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1.
JCEM Case Rep ; 2(3): luae018, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38404690

RESUMO

Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) is characterized by mild cortisol deficiency, excess androgens and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) production, and often with various features of dysmetabolic syndrome. Elective bariatric surgery is one of the most effective long-term management strategies for severe obesity. Our case presents a 34-year-old woman with symptomatic NCCAH and class III obesity who status post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) had significant weight loss with metabolic resolution of NCCAH, and no longer required glucocorticoid (GC) therapy. At 11 months post operation and off GC therapy, she had a weight deficit of approximately 160 pounds (72.57 kg) with continued metabolic resolution of NCCAH markers including ACTH, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione. Presently, GC therapy remains one of the few available treatments for symptomatic NCCAH; however, long-term GC therapy has the potential for various complications and side effects. Our case presents elective bariatric surgery as a potential and unique treatment option for patients with NCCAH with associated class III obesity. The exact pathophysiologic basis for this effect and its potential role in long-term management of appropriate NCCAH patients requires further study.

2.
Med J Malaysia ; 79(1): 74-79, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38287761

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salmonella typhi could infect the intestinal tract and the bloodstream or invade body organs and secrete endotoxins. It is endemic in developing countries. It is increasingly evolving antimicrobial resistance to several commonly used antimicrobial agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done at Iraqi Communicable Disease Control Center, where all confirmed cases of Salmonella typhi are reported, for a period 2019-2021. All demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients, comorbidities, type of samples, distribution of S. typhi by age and gender, time distribution in each year and profile of bacterial resistance and sensitivity to antibiotics were gathered and analysed. RESULTS: Most samples were taken from blood. The mean age of cases during 2019, 2020 and 2021 was 18.7 ± 6.5, 17.7 ± 14.1 and 17.3 ± 12.8. Males constituted 56.7%, 58.5% and 39.8%, respectively. Some cases had comorbidities. Most cases had headache and fever. Some of them had nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting and epigastric pain. The age and sex were significantly associated with years of reporting. The most months of case reporting were June-July (2019 and 2021), Jan. -Feb. (2020). There was an obvious increase in S. typhi resistance to ceftriaxone (92.2%, 86.1%, 88.8%) and ampicillin (77.1%, 76.9%, 81.27%). There was a gradual increase in sensitivity to tetracycline (83.1%, 88.1%, 94%), cotrimoxazole (86.7%, 86.1%, 92.2%), ciprofloxacin (78.3%, 90.1%, 87.8%) and cefixime (77.7%, 72.3%, 72.7%). CONCLUSIONS: There was a sharp rise in resistance rates of the S. typhi in Iraq (during 2019-2021) to ceftriaxone and ampicillin, while there were highest sensitivity rates to imipenem, aztreonam and chloramphenicol. The following recommendations were made: (1) Improvement of general hygiene and food safety measures. (2) Emphasis on vaccination and surveillance of Salmonella infection. (3) Rational use of appropriate antibiotics through implementation of treatment guidelines. (5) Educate communities and travelers about the risks of S. typhi and its preventive measures.


Assuntos
Febre Tifoide , Masculino , Humanos , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Iraque/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella typhi , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico
3.
JCEM Case Rep ; 1(6): luad147, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38045865

RESUMO

Fahr syndrome is a rare neurologic disorder, usually affecting young and middle-aged adults, that can present with symptoms ranging from extrapyramidal to neuropsychiatric abnormalities. Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), characterized by parathyroid hormone (PTH)-resistance or PTH-unresponsiveness at target organs, is associated with Fahr syndrome and typically presents with hypocalcemia. The following case presents a 39-year-old-woman with PHP complicated by symptomatic hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, and movement disturbances, who had computed tomography imaging showing basal ganglia calcifications consistent with Fahr syndrome. She initially presented with headache and was hospitalized for hypertensive emergency and severe hypocalcemia. Examination, including the neurologic examination, was unrevealing aside from hypertension and central adiposity. Laboratory tests were consistent with PHP, showing hypocalcemia with elevated PTH, and negative for hyperaldosteronism. Management of hypocalcemia consisted of intravenous calcium infusion, oral calcium carbonate, oral vitamin D3, and oral calcitriol. Patients with severe hypocalcemia and elevated PTH who present with new neurological symptoms despite normal general neurologic examination may warrant consideration for brain imaging to evaluate for Fahr syndrome. Further investigations are necessary to determine the prevalence of Fahr syndrome and hypokalemia in patients with PHP, explore if these findings are significantly associated with PHP-1b subtype, and ultimately inform potential new screening pathways for these patients.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285616

