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1.
Heliyon ; 10(8): e28543, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628704

RESUMO

Objective: Individual differences were observed in the clinical efficacy of Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) in the treatment of the primary Meige syndrome. Our study aimed to explore the potential associations between the clinical efficacy of BoNT-A in the treatment of the primary Meige syndrome and variants of SNAP25, SV2C and ST3GAL2, which are involving in the translocation of the BoNT-A in vivo. Methods: Patients with the primary Meige syndrome treated with BoNT-A were enrolled. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by the maximum improvement rate of motor symptoms and the duration of efficacy. Variants of SNAP25, SV2C and ST3GAL2 were obtained by Sanger sequencing. Another cohort diagnosed with primary cervical dystonia was also enrolled in the replication stage. Results: Among the 104 primary Meige syndrome patients, 80 patients (76.9%) had a good efficacy (the maximum improvement rate of motor symptoms ≥30%) and 24 (23. 1%) had a poor (the maximum improvement rate of motor symptoms <30%). As to the duration of efficacy, 52 patients (50.0%) had a long duration of efficacy (≥4 months), and 52 (50.0%) had a short (<4 months). In terms of primary Meige syndrome, SNAP25 rs6104571 was found associating with the maximum improvement rate of motor symptoms (Genotype: P = 0.02, OR = 0.26; Allele: P = 0.013, OR = 0.29), and SV2C rs31244 was found associating with the duration of efficacy (Genotype: P = 0.024, OR = 0.13; Allele: P = 0.012, OR = 0.13). Besides, we also conducted the association analyses between the variants and BoNT-A-related adverse reactions. Although, there was no statistical difference between the allele of SV2C rs31244 and BoNT-A-related adverse reactions, there was a trend (P = 0.077, OR = 2.56). In the replication stage, we included 39 patients with primary cervical dystonia to further expanding the samples' size. Among the 39 primary cervical dystonia patients, 25 patients (64.1%) had a good efficacy (the maximum improvement rate of motor symptoms ≥50%) and 14 (35.9%) had a poor (the maximum improvement rate of motor symptoms <50%). As to the duration of efficacy, 32 patients (82.1%) had a long duration of efficacy (≥6 months), and 7 (17.9%) had a short (<6 months). Integrating primary Meige syndrome and primary cervical dystonia, SV2C rs31244 was still found associating with the duration of efficacy (Genotype: P = 0.002, OR = 0. 23; Allele: P = 0.001, OR = 0. 25). Conclusion: In our study, SNAP25 rs6104571 was associated with the maximum improvement rate of motor symptoms in patients with primary Meige syndrome treated with BoNT-A, and patients carrying this variant had a lower improvement rate of motor symptoms. SV2C rs31244 was associated with duration of treatment in patients with primary Meige syndrome treated with BoNT-A and patients carrying this variant had a shorter duration of treatment. Patients with primary Meige syndrome carrying SV2C rs31244 G allele have an increase likelihood of BoNT-A-related adverse reactions. Involving 39 patients with primary cervical dystonia, the results further verify that SV2C rs31244 was associated with duration of treatment and patients carrying this variant had a shorter duration of treatment.

2.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 160, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592564

RESUMO

As a notable toxic substance, metalloid arsenic (As) widely exists in water body and drinking As-contaminated water for an extended period of time can result in serious health concerns. Here, the performance of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) modified N-doped biochar (NBC) composites (nZVI@NBC) activated peroxydisulfate (PDS) for As(III) removal was investigated. The removal efficiencies of As(III) with initial concentration ranging from 50 to 1000 µg/L were above 99% (the residual total arsenic below 10 µg/L, satisfying the contaminant limit for arsenic in drinking water) within 10 min by nZVI@NBC (0.2 g/L)/PDS (100 µM). As(III) removal efficiency influenced by reaction time, PDS dosage, initial concentration, pH, co-existing ions, and natural organic matter in nZVI@NBC/PDS system were investigated. The nZVI@NBC composite is magnetic and could be conveniently collected from aqueous solutions. In practical applications, nZVI@NBC/PDS has more than 99% As(III) removal efficiency in various water bodies (such as deionized water, piped water, river water, and lake water) under optimized operation parameters. Radical quenching and EPR analysis revealed that SO4·- and ·OH play important roles in nZVI@NBC/PDS system, and the possible reaction mechanism was further proposed. These results suggest that nZVI@NBC activated peroxydisulfate may be an efficient and fast approach for the removal of water contaminated with As(III).


