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1.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 16, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reports have demonstrated two thiazolidione derivatives (H2-60 and H2-81) can robustly inhibit the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and S. aureus by targeting the histidine kinase YycG. Whereas the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of these two thiazolidione derivatives (H2-60 and H2-81) against Enterococcus faecium remains elusive. Here, the pET28a-YycG recombinant plasmid were in vitro expressed in E. coli competent cell BL21 (DE3) and induced to express YycG' protein (conding HisKA and HATPase_c domain) by 0.5 mM IPTG and was purified by Ni - NTA agarose and then for the autophosphorylation test. Antimicrobial testing and time-killing assay were also be determined. Anti-biofilm activity of two derivatives with sub-MIC concentration towards positive biofilm producers of clinical E. faecium were detected using polystyrene microtiter plate and CLSM. RESULTS: The MICs of H2-60 and H2-81 in the clinical isolates of E. faecium were in the range from 3.125 mg/L to 25 mg/L. Moreover, either H2-60 or H2-81 showed the excellent bactericidal activity against E. faecium with monotherapy or its combination with daptomycin by time-killing assay. E. faecium planktonic cells can be decreased by H2-60 or H2-81 for more than 3 × log10 CFU/mL after 24 h treatment when combined with daptomycin. Furthermore, over 90% of E. faecium biofilm formation could markedly be inhibited by H2-60 and H2-81 at 1/4 × MIC value. In addition, the frequency of the eradicated viable cells embedded in mature biofilm were evaluated by the confocal laser microscopy, suggesting that of H2-60 combined with ampicillin or daptomycin was significantly high when compared with single treatment (78.17 and 74.48% vs. 41.59%, respectively, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These two thiazolidione derivatives (H2-60 and H2-81) could directly impact the kinase phosphoration activity of YycG of E. faecium. H2-60 combined with daptomycin exhibit the excellent antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against E. faecium by targeting YycG.

2.
Food Chem ; 379: 132146, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078058

RESUMO

Sediment is a key issue in the production and marketing of plant beverages, as is ginseng beverages. The formation of sediment in ginseng beverages is a gradual process. This work describes the formation of sediment from different parts of ginseng and describes the color and clarity of the liquid and the amount and morphology of the sediment. The results showed there are significant differences in the sediment formation speed, morphology and transmittance for the aqueous extracts prepared from different parts of ginseng. The amounts of sediment generated from the different parts of ginseng is as follows: main root > rhizome > fibrous root. Free amino acids, Ba, Ca, Ni, and Sr concentrations are significantly and positively correlated with the transmittance. The total saponins, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations are significantly and negatively correlated with the transmittance. There are obvious crystals and more Ca in the fibrous root sediment. We analyzed and compared the chemical components in the sediment and extract. The results show that the main components of the sediment are carbohydrates and protein. According to the partition coefficient the contents of protein, ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rf) and some ions (Al, Fe, Ca, and Na) contribute more to the formation of the sediment than the other investigated components.

3.
mSystems ; : e0110921, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726485

RESUMO

Hypoxia signaling is a key regulator in the development and progression of many types of human malignancies, including viral cancers. The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) during latency, is a multifunctional protein that plays an essential role in viral episome maintenance and lytic gene silencing for inducing tumorigenesis. Although our previous studies have shown that LANA contains a SUMO-interacting motif (LANASIM), and hypoxia reduces SUMOylated KAP1 association with LANASIM, the physiological proteomic network of LANASIM-associated cellular proteins in response to hypoxia is still unclear. In this study, we individually established cell lines stably expressing wild-type LANA (LANAWT) and its SIM-deleted mutant (LANAdSIM) and treated them with or without hypoxia, followed by coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis to systemically identify the hypoxia-responsive profile of LANASIM-associated cellular proteins. We found that in hypoxia, the number of cellular proteins associated with LANAWT instead of LANAdSIM was dramatically increased. Functional network analysis revealed that two major pathways, which included cytoskeleton organization and DNA/RNA binding and processing pathways, were significantly enriched for 28 LANASIM-associated proteins in response to hypoxia. HNRNPU was one of the proteins consistently identified that interacted with LANASIM in different proteomic screening systems and responded to hypoxia. This study provides a proteomic profile of LANASIM-associated proteins in hypoxia and facilitates our understanding of the role of the collaboration between viral infection and the hypoxia response in inducing viral persistence and tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been reported to be involved in the regulation of host proteins in response to hypoxic stress. LANA, one of the key latent proteins, contains a SUMO-interacting motif (LANASIM) and reduces the association with SUMOylated KAP1 upon hypoxic treatment. However, the physiological systematic network of LANASIM-associated cellular proteins in hypoxia is still unclear. Here, we revealed two major pathways, which included cytoskeleton organization and DNA/RNA binding and processing pathways, that were significantly enriched for 28 LANASIM-associated proteins in hypoxia. This discovery not only provides a proteomic profile of LANASIM-associated proteins in hypoxia but also facilitates our understanding of the collaboration between viral infection and hypoxic stress in inducing viral persistence and tumorigenesis.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6304, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728625

