Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Gene ; 893: 147927, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374023

RESUMO

Recent semi-targeted metabolomics studies have highlighted a number of metabolites in wheat that associate with leaf rust resistance genes and/or rust infection. Here, we report the structural characterization of a novel glycosylated and partially saturated apocarotenoid, reminiscent of a reduced form of mycorradicin, (6E,8E,10E)-4,9-dimethyl-12-oxo-12-((3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(2-hydroxyethoxy)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)methoxy)-3-((3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy)dodeca-6,8,10-trienoic acid, isolated from Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) variety 'Thatcher' (Tc) flag leaves. While its accumulation was not associated with any of Lr34, Lr67 or Lr22a resistance genes, infection of Tc with leaf rust was found to deplete it, consistent with the idea of this metabolite being a glycosylated-storage form of an apocarotenoid of possible relevance to plant defense. A comparative analysis of wheat transcriptomic changes shows modulation of terpenoid, carotenoid, UDP-glycosyltransferase and glycosylase -related gene expression profiles, consistent with anticipated biosynthesis and degradation mechanisms. However, details of the exact nature of the relevant pathways remain to be validated in the future. Together these findings highlight another example of the breadth of unique metabolites underlying plant host-fungal pathogen interactions.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Piranos
2.
Food Chem (Oxf) ; 6: 100169, 2023 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36925614

RESUMO

Pea (Pisum sativum) is one of the most abundant and sustainable alternate source of protein. Although pea proteins have good quantities of most of the essential amino acids, they have a limited supply of tryptophan, methionine and cysteine. Moreover, pea proteins have poor techno-functional properties compared to proteins from animal sources, limiting their use in certain food applications. Bioprocessing techniques like solid-state fermentation (SSF) and enzymatic processing have been explored to improve the nutrient profile and functionality of pea proteins. However, there is a lack of information about proteomic changes in the food matrix during fermentation of the pea substrate. In this research, samples during SSF of pea protein isolate with Aspergillus oryzae were used for shotgun mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis to identify the underlying functional pathways which play direct or indirect roles in enabling the colonization of the substrate leading to potential improvement of functional and nutritional value of pea protein. Results revealed the identity of A. oryzae proteins involved in different metabolic pathways that differed during various stages of SSF. Among them, methionine synthase was identified as an abundant protein, which catalyzes methionine biosynthesis. This might suggest how fermentation processes could be used to improve the presence of sulfur containing amino acids to rebalance the essential amino acid profile and improve the nutritional quality of pea proteins.

3.
Phytochemistry ; 178: 112456, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692663

RESUMO

The gene Lr34res is one of the most long-lasting sources of quantitative fungal resistance in wheat. It is shown to be effective against leaf, stem, and stripe rusts, as well as powdery mildew and spot blotch. Recent biochemical characterizations of the encoded ABC transporter have outlined a number of allocrites, including phospholipids and abscisic acid, consistent with the established general promiscuity of ABC transporters, but ultimately leaving its mechanism of rust resistance unclear. Working with flag leaves of Triticum aestivum L. variety 'Thatcher' (Tc) and a near-isogenic line of 'Thatcher' into which the Lr34res allele was introgressed (Tc+Lr34res; RL6058), a comparative semi-targeted metabolomics analysis of flavonoid-rich extracts revealed virtually identical profiles with the exception of one metabolite accumulating in Tc+Lr34res, which was not present at comparable levels in Tc. Structural characterization of the purified metabolite revealed a phenylpropanoid diglyceride structure, 1-O-p-coumaroyl-3-O-feruloylglycerol (CFG). Additional profiling of CFG across a collection of near-isogenic lines and representative Lr34 haplotypes highlighted a broad association between the presence of Lr34res and elevated accumulations of CFG. Depletion of CFG upon infection, juxtaposed to its relatively lower anti-fungal activity, suggests CFG may serve as a storage form of the more potent anti-microbial hydroxycinnamic acids that are accessed during defense responses. Altogether these findings suggest a role for the encoded LR34res ABC transporter in modifying the accumulation of CFG, leading to increased accumulation of anti-fungal metabolites, essentially priming the wheat plant for defense.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Basidiomycota , Diglicerídeos , Resistência à Doença , Doenças das Plantas , Triticum
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2072: 183-198, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541447

