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1.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 18: 17534666241231117, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measured at multiple exhalation flow rates can be used as a biomarker to differentiate central and peripheral airway inflammation. However, the role of alveolar nitric oxide (CaNO) indicating peripheral airway inflammation remains unclear in gastroesophageal reflux-associated cough (GERC). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize the changes in alveolar nitric oxide (CaNO) and determine its clinical implication in GERC. DESIGN: This is a single-center prospective observational study. METHODS: FeNOs at exhalation flow rates of 50 and 200 ml/s were measured in 102 patients with GERC and 134 patients with other causes of chronic cough (non-GERC). CaNO was calculated based on a two-compartment model and the factors associated with CaNO were analyzed. The effect of anti-reflux therapy on CaNO was examined in 26 GERC patients with elevated CaNO. RESULTS: CaNO was significantly elevated in GERC compared with that in non-GERC (4.6 ± 4.4 ppb versus 2.8 ± 2.3 ppb, p < 0.001). GERC patients with high CaNO (>5 ppb) had more proximal reflux events (24 ± 15 versus 9 ± 9 episodes, p = 0.001) and a higher level of pepsin (984.8 ± 492.5 versus 634.5 ± 626.4 pg/ml, p = 0.002) in sputum supernatant than those with normal CaNO. More GERC patients with high CaNO required intensified anti-reflux therapy (χ2 = 3.963, p = 0.046), as predicted by a sensitivity of 41.7% and specificity of 83.3%. Cough relief paralleled a significant improvement in CaNO (8.3 ± 3.0 versus 4.8 ± 2.6 ppb, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Peripheral airway inflammation can be assessed by CaNO measurement in GERC. High CaNO indicates potential micro-aspiration and may predict a necessity for intensified anti-reflux therapy.


Role of CaNO in GERCWhy was the study done? This study aimed to investigate the role of concentration of alveolar nitric oxide (CaNO) as a biomarker for peripheral airway inflammation in patients with gastroesophageal reflux-associated cough (GERC). The evaluation of airway inflammation in GERC has not been widely practiced in clinical settings, and the potential of CaNO as a biomarker remained unclear.What did the researchers do? The researchers conducted a prospective study involving patients diagnosed with GERC and compared the changes in CaNO levels between GERC patients and those with cough due to other causes. The study also identified potential factors contributing to elevated CaNO levels in GERC patients relative to the normal range. Additionally, CaNO level changes were evaluated in a subgroup of GERC patients with initially elevated CaNO levels (n = 26).What did the researchers find? The study found that CaNO levels were significantly increased in GERC patients. Using a reference value for normal CaNO, the GERC patients were divided into a high CaNO cohort and a normal CaNO cohort. More proximal reflux episodes and higher level of pepsin in sputum supernatant were observed in the high CaNO cohort. Moreover, CaNO demonstrated moderate predictive value for the therapeutic efficacy of intensified anti-reflux therapy in GERC patients. After several weeks of anti-reflux therapy, CaNO levels significantly decreased along with the resolution of cough. These findings further confirmed the predictive value of CaNO for anti-reflux therapy.What do the findings mean? The findings suggest that CaNO may have the potential to be used as a non-invasive biomarker for detecting peripheral airway inflammation in GERC patients. Increased CaNO may be associated with potential micro-aspiration. Furthermore, high CaNO may predict the need for intensified anti-reflux therapy.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Óxido Nítrico , Humanos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Escarro , Testes Respiratórios
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47453, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom during and after COVID-19 infection; however, few studies have described the cough profiles of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and associated risk factors of severe and persistent cough in individuals with COVID-19 during the latest wave of the Omicron variant in China. METHODS: In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we collected information of the characteristics of cough from individuals with infection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant using an online questionnaire sent between December 31, 2022, and January 11, 2023. RESULTS: There were 11,718 (n=7978, 68.1% female) nonhospitalized responders, with a median age of 37 (IQR 30-47) years who responded at a median of 16 (IQR 12-20) days from infection onset to the time of the survey. Cough was the most common symptom, occurring in 91.7% of participants, followed by fever, fatigue, and nasal congestion (68.8%-87.4%). The median cough visual analog scale (VAS) score was 70 (IQR 50-80) mm. Being female (odds ratio [OR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.20-1.43), having a COVID-19 vaccination history (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.37-2.12), current smoking (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.58), chronic cough (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.69-2.45), coronary heart disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.17-2.52), asthma (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45) were independent factors for severe cough (VAS>70, 37.4%). Among all respondents, 35.0% indicated having a productive cough, which was associated with risk factors of being female (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.31-1.57), having asthma (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.52-2.22), chronic cough (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.74), and GERD (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47). Persistent cough (>3 weeks) occurred in 13.0% of individuals, which was associated with the risk factors of having diabetes (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.30-3.85), asthma (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.11-2.62), and chronic cough (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.32-2.94). CONCLUSIONS: Cough is the most common symptom in nonhospitalized individuals with Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant infection. Being female, having asthma, chronic cough, GERD, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and a COVID-19 vaccination history emerged as independent factors associated with severe cough, productive cough, and persistent cough.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia
3.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 15(6): 795-811, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37957796