RESUMO

Accumulating mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein can increase the possibility of immune escape, challenging the present COVID-19 prophylaxis and clinical interventions. Here, 3 receptor binding domain (RBD) specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 58G6, 510A5 and 13G9, with high neutralizing potency blocking authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus display remarkable efficacy against authentic B.1.351 virus. Surprisingly, structural analysis has revealed that 58G6 and 13G9 both recognize the steric region S470-495 on the RBD, overlapping the E484K mutation presented in B.1.351. Also, 58G6 directly binds to another region S450-458 in the RBD. Significantly, 58G6 and 510A5 both demonstrate prophylactic efficacy against authentic SARS-CoV-2 and B.1.351 viruses in the transgenic mice expressing human ACE2 (hACE2), protecting weight loss and reducing virus loads. Together, we have evidenced 2 potent neutralizing Abs with unique mechanism targeting authentic SARS-CoV-2 mutants, which can be promising candidates to fulfill the urgent needs for the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Epitopos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Nano Lett ; 21(22): 9450-9457, 2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734737

RESUMO

Direct SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing with fast speed and high frequency is crucial for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, direct testing of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid is realized by field-effect transistors (FETs) with an electro-enrichable liquid gate (LG) anchored by tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs). The applied gate bias electrostatically preconcentrates nucleic acids, while the liquid gate with TDNs provides efficient analyte recognition and signal transduction. The average diagnosis time is ∼80 s, and the limit of detection approaches 1-2 copies in 100 µL of clinical samples without nucleic acid extraction and amplification. As such, TDN-LG FETs solve the dilemma of COVID-19 testing on mass scale that diagnosis accuracy and speed undergo trade-off. In addition, TDN-LG FETs achieve unamplified 10-in-1 pooled nucleic acid testing for the first time, and the results are consistent with PCR. Thus, this technology promises on-site and wide population COVID-19 screening and ensures safe world-reopening.

6.
Foods ; 10(11)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828995

RESUMO

Sediment is a key issue in the beverage industry. This study confirmed that reversible and irreversible sediments were formed during low-temperature storage of ginseng extract. The first 30 days of storage are the critical period for sediment formation. As the time of storage extends, the chemical composition changes. The composition interaction model verified that the cross-linking of protein-pectin, protein-oxalic acid and Ca2+-pectin was the main cause of the turbidity of ginseng extract. Based on the characterization of irreversible sediment (IRS), there are typical structures of proteins, polysaccharides and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. Glucose, galacturonic acid, aspartate, glutamic acid, leucine, Ca, K, Al, Mg, Na and Fe are the main monomer components. Effective regulation of these ingredients will greatly help the quality of ginseng beverages.

7.
Cell Res ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837059

RESUMO

Host cellular receptors play key roles in the determination of virus tropism and pathogenesis. However, little is known about SARS-CoV-2 host receptors with the exception of ACE2. Furthermore, ACE2 alone cannot explain the multi-organ tropism of SARS-CoV-2 nor the clinical differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, suggesting the involvement of other receptor(s). Here, we performed genomic receptor profiling to screen 5054 human membrane proteins individually for interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 capsid spike (S) protein. Twelve proteins, including ACE2, ASGR1, and KREMEN1, were identified with diverse S-binding affinities and patterns. ASGR1 or KREMEN1 is sufficient for the entry of SARS-CoV-2 but not SARS-CoV in vitro and in vivo. SARS-CoV-2 utilizes distinct ACE2/ASGR1/KREMEN1 (ASK) receptor combinations to enter different cell types, and the expression of ASK together displays a markedly stronger correlation with virus susceptibility than that of any individual receptor at both the cell and tissue levels. The cocktail of ASK-related neutralizing antibodies provides the most substantial blockage of SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung organoids when compared to individual antibodies. Our study revealed an interacting host receptome of SARS-CoV-2, and identified ASGR1 and KREMEN1 as alternative functional receptors that play essential roles in ACE2-independent virus entry, providing insight into SARS-CoV-2 tropism and pathogenesis, as well as a community resource and potential therapeutic strategies for further COVID-19 investigations.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(41): 17004-17014, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623792