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metaloides , Água , Água Doce , Ferro
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172279, 2024 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588747

RESUMO

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles have gained widespread use for in-situ treatment of various chlorinated hydrocarbons. Their non-toxic nature, affordability, and minimal maintenance requirements have made them a favored material for nanoremediation. The treatment typically involves the injection of nZVI particles into contaminated sites using direct-push well injection systems. However, their small size leads to high surface energy, causing aggregation that alters their physiochemical properties, reactivity, and transport behavior. To counteract aggregation, nZVI suspension can be stabilized with different surfactants, reducing the surface energy during subsurface soil transport. This study investigates the impact of rhamnolipid, a biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa during the late growth phase, on the aggregation and mobility of nZVI particles. The retardation factor of nZVI in the model media of zeolite, ZK406H, decreased from 1.66 in the absence of rhamnolipid to 1.03, 0.98, 0.93, and 0.87, corresponding to the presence of rhamnolipid at concentrations of 20, 50, 80, and 100 mg/L. The deposition coefficient also decreased from 2.39 in the absence of rhamnolipid to 0.459, 0.279, 0.217, and 0.0966, corresponding to the presence of rhamnolipid at concentrations of 20, 50, 80, and 100 mg/L. The transport parameters of nZVI in ZK406H were linked to the interactions of nZVI particles with ZK406H by the DLVO theory.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509309

RESUMO

Growing evidence has found the health protective effects of greenness exposure on tuberculosis (TB) and the impact of ambient air pollutants on TB drug-resistance. However, it remains unclear whether residential greenness is also beneficial to reduce TB drug-resistance, and whether air pollution modify the greenness-TB resistance relationship. We enrolled 5006 newly-diagnosed TB patients from Shandong, China, during 2014 to 2021. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in 250 m and 500 m buffer around individuals' residential zone was used to assess greenness exposure. All patients were divided by quartiles of NDVI250-m and NDVI500-m (from low to high: Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4) respectively. Six logistic regression models (NDVI, NDVI + PM2.5/PM10/SO2/NO2/O3) were used to estimate the association of NDVI and TB drug-resistance when adjusting different air pollutants or not. All models were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, complications, smoking, drinking, population density, nighttime light index, road density. Compared with participants in NDVI250-m Q1 and NDVI500-m Q1, other groups had lower rates of MDR-TB, PDR-TB, RFP-resistance, SM-resistance, RFP + SM resistance, INH + RFP + EMB + SM resistance. NDVI500-m reduced the risk of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and the adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 95% confidence interval, CI) compared with NDVI500-m Q1 were 0.736 (0.547-0.991) in NDVI + PM10 model, 0.733 (0.544-0.986) in NDVI + PM2.5 model, 0.735(0.546-0.99) in NDVI + SO2 model, 0.736 (0.546-0.991) in NDVI + NO2 model, respectively, P < 0.05. NDVI500-m contributed to a decreased risk of streptomycin (SM)-resistance. The aOR of rifampicin (RFP) + SM resistance were 0.132 (NDVI250-m, Q4 vs Q1, 95% CI: 0.03-0.578), 0.199 (NDVI500-m, Q3 vs. Q1, 95% CI: 0.057-0.688) and 0.264 (NDVI500-m, Q4 vs. Q1, 95% CI: 0.087-0.799). The adjusted ORs (Q2 vs. Q1, 95% CI) of isoniazid (INH) + RFP + ethambutol (EMB) + SM resistance in 500 m buffer were 0.276 (0.119-0.639) in NDVI model, 0.279 (0.11-0.705) in NDVI + PM10 model, 0.281 (0.111-0.713) in NDVI + PM2.5 model, 0.279 (0.11-0.709) in NDVI + SO2 model, 0.296 (0.117-0.754) in NDVI + NO2 model, 0.294 (0.116-0.748) in NDVI + O3 model, respectively. The study showed, for the first time, that residential greenness exposure in 500 m buffer is beneficial for reducing newly-diagnosed DR-TB (including PDR-RB, MDR-TB, MR-TB), and ambient air pollutants may partially mediate this association.