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Only limited studies have depicted the unique features and management of refractory chronic cough (RCC) and unexplained chronic cough (UCC). These led to the initiation of this study, which reported the demographic characteristics, manifestations, and long-term outcomes on a large series of consecutive RCC/UCC patients, providing a guideline-led real-world clinical experience. METHODS: Retrospective baseline information was obtained from Clinical Research Database (January 2016 to May 2021). At least 6 months after the last clinic visit, included subjects were prospectively followed up. RESULTS: Three hundred and sixty-nine RCC and UCC patients (199 females, 53.9%) were analyzed. The median cough duration was 24.0 (12.0-72.0) months. Laryngeal symptoms were reported in 95.9% of the patients. The common triggers for coughing were talking (74.9%), pungent odors (47.3%), eating (45.5%), and cold air (42.8%). RCC was considered in 38.2%, and the remainder of 228 patients had UCC, with an equal sex distribution (P = 0.66). Among the 141 RCCs, 90.8% (128) had refractory reflux cough, which was more responsive to current treatments (P < 0.01). Although most features and test results between RCC and UCC were similar, UCC was more commonly inappropriately treated (P < 0.01). Nineteen (7.7-41.1) months after the final clinic visit, 31.2% still coughed persistently, while 68.8% reported cough improvement or remission. RCC reported more favorable treatment outcomes (including cough improvement, control, and spontaneous remission) than UCC (P < 0.01). Coughs with long duration before the initial cough clinic visit (P < 0.01), frequent urinary incontinence (P < 0.01), and being sensitive to "talking" (P < 0.01) or "cold air" (P < 0.01) were less likely to be solved. CONCLUSIONS: The current treatments only improve cough symptoms in two-thirds of patients. Clinical indicators for treatment failure were those coughing for long duration and being sensitive to "talking" or "cold air."

4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 152(3): 622-632, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37178731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough-variant asthma (CVA) may respond differently to antiasthmatic treatment. There are limited data on the heterogeneity of CVA. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to classify patients with CVA using cluster analysis based on clinicophysiologic parameters and to unveil the underlying molecular pathways of these phenotypes with transcriptomic data of sputum cells. METHODS: We applied k-mean clustering to 342 newly physician-diagnosed patients with CVA from a prospective multicenter observational cohort using 10 prespecified baseline clinical and pathophysiologic variables. The clusters were compared according to clinical features, treatment response, and sputum transcriptomic data. RESULTS: Three stable CVA clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (n = 176) was characterized by female predominance, late onset, normal lung function, and a low proportion of complete resolution of cough (60.8%) after antiasthmatic treatment. Patients in cluster 2 (n = 105) presented with young, nocturnal cough, atopy, high type 2 inflammation, and a high proportion of complete resolution of cough (73.3%) with a highly upregulated coexpression gene network that related to type 2 immunity. Patients in cluster 3 (n = 61) had high body mass index, long disease duration, family history of asthma, low lung function, and low proportion of complete resolution of cough (54.1%). TH17 immunity and type 2 immunity coexpression gene networks were both upregulated in clusters 1 and 3. CONCLUSION: Three clusters of CVA were identified with different clinical, pathophysiologic, and transcriptomic features and responses to antiasthmatics treatment, which may improve our understanding of pathogenesis and help clinicians develop individualized cough treatment in asthma.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Tosse , Estudos Prospectivos , Fenótipo , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico
5.
J Thorac Dis ; 15(4): 2277-2287, 2023 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37197489