RESUMO

Rapid screening of infected individuals from a large population is an effective means in epidemiology, especially to contain outbreaks such as COVID-19. The gold standard assays for COVID-19 diagnostics are mainly based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, which mismatches the requirements for wide-population screening due to time-consuming nucleic acid extraction and amplification procedures. Here, we report a direct nucleic acid assay by using a graphene field-effect transistor (g-FET) with Y-shaped DNA dual probes (Y-dual probes). The assay relies on Y-dual probes modified on g-FET simultaneously targeting ORF1ab and N genes of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, enabling high a recognition ratio and a limit of detection (0.03 copy µL-1) 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than existing nucleic acid assays. The assay realizes the fastest nucleic acid testing (∼1 min) and achieves direct 5-in-1 pooled testing for the first time. Owing to its rapid, ultrasensitive, easily operated features as well as capability in pooled testing, it holds great promise as a comprehensive tool for population-wide screening of COVID-19 and other epidemics.


Assuntos
Sondas de DNA , DNA Viral/análise , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Grafite/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção
9.
J Med Chem ; 64(20): 15037-15052, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657423

RESUMO

YycFG, one of the two-component systems involved in the regulation of biofilm formation, has attracted increasing interest as a potential target of antibacterial and antibiofilm agents. YycG inhibitors for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been developed, but Enterococcus faecalis remains underexplored. Herein, we selected and identified novel candidate molecules against E. faecalis targeting histidine kinase YycG using high-throughput virtual screening; six molecules (compound-16, -30, -42, -46, -59, and -62) with low cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells were verified as potential YycG inhibitors through an autophosphorylation test and binding kinetics. Compound-16 inhibited planktonic cells of E. faecalis, including the vancomycin- or linezolid-resistant strains. In contrast, compound-62 did not affect planktonic growth but significantly inhibited biofilm formation in static and dynamic conditions. Compound-62 combined with ampicillin could synergistically eradicate the biofilm-embedded viable bacteria. The study demonstrates that YycG inhibitors may be valuable approaches for the development of novel antimicrobial agents for difficult-to-treat bacterial infections.

10.
mSphere ; 6(5): e0064121, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550006

RESUMO

The two-component system VraSR responds to the cell wall-active antibiotic stress in Staphylococcus epidermidis. To study its regulatory function in biofilm formation, a vraSR deletion mutant (ΔvraSR) was constructed using S. epidermidis strain 1457 (SE1457) as the parent strain. Compared to SE1457, the ΔvraSR mutant showed impaired biofilm formation both in vitro and in vivo with a higher ratio of dead cells within the biofilm. Consistently, the ΔvraSR mutant produced much less polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA). The ΔvraSR mutant also showed increased susceptibility to the cell wall inhibitor and SDS, and its cell wall observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM) appeared to be thinner and interrupted, which is in accordance with higher susceptibility to the stress. Complementation of vraSR in the ΔvraSR mutant restored the biofilm formation and the cell wall thickness to wild-type levels. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) showed that the vraSR deletion affected the transcription levels of 73 genes, including genes involved in biofilm formation, bacterial programmed cell death (CidA-LrgAB system), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, etc. The results of RNA-Seq were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). In the ΔvraSR mutant, the expression of icaA and lrgAB was downregulated and the expression of icaR and cidA was upregulated, in comparison to that of SE1457. The transcriptional levels of antibiotic-resistant genes (pbp2, serp1412, murAA, etc.) had no significant changes. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay further revealed that phosphorylated VraR bound to the promoter regions of the ica operon, as well as its own promoter region. This study demonstrates that in S. epidermidis, VraSR is an autoregulator and directly regulates biofilm formation in an ica-dependent manner. Upon cell wall stress, it indirectly regulates cell death and drug resistance in association with alterations to multiple metabolism pathways. IMPORTANCE S. epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired catheter-related infections, and its pathogenicity depends mostly on its ability to form biofilms on implants. The biofilm formation is a complex procedure that involves multiple regulating factors. Here, we show that a vancomycin resistance-associated two-component regulatory system, VraSR, plays an important role in modulating S. epidermidis biofilm formation and tolerance to stress. We demonstrate that S. epidermidis VraSR is an autoregulated system that selectively responds to stress targeting cell wall synthesis. Besides, phosphorylated VraR can bind to the promoter region of the ica operon and directly regulates polysaccharide intercellular adhesin production and biofilm formation in S. epidermidis. Furthermore, VraSR may indirectly modulate bacterial cell death and extracellular DNA (eDNA) release in biofilms through the CidA-LrgAB system. This work provides a new molecular insight into the mechanisms of VraSR-mediated modulation of the biofilm formation and cell death of S. epidermidis.