5.
Brain Res Bull ; 210: 110928, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493836

RESUMO

Epilepsy-associated cognitive disorder (ECD), a prevalent comorbidity in epilepsy patients, has so far uncharacterized etiological origins. Our prior work revealed that lysyl oxidase (Lox) acted as a novel contributor of ferroptosis, a recently discovered cell death mode in the regulation of brain function. However, the role of Lox-mediated ferroptosis in ECD remains unknown. ECD mouse model was established 2 months later following a single injection of kainic acid (KA) for. After chronic treatment with KA, mice were treated with different doses (30 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) of Lox inhibitor BAPN. Additionally, hippocampal-specific Lox knockout mice was also constructed and employed to validate the role of Lox in ECD. Cognitive functions were assessed using novel object recognition test (NOR) and Morris water maze test (MWM). Protein expression of phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding (CREB), a well-known molecular marker for evaluation of cognitive performance, was also detected by Western blot. The protein distribution of Lox was analyzed by immunofluorescence. In KA-induced ECD mouse model, ferroptosis process was activated according to upregulation of 4-HNE protein and a previously discovered ferroptosis in our group, namely, Lox was remarkably increased. Pharmacological inhibition of Lox by BAPN at the dose of 100 mg/kg significantly increased the discrimination index following NOR test and decreased escape latency as well as augmented passing times within 60 s following MWM test in ECD mouse model. Additionally, deficiency of Lox in hippocampus also led to pronounced improvement of deficits in ECD model. These findings indicate that the ferroptosis regulatory factor, Lox, is activated in ECD. Ablation of Lox by either pharmacological intervention or genetic manipulation ameliorates the impairment in ECD mouse model, which suggest that Lox serves as a promising therapeutic target for treating ECD in clinic.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Epilepsia , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase/genética , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase/metabolismo , Aminopropionitrilo/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico
6.
J Biomech ; 166: 112057, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520934

RESUMO

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a treatment and rehabilitation approach for ischemic diseases, including coronary artery disease. Its therapeutic benefits are primarily attributed to the improved blood circulation achieved through sequential mechanical compression of the lower extremities. However, despite the crucial role that hemodynamic effects in the lower extremity arteries play in determining the effectiveness of EECP treatment, most studies have focused on the diastole phase and ignored the systolic phase. In the present study, a novel siphon model (SM) was developed to investigate the interdependence of several hemodynamic parameters, including pulse wave velocity, femoral flow rate, the operation pressure of cuffs, and the mean blood flow changes in the femoral artery throughout EECP therapy. To verify the accuracy of the SM, we coupled the predicted afterload in the lower extremity arteries during deflation using SM with the 0D-1D patient-specific model. Finally, the simulation results were compared with clinical measurements obtained during EECP therapy to verify the applicability and accuracy of the SM, as well as the coupling method. The precision and reliability of the previously developed personalized approach were further affirmed in this study. The average waveform similarity coefficient between the simulation results and the clinical measurements during the rest state exceeded 90%. This work has the potential to enhance our understanding of the hemodynamic mechanisms involved in EECP treatment and provide valuable insights for clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Contrapulsação , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Hemodinâmica , Extremidade Inferior , Contrapulsação/métodos
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2774: 1-13, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441754

RESUMO

Directed evolution is an efficient strategy for obtaining desired biomolecules. Since the 1990s, the emergence of display techniques has enabled high-throughput screening of functional proteins. However, classical methods require library construction by plasmid cloning and are limited by transformation efficiencies, typically limiting library sizes to ~106-107 variants. More recently, in vitro techniques have emerged that avoid cloning, allowing library sizes of >1012 members. One of these, CIS display, is a DNA-based display technique which allows high-throughput selection of biomolecules in vitro. CIS display creates the genotype-phenotype link required for selection by a DNA replication initiator protein, RepA, that binds exclusively to the template from which it has been expressed. This method has been successfully used to evolve new protein-protein interactions but has not been used before to select DNA-binding proteins, which are major components in mammalian synthetic biology. In this chapter, we describe a directed evolution method using CIS display to efficiently select functional DNA-binding proteins from pools of nonbinding proteins. The method is illustrated by enriching the minimal transcription factor Cro from a low starting frequency (1 in 109). This protocol is also applicable to engineering other DNA-binding proteins or transcription factors from combinatorial libraries.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Fatores de Transcrição , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Clonagem Molecular , DNA/genética , Mamíferos
8.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2320301, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442298