RESUMO

Background: Use of symptom association probability (SAP) is recommended for identifying gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC). This study aimed to compare the diagnostic yield of SAPs involving only cough (C-SAP) or total symptoms (T-SAP) for GERC identification. Methods: Patients with both chronic cough and other reflux-related symptoms underwent multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (MII-pH) between January 2017 and May 2021. C-SAP and T-SAP were calculated based on the patient-reported symptoms. GERC was definitively diagnosed by the favorable response to anti-reflux therapy. The diagnostic yield of C-SAP in identifying GERC was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and compared with that of T-SAP. Results: MII-pH was performed in 105 patients with chronic cough, and GERC was confirmed in 65 (61.9%), including 27 (41.5%) cases of acid GERC and 38 (58.5%) cases of non-acid GERC. The positive rates of C-SAP and T-SAP were comparable (34.3% vs. 23.8%, P>0.05), but C-SAP exhibited a higher sensitivity (53.85% vs. 33.85%, χ2=8.117, P=0.004) and similar high specificities (97.5% vs. 92.5%, P>0.05) compared with T-SAP for GERC identification. C-SAP was also more sensitive for recognition of acid GERC (51.85% vs. 33.33%, χ2=7.386, P=0.007) and non-acid GERC (65.79% vs. 39.47%, χ2=14.617, P<0.001). More GERC patients with positive C-SAP needed intensified anti-reflux therapy for cough resolution when compared with those with negative C-SAP (82.9% vs. 46.7%, χ2=9.449, P=0.002). Conclusions: C-SAP was superior to T-SAP for the identification of GERC and may improve the diagnostic yield of GERC.

6.
J Thorac Dis ; 15(4): 2314-2323, 2023 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37197515

RESUMO

Background and Objective: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-associated cough is defined as a special GERD with a predominant cough symptom and is a common cause of chronic cough. This review summarizes our current understanding on the pathogenesis and management of GERD-associated cough. Methods: Main literatures on the pathogenesis and management of GERD-associated cough were reviewed and our understandings derived from the published studies were showed then. Key Content and Findings: Although esophageal-tracheobronchial reflex mainly underlies the pathogenesis of GERD-associated cough, its counterpart-tracheobronchial-esophageal reflex might exist and initiate the cough due to reflux induced by upper respiratory tract infection through the signaling of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 linking airway and esophagus. The presence of reflux-associated symptoms such as regurgitation and heartburn along with coughing suggests an association between cough and GERD, which is supported by the objective evidence of abnormal reflux as detected by reflux monitoring. Although there is no general consensus, esophageal reflux monitoring provides the main diagnostic criteria for GERD-associated cough. Despite that acid exposure time and symptom associated probability are useful and mostly employed reflux diagnostic criteria, they are imperfect and far from being the gold standard. Acid suppressive therapy has long been recommended as the first choice for GERD-associated cough. However, the overall benefits of proton pump inhibitors have been controversial and need to be further assessed, especially in patients with cough due to non-acid reflux. Neuromodulators have demonstrated potential therapeutic effects for refractory GERD-associated cough, for which anti-reflux surgery may also be a promising treatment option. Conclusions: Tracheobronchial-esophageal reflex might initiate reflux-induced cough provoked by the upper respiratory tract infection. It is necessary to optimize the current standards and to explore new criteria with higher diagnostic potency. Acid suppressive therapy is the first choice for GERD-associated cough, followed by neuromodulators and anti-reflux surgery for refractory GERD-associated cough.