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/farmacologia
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468858

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/microbiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469074

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

7.
Cureus ; 14(6): e26306, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35911279

RESUMO

Hypoglycemia secondary to sulfonylureas and clopidogrel have been independently described in the literature. However, there has been minimal investigation into the risk of clopidogrel-induced hypoglycemia in the setting of long-term or concomitant sulfonylurea use in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We present a case of a patient with diabetes well managed on glimepiride (second-generation sulfonylurea) for more than 10 years who presented with an episode of hypoglycemia shortly after initiation of clopidogrel for peripheral vascular disease.

8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431905

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico
9.
Cureus ; 13(6): e15494, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268026

RESUMO

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder characterized by non-caseating granulomas in multiple organs. It most commonly involves lungs and it is very rare to find isolated cases affecting other organ systems with no associated pulmonary findings. We hereby present a case of a young 30-year-old male who was referred to the hospital by his primary medical doctor due to right eye pain secondary to iritis and acute kidney injury (AKI). His initial laboratory studies revealed anemia, AKI, mild hypercalcemia, and the urinary analysis revealed proteinuria. Imaging studies were negative and a kidney biopsy was performed and showed results from the biopsy that revealed diffuse tubulointerstitial disease with early fibrosis, widespread moderate inflammation, multifocal tubulitis, and focal aggregate of epithelioid cells suggestive of granuloma consistent with sarcoidosis. The patient was treated with prednisone. Renal involvement of sarcoidosis is extremely rare (around 0.7%). It has a wide spectrum of presentation including abnormal calcium metabolism, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and acute tubulointerstitial nephritis with or without granulomas. This is a unique case as it shows renal sarcoidosis without coexisting pulmonary finding of hilar lymphadenopathy on chest X-ray. There are very few reported cases of renal sarcoidosis in the literature and this case can add to the pool of those cases. It also emphasizes the need for urgent renal biopsy in the settings of AKI associated with mild to moderate proteinuria. Lack of availability of comprehensive research on the disease may lead to misdiagnosis and delay in treatment.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494191

RESUMO

The Department of Transport in the United Kingdom recorded 25,080 motor vehicle fatalities in 2019. This situation stresses the need for an intelligent transport system (ITS) that improves road safety and security by avoiding human errors with the use of autonomous vehicles (AVs). Therefore, this survey discusses the current development of two main components of an ITS: (1) gathering of AVs surrounding data using sensors; and (2) enabling vehicular communication technologies. First, the paper discusses various sensors and their role in AVs. Then, various communication technologies for AVs to facilitate vehicle to everything (V2X) communication are discussed. Based on the transmission range, these technologies are grouped into three main categories: long-range, medium-range and short-range. The short-range group presents the development of Bluetooth, ZigBee and ultra-wide band communication for AVs. The medium-range examines the properties of dedicated short-range communications (DSRC). Finally, the long-range group presents the cellular-vehicle to everything (C-V2X) and 5G-new radio (5G-NR). An important characteristic which differentiates each category and its suitable application is latency. This research presents a comprehensive study of AV technologies and identifies the main advantages, disadvantages, and challenges.

11.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19941, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34976531

RESUMO

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare genetic condition that presents due to bone marrow failure caused by a dysfunction in ribosomal biogenesis and function. The patients would often require chronic transfusions as treatment, which puts them at high risk for the development of secondary hemochromatosis. This secondary hemochromatosis results in endocrinopathies due to iron deposition into the endocrine glands. We present an interesting case report of a female patient with multiple endocrinopathies due to secondary hemochromatosis resulting from chronic transfusion therapy. Her endocrinopathies included hypothyroidism complicated by myxedema coma and, interestingly, hypoparathyroidism, which has seldom been reported in DBA patients. Early diagnosis and precise treatment of life-threatening conditions like myxedema coma in DBA patients can avoid morbidity and mortality.