RESUMO

Aim: This comprehensive review aims to explore the potential applications of Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. Additionally, the study investigates the role of GRPR in prognostic assessment for individuals afflicted with prostate cancer.Methods: The review encompasses a thorough examination of existing literature and research studies related to the upregulation of GRPR in various tumor types, with a specific focus on prostate. The review also evaluates the utility of GRPR as a molecular target in prostate cancer research, comparing its significance to the well-established Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). The integration of radionuclide-targeted therapy with GRPR antagonists is explored as an innovative therapeutic approach for individuals with prostate cancer.Results: Research findings suggest that GRPR serves as a promising molecular target for visualizing low-grade prostate cancer. Furthermore, it is demonstrated to complement the detection of lesions that may be negative for PSMA. The integration of radionuclide-targeted therapy with GRPR antagonists presents a novel therapeutic paradigm, offering potential benefits for individuals undergoing treatment for prostate cancer.Conclusions: In conclusion, this review highlights the emerging role of GRPR in prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, the integration of radionuclide-targeted therapy with GRPR antagonists introduces an innovative therapeutic approach that holds promise for improving outcomes in individuals dealing with prostate cancer. The potential prognostic value of GRPR in assessing the disease's progression adds another dimension to its clinical significance in the realm of urology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Receptores da Bombesina , Masculino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores , Regulação para Cima , Radioisótopos
9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 132: 111889, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531202

RESUMO

Host-directed therapy (HDT) is a new adjuvant strategy that interfere with host cell factors that are required by a pathogen for replication or persistence. In this study, we assessed the effect of dehydrozaluzanin C-derivative (DHZD), a modified compound from dehydrozaluzanin C (DHZC), as a potential HDT agent for severe infection. LPS-induced septic mouse model and Carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infection mouse model was used for testing in vivo. RAW264.7 cells, mouse primary macrophages, and DCs were used for in vitro experiments. Dexamethasone (DXM) was used as a positive control agent. DHZD ameliorated tissue damage (lung, kidney, and liver) and excessive inflammatory response induced by LPS or CRKP infection in mice. Also, DHZD improved the hypothermic symptoms of acute peritonitis induced by CRKP, inhibited heat-killed CRKP (HK-CRKP)-induced inflammatory response in macrophages, and upregulated the proportions of phagocytic cell types in lungs. In vitro data suggested that DHZD decreases LPS-stimulated expression of IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 via PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathway in macrophages. Interestingly, the combined treatment group of DXM and DHZD had a higher survival rate and lower level of IL-6 than those of the DXM-treated group; the combination of DHZD and DXM played a synergistic role in decreasing IL-6 secretion in sera. Moreover, the phagocytic receptor CD36 was increased by DHZD in macrophages, which was accompanied by increased bacterial phagocytosis in a clathrin- and actin-dependent manner. This data suggests that DHZD may be a potential drug candidate for treating bacterial infections.

10.
Polymers (Basel) ; 16(5)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475330

RESUMO

Microalgae are highly regarded as ideal materials for the creation of liquid biofuels and have substantial potential for growth and utilization. However, traditional storage and culture methods for microalgae are plagued by challenges such as uncontrolled growth, bacterial contamination, and self-shading among algae. These issues severely impede the photosynthetic process and the efficient extraction of biomass energy. This study tackles these problems by utilizing magnetic hydrophobic protein particles to stabilize water-in-oil Pickering emulsions. This allows for the micro-compartment storage and magnetic transfer of algae. Additionally, the successful encapsulation of Chlorella cells in high-internal-phase water-in-oil Pickering emulsions effectively mitigates the settling problem of Chlorella cells in the liquid phase, thereby enabling the potential use of Pickering emulsions for the confined cultivation of microalgae.