7.
Int Heart J ; 64(3): 432-441, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37258119

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the clinical burden and healthcare utilization outcomes of hematologic versus solid malignancies in patients hospitalized with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). This population-based, retrospective study extracted and analyzed the discharge data from the 2016-2018 US National Inpatient Sample (NIS) of hospitalized patients with a primary diagnosis of acute PE and a subsequent diagnosis of hematologic malignancies or solid tumors. Prolonged length-of-stay (LOS) was defined as ≥75th percentile LOS of the study cohort. Unfavorable discharge was defined as discharged to nursing home or long-term facility. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between cancer type, presence of unstable PE, and in-hospital outcomes in acute PE patients. Patients with acute PE with solid tumors had higher rates of in-hospital deaths and unfavorable discharge than those with hematologic malignancies (6.4% versus 3.2%, P < 0.001; 14.0% versus 11.2%, P = 0.01, respectively). Acute PE patients with hematologic malignancies had a lower risk of in-hospital death (aOR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.31-0.60), unfavorable discharge (aOR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63-0.92), and prolonged LOS (aOR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.71-0.98) than those with solid tumors. Stratified analysis showed that male patients aged <60 years with hematologic malignancies had a lower risk of prolonged LOS (aOR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.94; aOR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.68-1.05) and unfavorable discharge (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.22-0.71; aOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.50-0.85) than those with solid tumors. In the comparison of the outcomes of acute PE with hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, patients with hematologic malignancy had a lower risk of in-hospital deaths, prolonged LOS, and unfavorable discharge than those with solid tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Neoplasias , Embolia Pulmonar , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Tempo de Internação , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda
8.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 17: 17534666231167716, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37078383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of refractory chronic cough (RCC) is a great challenge. Neuromodulators have long been used for RCC with imperfect efficacy. OBJECTIVES: We summarized the outcomes of the current treatments used at our specialist cough clinic, which provides a guideline-led service and real-world experience for the future management of RCC. DESIGN: This is a single-centre retrospective observational cohort study. METHODS: Consecutive RCC patients (the first clinic visit between January 2016 and May 2021) were included into this observational cohort study. Medical records in the Chronic Cough Clinical Research Database were fully reviewed using uniform criteria. The included subjects were followed-up for at least 6 months after the final clinic visit via instant messages with the link to self-scaled cough-associated questionnaires. RESULTS: Overall, 369 RCC patients were analysed with a median age of 46.6 years and a cough duration of 24.0 months. A total of 10 different treatments were offered. However, 96.2% of patients had been prescribed at least one neuromodulator. One-third of patients had alternative treatments prescribed given the poor response to the initial therapy and 71.3% favourably responded to at least one of the treatments. Gabapentin, deanxit, and baclofen had comparable therapeutic efficacy (56.0%, 56.0%, and 62.5% respectively; p = 0.88) and overall incidences of adverse effects (28.3%, 22.0%, and 32.3% respectively; p = 0.76). However, 19.1 (7.7-41.8) months after the last clinic visit, 65.0% reported improvement (24.9%) or control of their cough (40.1%); 3.8% reported a spontaneous remission and 31.2% still had a severe cough. Both HARQ (n = 97; p < 0.001) and LCQ (n = 58; p < 0.001) demonstrated marked improvement. CONCLUSION: Trying different neuromodulators is a pragmatic strategy for RCC, which helped around two-thirds of patients. Relapse is common on withdrawal or reduction of dosage. Novel medication for RCC is an urgent clinical need. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: This is the first report that fully represented a guideline-led treatment protocol for refractory chronic cough (RCC) based on a large series of patients, which evaluated the short- and long-term effects of the currently available treatments for RCC. We found that the therapeutic trial of different neuromodulators is a pragmatic strategy, which helped around two-thirds of patients. Gabapentin, deanxit (flupentixol/melitracen), and baclofen had similar therapeutic outcomes. This study may offer real-world experience for the future management of RCC.


Assuntos
Antitussígenos , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antitussígenos/efeitos adversos , Baclofeno/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Protocolos Clínicos , Estudos de Coortes , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/etiologia , Gabapentina/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neurotransmissores/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Biomed Signal Process Control ; 72: 103304, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36569172

RESUMO

Automatic cough detection in the patients' realistic audio recordings is of great significance to diagnose and monitor respiratory diseases, such as COVID-19. Many detection methods have been developed so far, but they are still unable to meet the practical requirements. In this paper, we present a deep convolutional bidirectional long short-term memory (C-BiLSTM) model with boundary regression for cough detection, where cough and non-cough parts need to be classified and located. We added convolutional layers before the LSTM to enhance the cough features and preserve the temporal information of the audio data. Considering the importance of the cough event integrity for subsequent analysis, the novel model includes an embedded boundary regression on the last feature map for both higher detection accuracy and more accurate boundaries. We delicately designed, collected and labelled a realistic audio dataset containing recordings of patients with respiratory diseases, named the Corp Dataset. 168 h of recordings with 9969 coughs from 42 different patients are included. The dataset is published online on the MARI Lab website (https://mari.tongji.edu.cn/info/1012/1030.htm). The results show that the system achieves a sensitivity of 84.13%, a specificity of 99.82% and an intersection-over-union (IoU) of 0.89, which is significantly superior to other related models. With the proposed method, all the criteria on cough detection significantly increased. The open source Corp Dataset provides useful material and a benchmark for researchers investigating cough detection. We propose the state-of-the-art system with boundary regression, laying the foundation for identifying cough sounds in real-world audio data.

