heptacene and pentacene, we shed light on differences between these two acenes regarding their molecular orientation and energy-level alignment on the metal surfaces.

18.
Chemistry ; 27(10): 3526-3535, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264485

RESUMO

Due to its unique magnetic properties offered by the open-shell electronic structure of the central metal ion, and for being an effective catalyst in a wide variety of reactions, iron phthalocyanine has drawn significant interest from the scientific community. Nevertheless, upon surface deposition, the magnetic properties of the molecular layer can be significantly affected by the coupling occurring at the interface, and the more reactive the surface, the stronger is the impact on the spin state. Here, we show that on Cu(100), indeed, the strong hybridization between the Fe d-states of FePc and the sp-band of the copper substrate modifies the charge distribution in the molecule, significantly influencing the magnetic properties of the iron ion. The FeII ion is stabilized in the low singlet spin state (S=0), leading to the complete quenching of the molecule magnetic moment. By exploiting the FePc/Cu(100) interface, we demonstrate that NO2 dissociation can be used to gradually change the magnetic properties of the iron ion, by trimming the gas dosage. For lower doses, the FePc film is decoupled from the copper substrate, restoring the gas phase triplet spin state (S=1). A higher dose induces the transition from ferrous to ferric phthalocyanine, in its intermediate spin state, with enhanced magnetic moment due to the interaction with the atomic ligands. Remarkably, in this way, three different spin configurations have been observed within the same metalorganic/metal interface by exposing it to different doses of NO2 at room temperature.

19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(10): 5078-5082, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245197

RESUMO

Metalation and self-metalation reactions of porphyrins on oxide surfaces have recently gained interest. The mechanism of porphyrin self-metalation on oxides is, however, far from being understood. Herein, we show by a combination of results obtained with scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission spectroscopy, and DFT computations, that the self-metalation of 2H-tetraphenylporphyrin on the surface of ultrathin MgO(001) films is promoted by charge transfer. By tuning the work function of the MgO(001)/Ag(001) substrate, we are able to control the charge and the metalation state of the porphyrin molecules on the surface.

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