11.
Heliyon ; 10(2): e24372, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38304841

RESUMO

Objectives: Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) can benefit from individualized targeted therapy. This study aims to develop, compare, analyse prediction models based on dual-energy spectral computed tomography (DESCT) and CT-based radiomic features to non-invasively predict EGFR mutation status in LUAD. Materials and methods: Patients with LUAD (n = 175), including 111 patients with and 64 patients without EGFR mutations, were enrolled in the current study. All patients were randomly divided into a training dataset (122 cases) and validation dataset (53 cases) at a ratio of 7:3. After extracting CT-based radiomic, DESCT and clinical features, we built seven prediction models and a nomogram of the best prediction. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the mean area under the curve (AUC) values were used for comparisons among the models to obtain the best prediction model for predicting EGFR mutations. Results: The best distinguishing ability is the combined model incorporating radiomic, DESCT and clinical features for predicting the EGFR mutation status with an AUC of 0.86 (95 % CI: 0.79-0.92) in the training group and an AUC value of 0.83 (95 % CI: 0.73, 0.96) in the validation group. Conclusions: Our study provides a predictive nomogram non-invasively with a combination of CT-based radiomic, DESCT and clinical features, which can provide image-based biological information for targeted therapy of LUAD with EGFR mutations.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170767, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331293

RESUMO

Rapid prediction of the removal efficiency and energy consumption of organic contaminants under various operating conditions is crucial for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in industrial application. In this study, 1H-Benzotriazole (BTZ, CAS: 95-14-7) is selected as a model micropollutant, a validated incorporated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is employed to comprehensively investigate the impacts of initial concentrations of H2O2, BTZ and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (i.e., [DOC]0, [BTZ]0 and [DOC]0), as well as the effective UV lamp power P and volumetric flow rate Qv. Generally, the operation performance depends on [DOC]0 and [BTZ]0 in similar trends, but with quantitatively different ways. The increase in [H2O2]0 and P/Qv can promote •OH generation, leading to the elimination of BTZ. It is worth noting that P/Qv is found to be linearly correlated with the removal order of BTZ (ROBTZ) under specific conditions. Based on this finding, the degradation of other potential organic contaminants with a wide range of rate constants by UV/H2O2 is further investigated. A model for predicting energy consumption for target removal rates of organic pollutants is established from massive simulation data for the first time. Additionally, a handy Matlab app is first developed for convenient application in water treatment. This work proposes a new operable solution for fast predicting operation performance and energy consumption for the removal of organic contaminants in industrial applications of advanced oxidation processes.

13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 272: 116020, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306816

RESUMO

Cadmium is a persistent heavy metal commonly found in aquatic ecosystems and has a strong toxic effect on organisms. The sensitivity of phytoplankton to environmental changes and its role as an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health have been well-established. However, the mechanisms by which phytoplankton respond to cadmium remain incompletely understood. In this study, we chose the typical planktonic diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana Kützing, by integrating physiological-biochemical data and transcriptome analysis, to reveal the molecular mechanisms of C. meneghiniana responing to cadmium. Under cadmium stress, the cell density and chlorophyll-a content of C. meneghiniana significantly decreased, while MDA content and SOD activity gradually increased. At 72 h of cadmium stress, we found that at this time point, cell abundance and physiological variation were very significant, therefore we selected 72 h for subsequent analysis. To better understand the cadmium stress response mechanisms of C. meneghiniana, a de novo transcriptome method was used to analyse C. meneghiniana under cadmium stress for 72 h, and 1704 (M vs. CK) and 4788 (H vs. CK) differentially expressed genes were found. Our results showed that the changes in gene expression were closely correlated to the physiological-biochemical changes. Although cadmium stress could promote the nitrogen metabolism pathway, ROS scavenging system, and photosynthesis. While, C. meneghiniana under medium and high concentrations of cadmium can also limit various intracellular metabolic pathways, such as the MAPK pathway and phosphatidylinositol metabolic pathway, and the degree of inhibition increases with the increase of stress concentration. In present study, the complete molecular mechanism of the planktonic diatom response to cadmium has been established, which provided important information for further studies on heavy metal pollutants and the multiple functional genes responsible for cadmium sensitivity and tolerance in planktonic diatoms.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Diatomáceas , Cádmio/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Transcriptoma , Fotossíntese , Plâncton , Fitoplâncton
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(8): e2314914121, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346202