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing technology has the potential to revolutionize agriculture, but many plant species and/or genotypes are recalcitrant to conventional transformation methods. Additionally, the long generation time of crop plants poses a significant obstacle to effective application of gene editing technology, as it takes a long time to produce modified homozygous genotypes. The haploid single-celled microspores are an attractive target for gene editing experiments, as they enable generation of homozygous doubled haploid mutants in one generation. Here, we describe optimized methods for genome editing of haploid wheat microspores and production of doubled haploid plants by microspore culture.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Haploidia , Mutagênese , Triticum/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , RNA Guia de Cinetoplastídeos
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 474, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing has become a revolutionary technique for crop improvement as it can facilitate fast and efficient genetic changes without the retention of transgene components in the final plant line. Lack of robust bioinformatics tools to facilitate the design of highly specific functional guide RNAs (gRNAs) and prediction of off-target sites in wheat is currently an obstacle to effective application of CRISPR technology to wheat improvement. DESCRIPTION: We have developed a web-based bioinformatics tool to design specific gRNAs for genome editing and transcriptional regulation of gene expression in wheat. A collaborative study between the Broad Institute and Microsoft Research used large-scale empirical evidence to devise algorithms (Doech et al., 2016, Nature Biotechnology 34, 184-191) for predicting the on-target activity and off-target potential of CRISPR/SpCas9 (Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9). We applied these prediction models to determine on-target specificity and potential off-target activity for individual gRNAs targeting specific loci in the wheat genome. The genome-wide gRNA mappings and the corresponding Doench scores predictive of the on-target and off-target activities were used to create a gRNA database which was used as a data source for the web application termed WheatCRISPR. CONCLUSION: The WheatCRISPR tool allows researchers to browse all possible gRNAs targeting a gene or sequence of interest and select effective gRNAs based on their predicted high on-target and low off-target activity scores, as well as other characteristics such as position within the targeted gene. It is publicly available at https://crispr.bioinfo.nrc.ca/WheatCrispr/ .


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes/métodos , RNA Guia de Cinetoplastídeos , Triticum/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Marcação de Genes , Genoma de Planta , Internet
6.
Protein Sci ; 28(5): 952-963, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891862

RESUMO

ß-Cardiotoxin is a novel member of the snake venom three-finger toxin (3FTX) family. This is the first exogenous protein to antagonize ß-adrenergic receptors and thereby causing reduction in heart rates (bradycardia) when administered into animals, unlike the conventional cardiotoxins as reported earlier. 3FTXs are stable all ß-sheet peptides with 60-80 amino acid residues. Here, we describe the three-dimensional crystal structure of ß-cardiotoxin together with the identification of a molten globule intermediate in the unfolding pathway of this protein. In spite of the overall structural similarity of this protein with conventional cardiotoxins, there are notable differences observed at the loop region and in the charge distribution on the surface, which are known to be critical for cytolytic activity of cardiotoxins. The molten globule intermediate state present in the thermal unfolding pathway of ß-cardiotoxin was however not observed during the chemical denaturation of the protein. Interestingly, circular dichroism (CD) and NMR studies revealed the presence of α-helical secondary structure in the molten globule intermediate. These results point to substantial conformational plasticity of ß-cardiotoxin, which might aid the protein in responding to the sometimes conflicting demands of structure, stability, and function during its biological lifetime.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxinas/química , Ophiophagus hannah/metabolismo , Venenos de Serpentes/metabolismo , Animais , Dicroísmo Circular , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Desnaturação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Venenos de Serpentes/química
7.
J Biol Chem ; 294(15): 6142-6156, 2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770467

RESUMO

In plants, strict regulation of stomatal pores is critical for modulation of CO2 fixation and transpiration. Under certain abiotic and biotic stressors, pore closure is initiated through anionic flux, with calcium (Ca2+) playing a central role. The aluminum-activated malate transporter 12 (ALMT12) is a malate-activated, voltage-dependent member of the aluminum-activated malate transporter family that has been implicated in anionic flux from guard cells controlling the stomatal aperture. Herein, we report the characterization of the regulatory mechanisms mediating channel activities of an ALMT from the grass Brachypodium distachyon (BdALMT12) that has the highest sequence identity to Arabidopsis thaliana ALMT12. Electrophysiological studies in a heterologous cell system confirmed that this channel is malate- and voltage-dependent. However, this was shown to be true only in the presence of Ca2+ Although a general kinase inhibitor increased the current density of BdALMT12, a calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor reduced the Ca2+-dependent channel activation. We investigated the physiological relevance of the CaM-based regulation in planta, where stomatal closure, induced by exogenous Ca2+ ionophore and malate, was shown to be inhibited by exogenous application of a CaM inhibitor. Subsequent analyses revealed that the double substitutions R335A/R338A and R335A/K342A, within a predicted BdALMT12 CaM-binding domain (CBD), also decreased the channels' ability to activate. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and CBD-mimetic peptides, as well as CaM-agarose affinity pulldown of full-length recombinant BdALMT12, we confirmed the physical interaction between the CBD and CaM. Together, these findings support a co-regulatory mechanism of BdALMT12 activation by malate, and Ca2+/CaM, emphasizing that a complex regulatory network modulates BdALMT12 activity.