11.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 7703152, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545283

RESUMO

Currently, the development of sharing economy and interconnection also has a profound impact on community life services. This study is based on the deep neural network theory, combined with the evolution mechanism of the commercial network of the community life service industry, link prediction theory, and the latest deep neural network algorithm, referring to the evolution model of merger and stripping, and the network structure is optimized on this basis. Through simulation experiments and result analysis, the model is used to deeply study the evolution trend and dynamics of the community life service business network from the perspective of quantitative analysis. Then the business network structure is optimized and development is promoted at the same time. At the same time, it can also upgrade those old scattered industries and provide theoretical and decision-making guidance for the future transformation and upgrading of the innovative community life service industry.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Comércio , Indústrias
12.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 727104, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484169

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of both community- and hospital-associated infections. The antibiotic resistance and virulence characteristics of MRSA are largely regulated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) including the graRS TCS. To make a relatively comprehensive insight into graRS TCS in MRSA, the bioinformatics analysis of dataset GSE26016 (a S. aureus HG001 WT strain vs. the ΔgraRS mutant) from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was performed, and a total of 563 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. GO analysis revealed that the DEGs were mainly enriched in the "de novo" IMP biosynthetic process, lysine biosynthetic process via diaminopimelate, and pathogenesis; and they were mainly enriched in purine metabolism, lysine biosynthesis, and monobactam biosynthesis in KEGG analysis. WGCNA suggested that the turquoise module was related to the blue module, and the genes in these two modules were associated with S. aureus virulence and infection. To investigate the role of graRS in bacterial virulence, a graRS knockout mutant (ΔgraRS) was constructed using MRSA USA500 2,395 strain as a parent strain. Compared to the wild-type strain, the USA500ΔgraRS showed reduced staphyloxanthin production, retarded coagulation, weaker hemolysis on blood agar plates, and a decreased biofilm formation. These altered phenotypes were restored by the complementation of a plasmid-expressed graRS. Meanwhile, an expression of the virulence-associated genes (coa, hla, hlb, agrA, and mgrA) was downregulated in the ΔgraRS mutant. Consistently, the A549 epithelial cells invasion of the ΔgraRS mutant was 4-fold lower than that of the USA500 wild-type strain. Moreover, on the Galleria mellonella infection model, the survival rate at day 5 post infection in the USA500ΔgraRS group (55%) was obviously higher than that in the USA500 group (20%), indicating graRS knockout leads to a decreased virulence in vivo. In addition, the deletion of the graRS in the MRSA USA500 strain resulted in its increased susceptibilities to ampicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, and gentamicin. Our work suggests that the graRS TCS plays an important role in regulating S. aureus virulence in vitro and in vivo and modulate bacterial resistance to various antibiotics.