11.
Can Respir J ; 2022: 2726261, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36276929

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of cough-reflex sensitivity and airway inflammation in patients with sinobronchial syndrome (SBS). Methods: 39 patients with SBS, 53 patients with upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) induced by rhinitis, 33 patients with chronic sinusitis without cough, and 39 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled between January 2013 and December 2018. All participants underwent a capsaicin cough-sensitivity test and cytology of induced sputum. The concentration of calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGPR), histamine, prostaglandin (PG) E2, and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in induced sputum were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Results: The lowest concentration of capsaicin solution that induced ≥5 coughs (C5) was decreased markedly in patients with UACS induced by rhinitis compared with SBS patients (1.95 ± 2.92 vs. 31.2 ± 58.6 mol/L, P < 0.001), indicating higher cough-reflex sensitivity among UACS patients induced by rhinitis. However, there was no difference of these threshold between SBS patients and patients with sinusitis without cough and HCs. The percentage of neutrophils in sputum was increased remarkably in patients with SBS compared with HCs (40.0 ± 48.5% vs. 5.5 ± 9.0%, P < 0.001). A higher concentration of CGPR, histamine, and PGE2 was observed in induced sputum from patients with UACS induced by rhinitis than that in controls, and the ECP level was increased significantly in UACS induced by rhinitis compared with that in the other three groups. Conclusions: Cough-reflex sensitivity and airway inflammation in patients with SBS were different in patients with UACS induced by rhinitis. Thus, the mechanism of cough in those two patient populations might differ. Our study is registered in the Chinese Clinical Trials Register (https://www.chictr.org.cn/) as ChiCTR-TRC-00000152.


Assuntos
Rinite , Sinusite , Humanos , Capsaicina/efeitos adversos , Tosse , Dinoprostona/análise , Proteína Catiônica de Eosinófilo , Histamina/análise , Inflamação , Rinite/complicações , Sinusite/complicações , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/análise
12.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 243, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with variable symptoms, which presents with cough either as the sole or predominant symptom with or without wheezing. We compared the clinical and pathophysiological characteristics of cough predominant asthma (CPA), cough variant asthma (CVA) and classic asthma (CA) in order to determine any differential phenotypic traits. METHODS: In 20 clinics across China, a total of 2088 patients were finally recruited, including 327 CVA, 1041 CPA and 720 CA patients. We recorded cough and wheezing visual analogue scale, Leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ) and asthma control test scores. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), induced sputum cell counts, and capsaicin cough challenge were also measured and compared. RESULTS: CPA patients more frequently presented with cough as the initial symptom, and laryngeal symptoms (p < 0.001), had less symptoms related with rhinitis/sinusitis and gastroesophageal reflux (p < 0.05) than CA patients. Comorbidities including rhinitis and gastroesophageal reflux were similar, while the proportion of COPD and bronchiectasis was higher in CA patients. There were no differences in FeNO levels, sputum eosinophil and neutrophil counts, FEV1 (%pred) decreased from CVA to CPA to CA patients (p < 0.001). Cough sensitivity was higher in CVA and CPA compared to CA (p < 0.001), and was positively correlated with LCQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: CVA, CPA and CA can be distinguished by the presence of laryngeal symptoms, cough sensitivity and airflow obstruction. Asthma-associated chronic cough was not associated with airway inflammation or comorbidities in our cohort. Trial registration The Chinese Clinical Trial Registration Center, ChiCTR-POC-17011646, 13 June 2017.