Assuntos
Brachypodium , Cálcio , Calmodulina , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos , Proteínas de Plantas , Estômatos de Plantas , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Brachypodium/química , Brachypodium/genética , Brachypodium/metabolismo , Cálcio/química , Cálcio/metabolismo , Calmodulina/química , Calmodulina/genética , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Ativação do Canal Iônico/fisiologia , Malatos/química , Malatos/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/química , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/química , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Methods Protoc ; 1(2)2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164560

RESUMO

Cas9 is a site-specific RNA-guided endonuclease (RGEN) that can be used for precise genome editing in various cell types from multiple species. Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, which contains the Cas9 protein in complex with a guide RNA, are sufficient for the precise editing of genomes in various cells. This DNA-free method is more specific in editing the target sites and there is no integration of foreign DNA into the genome. Also, there are ongoing studies into the interactions of Cas9 protein with modified guide RNAs, as well as structure-activity studies of Cas9 protein and its variants. All these investigations require highly pure Cas9 protein. A single-step metal affinity enrichment yielding impure Cas9 is the most common method of purification described. This is sufficient for many gene editing applications of this protein. However, to obtain Cas9 of higher purity, which might be essential for biophysical characterization, chemical modifications, and structural investigations, laborious multi-step protocols are employed. Here, we describe a two-step Cas9 purification protocol that uses metal affinity enrichment followed by cation exchange chromatography. This simple method can yield a milligram of highly pure Cas9 protein per liter of culture in a single day.

9.
Metabolites ; 6(4)2016 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27706030

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (FHB), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat. Partial resistance to FHB of several wheat cultivars includes specific metabolic responses to inoculation. Previously published studies have determined major metabolic changes induced by pathogens in resistant and susceptible plants. Functionality of the majority of these metabolites in resistance remains unknown. In this work we have made a compilation of all metabolites determined as selectively accumulated following FHB inoculation in resistant plants. Characteristics, as well as possible functions and targets of these metabolites, are investigated using cheminformatics approaches with focus on the likelihood of these metabolites acting as drug-like molecules against fungal pathogens. Results of computational analyses of binding properties of several representative metabolites to homology models of fungal proteins are presented. Theoretical analysis highlights the possibility for strong inhibitory activity of several metabolites against some major proteins in Fusarium graminearum, such as carbonic anhydrases and cytochrome P450s. Activity of several of these compounds has been experimentally confirmed in fungal growth inhibition assays. Analysis of anti-fungal properties of plant metabolites can lead to the development of more resistant wheat varieties while showing novel application of cheminformatics approaches in the analysis of plant/pathogen interactions.

10.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164996, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27755583

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-characterized plant hormone, known to mediate developmental aspects as well as both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Notably, the exogenous application of ABA has recently been shown to increase susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the causative agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other cereals. However roles and mechanisms associated with ABA's modulation of pathogen responses remain enigmatic. Here the identification of putative ABA receptors from available genomic databases for Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) and Brachypodium distachyon (a model cereal) are reported. A number of these were cloned for recombinant expression and their functionality as ABA receptors confirmed by in vitro assays against protein phosphatases Type 2Cs. Ligand selectivity profiling of one of the wheat receptors (Ta_PYL2DS_FL) highlighted unique activities compared to Arabidopsis AtPYL5. Mutagenic analysis showed Ta_PYL2DS_FL amino acid D180 as being a critical contributor to this selectivity. Subsequently, a virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to knockdown wheat Ta_PYL4AS_A (and similar) in planta, yielding plants with increased early stage resistance to FHB progression and decreased mycotoxin accumulation. Together these results confirm the existence of a family of ABA receptors in wheat and Brachypodium and present insight into factors modulating receptor function at the molecular level. That knockdown of Ta_PYL4AS_A (and similar) leads to early stage FHB resistance highlights novel targets for investigation in the future development of disease resistant crops.