12.
Cureus ; 12(9): e10650, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133820

RESUMO

We report a case of encephalitis in a young male patient with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who initially presented with typical symptoms of fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath but later on developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and required mechanical ventilation. Two days post-extubation, the patient developed new-onset generalized tonic-clonic seizures and confusion. MRI of the brain was done and it showed an abnormal signal in the bilateral medial cortical frontal region. His cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed a characteristic picture of a viral infection with a high white blood cell count and normal glucose and protein levels. After ruling out all common causes of viral encephalitis such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) and based on the review of available literature regarding the neurological manifestations of COVID-19, this case was labeled as acute viral encephalitis secondary to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

13.
Cureus ; 12(10): e10745, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150097

RESUMO

Acute hepatitis is most often self-resolving and a benign condition that rarely requires any anti-viral drugs. In immunocompromised patients (HIV-infected patients and transplant recipients), the morbidity and mortality associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection have been extensively reported in the medical literature. We are describing a rare case of acute severe cytomegalovirus hepatitis in an immunocompetent host. In immunocompetent individuals, in most cases, it causes a subclinical infection and hence doesn't require an anti-viral agent for treatment. Our patient was unique because it presented with clinically severe hepatitis and was uncharacteristically treated with the use of antiviral medications.

14.
Cureus ; 12(10): e10878, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178530

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are antihyperglycemic drugs that are currently being recommended as second-line therapy for patients with diabetes mellitus. SGLT-2 Inhibitors function by inhibiting renal cotransporters, which reduces the reabsorption of glucose in the kidney, ultimately decreasing the concentration of glucose in the body. They have gained popularity in recent years due to their protective effects on the heart and kidneys - both organ systems that diabetes mellitus has shown to have a deleterious effect on. However, despite their growing fame, they have been found to increase the risk of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Euglycemic DKA is particularly dangerous as there is a chance that it can be missed by clinicians due to glucose levels generally being less than 200 mg/dL. There is an increasing body of literature detailing cases of euglycemic DKA after bariatric surgery. We present a brief review of the literature regarding this important side effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors seen in patients after bariatric surgery.

15.
Cureus ; 12(10): e11074, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224668

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is a rare extraarticular manifestation of the systemic autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis. RA-ILD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It is more commonly seen in patients with risk factors, which include male sex, severe rheumatoid arthritis, and smoking. The presentation depends on the extent of the underlying pathology. Patients can remain asymptomatic for extended periods of time and progressively develop symptoms such as shortness of breath on exertion and a nonproductive cough. The diagnosis is made using a combination of clinical presentation, pulmonary function testing, and imaging. It is difficult for a practitioner to distinguish the presentation of interstitial lung disease from other causes and RA-ILD. However, it is extremely important to differentiate them due to the differences in management. The treatment usually involves a multidisciplinary team guided approach towards treating the underlying rheumatoid arthritis. Asymptomatic patients are managed by observation, while symptomatic patients are managed with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants. Accurate and early treatment can lead to an improvement in a patient's symptoms and significantly improve their quality of life. We present an interesting case of a female with a long-standing history of rheumatoid arthritis not on any treatment presenting to the ED with exertional shortness of breath, dry cough, and abdominal distension.

16.
Cureus ; 12(8): e10108, 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005526

RESUMO

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare disease of the muscles that presents with painless weakness of the muscles. The patients usually have hypokalemia and hyperthyroidism with elevations in the level of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The muscle weakness is usually transient, and the patients in many cases suffer from recurrent episodes of muscle paralysis. This flaccid muscle paralysis predominantly affects the proximal and lower extremities group of muscles more than the distal and upper extremity muscles. This condition is one of the drastic complications of Graves's disease and, unfortunately, may require admission and treatment in the critical care units. It is often not recognized during the initial attack in the American population as the prevalence is very low among the Caucasian population and people from North America. However, while the prevalence is extremely low in the Caucasian population, it is known to be 10 times more common among the Asian population when compared with the Caucasian population. Furthermore, while the diseases of the thyroid gland are more common in females, this rare disease predominantly affects male sex. It is treated by reversing the hypokalemia, which can in itself prove to be fatal if not corrected quickly, and this is followed by treatment to restore the euthyroid state. A literature review on this reversible cause of muscle weakness is very important to better understand this disease.