Assuntos
Asma , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Rinite , Asma/complicações , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/epidemiologia , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Sons Respiratórios , Rinite/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 301: 103890, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358761

RESUMO

Esophageal-tracheobronchial reflex is considered the main mechanism underlying cough due to gastroesophageal reflux, and is associated with esophageal hypersensitivity. We hypothesized that tracheobronchial-esophageal reflex may also exist, and may be related to esophageal hypersensitivity. To test this hypothesis, conscious and ether-anesthetized guinea pigs were subjected to repetitive capsaicin inhalation to establish models of cough (conscious) and cough-free (anesthetized) airway injury, respectively, followed by esophageal acid infusion. Recurrent capsaicin inhalation induced similar cough hyperreactivity to inhaled capsaicin after esophageal acid infusion in guinea pigs with cough and guinea pigs with cough-free airway injury during recurrent capsaicin inhalation. Cough hyperreactivity, along with overexpression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in esophageal mucosa and in nerve fibers of tracheal mucosa of guinea pigs were blocked by pretreatment with esophageal infusion of capsazepine, but not atropine. Thus, recurrent airway nociceptive stimuli induce esophageal hyperreactivity via a tracheobronchial-esophageal reflex mediated by vagal C afferents expressing TRPV1, and enhance cough due to reflux.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Hipersensibilidade , Animais , Capsaicina , Tosse/induzido quimicamente , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/induzido quimicamente , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Cobaias , Reflexo/fisiologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV , Traqueia
16.
Respir Med ; 183: 106439, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic efficacy of baclofen is suboptimal in the treatment of refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC). The purpose of the study is to identify its therapeutic predictors in a prospective clinical study. METHODS: 138 patients with suspected refractory GERC were treated with baclofen. Before the therapy, all the patients underwent esophageal manometry and multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring to establish the diagnosis. After the efficacy of baclofen was evaluated, a stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the therapeutic predictors of baclofen and to establish a regression prediction model. RESULTS: The overall response rate of baclofen treatment was 52.2% (72/138). The lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) (odds ratio (OR) = 0.592, P = 0.000) and lower esophageal sphincter length (LESL) (OR = 0.144, P = 0.008) were independent predictors of baclofen efficacy. The optimal cut-off point to predict baclofen efficacy for LESP was 11.00 mmHg, with a sensitivity of 83.7% and specificity of 79.1% while that for LESL was 2.35 cm, with a sensitivity of 81.6% and specificity of 72.1%. The highest predictive specificity (90.7%) was achieved when both LESP and LESL were jointly used. CONCLUSIONS: LESP and LESL may be used to screen the patients with refractory GERC suitable for baclofen therapy and help improve the therapeutic precision. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR- ONC-13003123.


Assuntos
Baclofeno/uso terapêutico , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/etiologia , Esfíncter Esofágico Inferior/patologia , Esfíncter Esofágico Inferior/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Pressão , Doença Crônica , Tosse/patologia , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Chron Respir Dis ; 18: 14799731211006682, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the accuracy and advantages of Multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (MII-pH) in diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC). METHODS: The patients with suspected GERC were recruited and underwent MII-pH, GERC was confirmed by subsequent anti-reflux treatment despite the findings of MII-pH. Its diagnostic accuracy in identifying GERC were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and compared with that of 24-h esophageal pH monitoring. RESULTS: Among 158 patients completing both MII-pH and anti-reflux therapy, GERC was diagnosed in 136 patients, including acid GERC in 96 patients (70.6%), non-acid GERC in 30 patients (22.0%), neither one of both GERC in 10 patients (7.4%). For the identification of GERC, MII-pH presented with the sensitivity of 92.6%, specificity of 63.6%, positive predictive value of 94.0%, negative predictive value of 58.3% and area under ROC curve of 0.863, which was totally superior to 24-h esophageal pH monitoring. As the essential criteria of MII-pH, esophageal acid exposure time and symptom associated probability had a limited diagnostic value when used alone, but improved greatly the diagnostic yield when used in combination, even with a suboptimal efficacy. CONCLUSION: MII-pH is a more sensitive test for identifying GERC, but with a suboptimal diagnostic efficacy.