13.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(6): 1690-1701, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019393

RESUMO

Biofilm formation and hemolysis induced by Staphylococcus aureus are closely related to pathogenicity. However, no drugs exist to inhibit biofilm formation or hemolysis induced by S. aureus in clinical practice. This study found diclazuril had antibacterial action against S. aureus with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at 50 µM for both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Diclazuril (at 1/4× or 1/8× MICs) significantly inhibited biofilm formation of S. aureus under static or flow-based conditions and also inhibited hemolysis induced by S. aureus. The RNA levels of transcriptional regulatory genes (agrA, agrC, luxS, sarA, sigB, saeR, saeS), biofilm formation-related genes (aur, bap, ccpA, cidA, clfA, clfB, fnbA, fnbB, icaA, icaB, sasG), and virulence-related genes (hla, hlb, hld, hlg, lukDE, lukpvl-S, spa, sbi, alpha-3 PSM, beta PSM, coa) of S. aureus were decreased when treated by diclazuril (at 1/4× MIC) for 4 h. The diclazuril nonsensitive clones of S. aureus were selected in vitro by induction of wildtype strains for about 90 days under the pressure of diclazuril. Mutations in the possible target genes of diclazuril against S. aureus were detected by whole-genome sequencing. This study indicated that there were three amino acid mutations in the diclazuril nonsensitive clone of S. aureus, two of which were located in genes with known function (SMC-Scp complex subunit ScpB and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1, respectively) and one in a gene with unknown function (hypothetical protein). Diclazuril showed a strong inhibition effect on planktonic cells and biofilm formation of S. aureus with the overexpression of the scpB gene.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus , Biofilmes , Hemólise , Humanos , Nitrilas , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Triazinas
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 653189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828563

RESUMO

After the pandemic of COVID-19, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed for the prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. However, few methodologies are described in detail on how to rapidly and efficiently generate effective NAbs to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we integrated and optimized a strategically screening method for NAbs, which has enabled us to obtain SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) specific NAbs within 6 days, followed by additional 9 days for antibody production and function analysis. Using this method, we obtained 198 specific Abs against SARS-CoV-2 RBD from the blood samples of COVID-19 convalescent patients, and 96 of them showed neutralizing activity. At least 20% of these NAbs exhibited advanced neutralizing potency and high affinity, with the top two NAbs showing half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) to block authentic SARS-CoV-2 at 9.88 and 11.13 ng/ml, respectively. Altogether, our study provides an effective methodology with high applicable value for discovering potential preventative and therapeutic NAbs for the emerging infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
15.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 41(3): 102-110, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750216

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been a devastating actuality and accounts for half of cardiovascular emergency department visits. Nucleotide oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome participates in the mediation of myocardial inflammation during AMI. Therefore, this study aimed to reveal the therapeutic function of tranilast, an agent targeting NLRP3, for AMI. AMI mouse model was first established by transient myocardial ischemia. Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay were performed to estimate the expression levels of related genes. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the macrophage types, and the therapeutic effects of tranilast were estimated by echocardiographic analysis and Masson's trichrome stain. We demonstrated that AMI induced the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in the heart tissues of mice with AMI. Tranilast decreased the expression of interleukin-1ß and cleaved caspase-1 in bone marrow-derived macrophages and thus re-educated M1-macrophages toward the M2-phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. Tranilast inhibited the activation in the heart tissues of AMI mice and thus improved cardiac functional recovery in the AMI mouse model. In conclusion, we revealed that tranilast ameliorated myocardial infarction by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome and re-educating macrophage phenotype in this study.

16.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 58, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758177

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a refractory chronic inflammatory illness of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Macrophage exerts an important role in IBD development. QKI, as an RNA binding protein, was related with inflammatory responses in bacterial infections by regulating the polarization of macrophages. Therefore, we suspected that QKI-regulated macrophages have the potential to play a certain role in IBD and the underlying mechanism. Our results demonstrated that the mice with macrophage-specific deletion of QKI induced with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) are more susceptible to IBD development, exhibited a severe leaky gut barrier phenotype and higher intense oxidative stress, which are rescued by treating with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), an agonist of NRF2. Mechanically, we observed that Keap1 mRNA in the nucleus was exported to the cytoplasm after LPS stimuli in parallel with QKI reductions, and the removal of QKI by shRNA facilitated Keap1 mRNA nuclear exporting and expression in cytoplasm, consequently NRF2 activation in nucleus was weakened, and led to the impaired antioxidant abilities. In addition, mice models of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) and the co-culturing of mice epithelia cells with feces derived from the DSS-treated QKI-deficit mice revealed consistently aggravated colitis along with a severe oxidative stress; 16S sequencing analysis substantiated the altered compositions of commensal bacteria too. Overall, the current study represents the first effort to explore the anti-oxidant role of QKI in the intestinal macrophage via post-transcriptional regulation of Keap1 mRNA localization and the relevant NRF2 antioxidant signaling, and the disproportional changes in the microbiota were attributable to the mediation of pathogenic damage in the IBD development of QKI-deficit mice.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 961, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574281