17.
Cureus ; 12(9): e10634, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123447

RESUMO

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a clinical condition characterized by muscle weakness in patients with underlying hyperthyroidism. It is usually more commonly seen in patients of Asian origin and has a predisposition for the male population (unlike other thyroid disorders which commonly affect the female population). Findings are more overt in patients who have subclinical hyperthyroidism and there is a risk of them remaining untreated. The symptoms can range from mild muscle weakness to total paralysis. The muscles affected predominantly are the proximal and lower extremities group of muscles. Thyrotoxic muscle paralysis can be precipitated by hyperinsulinemic states such as after heavy meals, physical exertion, obesity, stress, and certain medications like high-dose steroids, antiretrovirals, and interferon therapy. The acute intervention usually revolves around the replenishment of patient's potassium stores followed by maintenance therapy with anti-thyroid medications. We present a case of a Chinese adolescent who presented to us with lower muscle weakness and underlying subclinical hyperthyroidism. It's important for clinicians to be familiar with this disease entity and include it in their differentials whenever a patient with muscle weakness presents. The treatment is simple and can result in rapid improvement of symptoms and should be initiated quickly.

18.
Cureus ; 12(8): e10058, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999781

RESUMO

Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed every year and accounts for a major percentage of cancer incidence and mortality annually, especially in men. Lung adenocarcinoma is a subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is the most common type of lung cancer found in smokers and nonsmokers alike. It is known to have diverse CT chest findings ranging from: ground-glass opacities (GGOs) with partially solid nodules, to single or multiple solid nodules that can be either central or peripheral, to thin-walled cystic lesions. Lesions are usually solitary but may be multifocal. Rarely, these lesions can be calcified or demonstrate cavitation, which can make it difficult to distinguish from an infectious disease like tuberculosis, pneumonia, or even fungal infections. Here, we present a case of a 36-year-old Asian male with no significant past medical history, except a 16-pack-year smoking history and recent deployment to Afghanistan, that initially presented with a chief complaint of cough of three-week duration. His CT scan showed innumerable bilateral pulmonary nodules within both lung fields with a miliary type appearance that ultimately turned out to be adenocarcinoma.

19.
Cureus ; 12(8): e9849, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953356

RESUMO

Myasthenia gravis is an auto-immune disease that results in muscle weakness caused by antibodies released against acetylcholine receptors at the presynaptic membrane. Treatment options include acetylcholinesterase medications that cause a wide range of side-effects by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine at the synaptic cleft. One peculiar side effect seen is the precipitation of myocardial infarction caused by an excess of acetylcholine especially among elderly females. We present an interesting case of an 88-year-old female with a history of lung cancer newly diagnosed with paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis, started on treatment with prednisone 40 mg daily, and pyridostigmine 60 mg every six hours. She initially showed remarkable improvement in symptoms within a few hours, however, one day later, the patient developed sudden onset of chest pain radiating towards her left arm. A 12-lead electrocardiogram (EKG) showed diffuse ST-elevation in anterior leads and cardiac enzymes were found to be elevated. Pyridostigmine was stopped and the patient was started on heparin. The patient underwent cardiac catheterization which showed 50% stenosis in the right coronary artery (RCA) and 70% in the left anterior descending artery (LAD). The patient was monitored in the cardiac care unit (CCU) for 24 hours and later on discharged home on oral prednisone. It is a common practice to start treatment with anti-cholinesterase medications in newly diagnosed patients of myasthenia gravis, however, these medications can precipitate myocardial ischemia by coronary vasogenic spasm or by their arrhythmogenic effect. It is important to be aware of these outcomes while starting patients on these medications.

20.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11690, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391924

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing lung injury has been well documented in the literature recently. They do so primarily by binding to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptors. However, since these receptors are also expressed in the heart and blood vessels, coronavirus can also cause damage to these organs by binding to the ACE-2 receptors. A typical case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) usually presents with respiratory symptoms like cough and shortness of breath accompanied by fever. The literature regarding this pandemic has been growing and now we know very well that the effect of this deadly virus is not restricted to the lungs alone. It can, unfortunately, cause various other complications ranging from neurological damage to even myocardial injury in rare cases. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient who presented to us with shortness of breath. When further investigated, the patient was found to have a new onset of heart failure secondary to COVID-19 induced myocarditis.

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