Assuntos
Tosse , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Impedância Elétrica , Monitoramento do pH Esofágico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 807385, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35127763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The AtyPical Asthma in China (APAC) cohort is a multi-center prospective, observational cohort set-up to investigate the clinical, pathophysiological features, prognosis, and mechanisms of cough variant asthma (CVA). OBJECTIVES: To present the characteristics of newly physician-diagnosed adults with CVA (n = 328) compared to mild-moderate classic asthma (CA, n = 206). METHODS AND MAIN RESULTS: CVA subjects showed a higher proportion of female (67.1 vs. 55.3%, P = 0.0084), abnormal laryngopharyngeal sensations (71 vs. 51%, p < 0.0001) than CA, but presented with near normal spirometry and higher methacholine PD20-FEV1 values [4.2 (1, 8.6) vs. 0.8 (0.4, 4.7), P < 0.0001]. Lower fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) levels [38.5 (19.8, 72.5) vs. 53. (28.5, 92.2), P = 0.0019], blood eosinophil counts [0.2 (0.1, 0.4) vs. 0.3 (0.2, 0.5), P = 0.0014], and sputum eosinophils [2.3 (0.3, 8.0) vs. 12.2 (2, 34.5), p < 0.0001] were found in CVA. Despite lower total serum IgE levels in CVA, there was similar proportion of atopy in both groups. The prevalence of cough in CA was 86.4%, while CVA reported more severe cough on Visual Analog Scale, Cough Evaluation Test, and Leicester Cough Questionnaire, similar anxiety and depression scores but better asthma control scores as reflected by Asthma Control Test compared to CA. No correlation was found between cough assessment outcomes and sputum eosinophil count, blood eosinophil count, FENO, spirometry variables, or PD20-FEV1. CONCLUSION: Cough variant asthma is distinctive from classic asthma in regard to clinical features, lung function, and airway inflammation. Quality of life is badly impaired as well in spite of better asthma control scores.

19.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(11): 6573-6585, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of treatment against cough variant asthma (CVA) is insufficient for the clinical practice in China. We aimed at evaluating the real-world effectiveness of montelukast (MONT) alone or in combination with low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and low-dose ICS plus long-acting beta-2-agonists (LABA) for Chinese CVA patients in a multicentre, prospective, cohort study. METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed with CVA defined as chronic cough >8 weeks with a positive bronchial provocation test and normal chest X-ray findings were enrolled at respiratory clinics. Study treatment followed routine clinical practice. The investigators initiated MONT by 10 mg/day alone or in combination with a low-dose ICS +/- LABA and followed up treatment outcomes for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in cough score (CS) from baseline. RESULTS: The study enrolled 247 patients (MONT =146, MONT + ICS =38, MONT + ICS/LABA =63). In the primary analysis, the mean change (95% CI) in CS at the end of the study was -1.2 (-1.6, -0.9), -0.9 (-1.5, -0.4), and -1.3 (-1.7, -0.8) in the three groups, respectively. MONT monotherapy had a satisfactory rate of weekly asthma control at the end of the study (83.5%, 95% CI: 75.1%, 89.4%) in the per-protocol analysis. Rates of weekly asthma control were similar in two MONT-based combination regimens (83.9%, 81.4%). Short-acting beta-2-agonist (SABA) user (≥2 times per week) was 16.8% in the MONT group. CONCLUSIONS: The real-world effectiveness of MONT alone or in combination with ICS or ICS and LABA was acceptable for CVA short-term control.

20.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(9): 5243-5250, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145100

RESUMO

Refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC) is a special type of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with predominant cough resistant to pragmatic standard anti-reflux therapy including antisecretory agents alone or in combination with promotility agents but with a favorable response to intensified anti-reflux treatment. The condition is not rare and is difficult to treat. Neuromodulators such as baclofen and gabapentin are considered potential therapeutic options for refractory GERC. Limited data indicate that gabapentin and baclofen could attenuate the cough symptom in patients with refractory GERC by blockade of gastroesophageal reflux or by direct antitussive effects. However, no study has compared the efficacy of these two drugs in treatment of refractory GERC. In an open-labeled randomized clinical study, we demonstrated that, as add-on therapy, gabapentin and baclofen had a similar prevalence of therapeutic success for suspected refractory GERC but gabapentin may be more preferable because of its fewer central side effects. The efficacy of baclofen and gabapentin was suboptimal, so further studies are needed to select the patients with refractory GERC suitable for precise treatment using these two neuromodulators.

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