RESUMO

Mavacamten is a FDA-approved small-molecule therapeutic designed to regulate cardiac function at the sarcomere level by selectively but reversibly inhibiting the enzymatic activity of myosin. It shifts myosin toward ordered off states close to the thick filament backbone. It remains elusive whether these myosin heads in the off state(s) can be recruited in response to physiological stimuli when required to boost cardiac output. We show that cardiac myosins stabilized in these off state(s) by mavacamten are recruitable by 1) Ca2+, 2) increased chronotropy [heart rate (HR)], 3) stretch, and 4) ß-adrenergic (ß-AR) stimulation, all known physiological inotropic interventions. At the molecular level, we show that Ca2+ increases myosin ATPase activity by shifting mavacamten-stabilized myosin heads from the inactive super-relaxed state to the active disordered relaxed state. At the myofilament level, both Ca2+ and passive lengthening can shift mavacamten-ordered off myosin heads from positions close to the thick filament backbone to disordered on states closer to the thin filaments. In isolated rat cardiomyocytes, increased stimulation rates enhanced shortening fraction in mavacamten-treated cells. This observation was confirmed in vivo in telemetered rats, where left-ventricular dP/dtmax, an index of inotropy, increased with HR in mavacamten-treated animals. Finally, we show that ß-AR stimulation in vivo increases left-ventricular function and stroke volume in the setting of mavacamten. Our data demonstrate that the mavacamten-promoted off states of myosin in the thick filament are at least partially activable, thus preserving cardiac reserve mechanisms.


Assuntos
Miócitos Cardíacos , Miosinas , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Animais , Ratos , Benzilaminas/farmacologia , Contração Muscular
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(8): 5643-5649, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327018

RESUMO

We developed a method for the enantioselective synthesis of germanium-stereogenic compounds by the desymmetric carbene insertion of dihydrogermanes. A chiral rhodium phosphate catalyst decomposes diaryldiazo-methanes to generate rhodium carbenes that insert enantioselectively into one of the two Ge-H bonds of dihydrogermanes to form germanium-stereogenic compounds under mild reaction conditions. By this method, a variety of chiral germanes with germanium-stereogenic centers were synthesized in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. Kinetic studies of the reaction showed that the diazo decomposition process was the rate-determining step. The remaining Ge-H bond of the chiral germane products provides a possibility for preparing chiral tetra-substituted germanium-stereogenic compounds.

16.
Phytochemistry ; 220: 114033, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373572

RESUMO

Ten previously undescribed cucurbitane-type triterpenoids, namely hemslyencins A-F (1-6) and hemslyencosides A-D (7-10), together with twenty previously reported compounds (11-30), were isolated from the tubers of Hemsleya chinensis. Their structures were elucidated by unambiguous spectroscopic data (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR data). Hemslyencins A and B (1 and 2) possessing unique 9, 11-seco-ring system with a six-membered lactone moiety, were the first examples among of the cucurbitane-type triterpenoids, and hemslyencins C and D (3 and 4) and hemslyencoside D (10) are the infrequent pentacyclic cucurbitane triterpenes featuring a 6/6/6/5/6 fused system. The cytotoxic activities of all isolated compounds were evaluated against MCF-7, HCT-116, HeLa, and HepG2 cancer cells, and their structure-activity relationships (SARs) was discussed as well. Compounds 17, 25, and 26 showed significant cytotoxic effects with IC50 values ranging from 1.31 to 9.89 µM, among which compound 25 induced both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in a dose dependent manner against MCF-7 cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Triterpenos , Humanos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química , Glicosídeos/química , Tubérculos/química , Células HeLa , Estrutura Molecular
17.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-intensity focused ultrasound stimulation (LIFUS) has been developed to enhance neurological repair and remodelling during the late acute stage of ischaemic stroke in rodents. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurological repair and remodelling after LIFUS in ischaemic stroke are unclear. METHODS: Ultrasound stimulation was treated in adult male mice 7 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Angiogenesis was measured by laser speckle imaging and histological analyses. Electromyography and fibre photometry records were used for synaptogenesis. Brain atrophy volume and neurobehaviour were assessed 0-14 days after ischaemia. iTRAQ proteomic analysis was performed to explore the differentially expressed protein. scRNA-seq was used for subcluster analysis of astrocytes. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation and Western blot detected the expression of HMGB1 and CAMK2N1. RESULTS: Optimal ultrasound stimulation increased cerebral blood flow, and improved neurobehavioural outcomes in ischaemic mice (p<0.05). iTRAQ proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of HMGB1 increased and CAMK2N1 decreased in the ipsilateral hemisphere of the brain at 14 days after focal cerebral ischaemia with ultrasound treatment (p<0.05). scRNA-seq revealed that this expression pattern belonged to a subcluster of astrocytes after LIFUS in the ischaemic brain. LIFUS upregulated HMGB1 expression, accompanied by VEGFA elevation compared with the control group (p<0.05). Inhibition of HMGB1 expression in astrocytes decreased microvessels counts and cerebral blood flow (p<0.05). LIFUS reduced CAMK2N1 expression level, accompanied by increased extracellular calcium ions and glutamatergic synapses (p<0.05). CAMK2N1 overexpression in astrocytes decreased dendritic spines, and aggravated neurobehavioural outcomes (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that LIFUS promoted angiogenesis and synaptogenesis after focal cerebral ischaemia by upregulating HMGB1 and downregulating CAMK2N1 in a subcluster of astrocytes, suggesting that LIFUS activated specific astrocyte subcluster could be a key target for ischaemic brain therapy.