RESUMO

The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 is posing major public health challenges. One feature of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is the insertion of multi-basic residues at the S1/S2 subunit cleavage site. Here, we find that the virus with intact spike (Sfull) preferentially enters cells via fusion at the plasma membrane, whereas a clone (Sdel) with deletion disrupting the multi-basic S1/S2 site utilizes an endosomal entry pathway. Using Sdel as model, we perform a genome-wide CRISPR screen and identify several endosomal entry-specific regulators. Experimental validation of hits from the CRISPR screen shows that host factors regulating the surface expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) affect entry of Sfull virus. Animal-to-animal transmission with the Sdel virus is reduced compared to Sfull in the hamster model. These findings highlight the critical role of the S1/S2 boundary of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in modulating virus entry and transmission and provide insights into entry of coronaviruses.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus , Células A549 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endossomos/virologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mesocricetus , Serina Endopeptidases , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Células Vero
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 866, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558541

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly become a global public health threat. The efficacy of several repurposed drugs has been evaluated in clinical trials. Among these drugs, a second-generation antiandrogen agent, enzalutamide, was proposed because it reduces the expression of transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), a key component mediating SARS-CoV-2-driven entry, in prostate cancer cells. However, definitive evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of enzalutamide in COVID-19 is lacking. Here, we evaluated the antiviral efficacy of enzalutamide in prostate cancer cells, lung cancer cells, human lung organoids and Ad-ACE2-transduced mice. Tmprss2 knockout significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo. Enzalutamide effectively inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in human prostate cells, however, such antiviral efficacy was lacking in human lung cells and organoids. Accordingly, enzalutamide showed no antiviral activity due to the AR-independent TMPRSS2 expression in mouse and human lung epithelial cells. Moreover, we observed distinct AR binding patterns between prostate cells and lung cells and a lack of direct binding of AR to TMPRSS2 regulatory locus in human lung cells. Thus, our findings do not support the postulated protective role of enzalutamide in treating COVID-19 through reducing TMPRSS2 expression in lung cells.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Benzamidas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Nitrilas , Pandemias , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/virologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 264, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431876

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are an option for drug development for treating COVID-19. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two groups of mouse neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) on the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. MAbs 2H2 and 3C1, representing the two antibody groups, respectively, bind distinct epitopes and are compatible in formulating a noncompeting antibody cocktail. A humanized version of the 2H2/3C1 cocktail is found to potently neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro with half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 12 ng/mL and effectively treat SARS-CoV-2-infected mice even when administered at as late as 24 h post-infection. We determine an ensemble of cryo-EM structures of 2H2 or 3C1 Fab in complex with the S trimer up to 3.8 Å resolution, revealing the conformational space of the antigen-antibody complexes and MAb-triggered stepwise allosteric rearrangements of the S trimer, delineating a previously uncharacterized dynamic process of coordinated binding of neutralizing antibodies to the trimeric S protein. Our findings provide important information for the development of MAb-based drugs for preventing and treating SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Conformação Proteica , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
20.
Cell Rep ; 34(5): 108699, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485405

RESUMO

Several potent neutralizing antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus have been identified. However, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) has not been comprehensively studied for SARS-CoV-2, and the relationship between enhancing versus neutralizing activities and antibody epitopes remains unknown. Here, we select a convalescent individual with potent IgG neutralizing activity and characterize his antibody response. Monoclonal antibodies isolated from memory B cells target four groups of five non-overlapping receptor-binding domain (RBD) epitopes. Antibodies to one group of these RBD epitopes mediate ADE of entry in Raji cells via an Fcγ receptor-dependent mechanism. In contrast, antibodies targeting two other distinct epitope groups neutralize SARS-CoV-2 without ADE, while antibodies against the fourth epitope group are poorly neutralizing. One antibody, XG014, potently cross-neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 variants, as well as SARS-CoV-1, with respective IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values as low as 5.1 and 23.7 ng/mL, while not exhibiting ADE. Therefore, neutralization and ADE of human SARS-CoV-2 antibodies correlate with non-overlapping RBD epitopes.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Facilitadores , Epitopos/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
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