18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(2): 1152-1163, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166438

RESUMO

Coastal wetlands are hotspots for methane (CH4) production, reducing their potential for global warming mitigation. Nitrite/nitrate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-DAMO) plays a crucial role in bridging carbon and nitrogen cycles, contributing significantly to CH4 consumption. However, the role of n-DAMO in reducing CH4 emissions in coastal wetlands is poorly understood. Here, the ecological functions of the n-DAMO process in different saltmarsh vegetation habitats as well as bare mudflats were quantified, and the underlying microbial mechanisms were explored. Results showed that n-DAMO rates were significantly higher in vegetated habitats (Scirpus mariqueter and Spartina alterniflora) than those in bare mudflats (P < 0.05), leading to an enhanced contribution to CH4 consumption. Compared with other habitats, the contribution of n-DAMO to the total anaerobic CH4 oxidation was significantly lower in the Phragmites australis wetland (15.0%), where the anaerobic CH4 oxidation was primarily driven by ferric iron (Fe3+). Genetic and statistical analyses suggested that the different roles of n-DAMO in various saltmarsh wetlands may be related to divergent n-DAMO microbial communities as well as environmental parameters such as sediment pH and total organic carbon. This study provides an important scientific basis for a more accurate estimation of the role of coastal wetlands in mitigating climate change.


Assuntos
Nitratos , Áreas Alagadas , Metano , Anaerobiose , Poaceae , Oxirredução , Carbono , Nitritos
19.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 6, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of the oral and gut microbiome related to systemic metabolism and clinical parameters in various types of kidney stone disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study by analyzing 16S rRNA and untargeted metabolomics profiling of 76 fecal, 68 saliva, 73 urine, and 43 serum samples from 76 participants aged 18-75 years old. The participants included 15 patients with uric acid stones, 41 patients with calcium oxalate stones, and 20 healthy controls. Correlations among microbiome, metabolism, and clinical parameters were identified through Spearman's correlation analysis. (Clinical trial No. ChiCTR2200055316). RESULTS: Patients with uric acid stones exhibited reduced richness and diversity in their microbiome, as well as altered composition in both oral and gut microbiome. Furthermore, their fecal samples showed lower relative abundances of Bacteroides and Lachnospiraceae, while their saliva samples showed higher relative abundances of Porphyromonas and Neisseria. Predicted KEGG metabolism pathways, including amino acid and fatty acid metabolisms, were significantly altered in subjects with uric acid stones. Oral, gut microbiota, and metabolism were also associated with low water intake and urine pH. The area under the curve (AUC) of the specific microbiota and metabolite prediction models was over 0.85. CONCLUSION: The structure and composition of the oral and gut microbiome in different types of kidney stone disease, the correlations between oral and gut microbiome, and the associations among oral and gut microbiota, systemic metabolism and clinical parameters imply an important role that the oral and gut microbiome may play in kidney stone disease.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Cálculos Renais , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ácido Úrico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Cálculos Renais/urina
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