Assuntos
Fusarium/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/química , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/classificação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Evolução Molecular , Inativação Gênica , Ligantes , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/química , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
11.
Sci Adv ; 2(8): e1600379, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551685

RESUMO

Proteins are synthesized in cells by ribosomes and, in parallel, prepared for folding or targeting. While ribosomal protein synthesis is progressing, the nascent chain exposes amino-terminal signal sequences or transmembrane domains that mediate interactions with specific interaction partners, such as the signal recognition particle (SRP), the SecA-adenosine triphosphatase, or the trigger factor. These binding events can set the course for folding in the cytoplasm and translocation across or insertion into membranes. A distinction of the respective pathways depends largely on the hydrophobicity of the recognition sequence. Hydrophobic transmembrane domains stabilize SRP binding, whereas less hydrophobic signal sequences, typical for periplasmic and outer membrane proteins, stimulate SecA binding and disfavor SRP interactions. In this context, the formation of helical structures of signal peptides within the ribosome was considered to be an important factor. We applied dynamic nuclear polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the conformational states of the disulfide oxidoreductase A (DsbA) signal peptide stalled within the exit tunnel of the ribosome. Our results suggest that the nascent chain comprising the DsbA signal sequence adopts an extended structure in the ribosome with only minor populations of helical structure.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas , Ribossomos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes , Ribossomos/genética
12.
Biochemistry ; 55(36): 5155-64, 2016 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27523384

RESUMO

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays many important roles in controlling plant development and physiology, from flowering to senescence. ABA is now known to exert its effects through a family of soluble ABA receptors, which in Arabidopsis thaliana has 13 members divided into three clades. Homologues of these receptors are present in other plants, also in relatively large numbers. Investigation of the roles of each homologue in mediating the diverse physiological roles of ABA is hampered by this genetic redundancy. We report herein the in vitro screening of a targeted ABA-like analogue library and identification of novel antagonist hits, including the analogue PBI686 that had been developed previously as a probe for identifying ABA-binding proteins. Further in vitro characterization of PBI686 and development of second-generation leads yielded both receptor-selective and universal antagonist hits. In planta assays in different species have demonstrated that these antagonist leads can overcome various ABA-induced physiological changes. While the general antagonists open up a hitherto unexplored avenue for controlling plant growth through inhibition of ABA-regulated physiological processes, the receptor-selective antagonist can be developed into chemical probes to explore the physiological roles of individual receptors.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/química
13.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 94(5): 459-470, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27565003

RESUMO

For almost a century, the wheat Lr34 gene has conferred durable resistance against fungal rust diseases. While sequence homology predicts a putative ATP binding cassette transporter, the molecules that are transported (allocrites) by the encoded LR34 variants, and any associated mechanism of resistance, remain enigmatic. Here, the in vitro transport characteristics of 2 naturally occurring Lr34 variants (that differ in their ability to mediate disease resistance; Lr34sus and Lr34res) are investigated. Initially, a method to express and purify recombinant LR34Sus and LR34Res pseudo half-molecules from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is described. Subsequently, a semi-targeted chlorophyll catabolite (CC) extraction from Lr34res-expressing wheat plants was performed based on previous reports highlighting increased accumulation of CCs in Lr34res-expressing flag leaves. Following partial biochemical characterization, this extract was applied to an LR34 in vitro proteoliposome transport assay. Mass spectroscopic analyses of transported metabolites revealed that LR34Sus imported a wheat metabolite of 618 Da and that the LR34Res transporter did not. While the identity of the LR34Sus transported metabolite remains to be confirmed and any allocrites of LR34Res remain to be detected, this work demonstrates that these variants have different allocrite preferences, a finding that may be relevant to the mechanism of disease resistance.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/imunologia
14.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0133033, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26197050

RESUMO

Abscisic acid ((+)-ABA) is a phytohormone involved in the modulation of developmental processes and stress responses in plants. A chemical proteomics approach using an ABA mimetic probe was combined with in vitro assays, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), x-ray crystallography and in silico modelling to identify putative (+)-ABA binding-proteins in crude extracts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was identified as a putative ABA-binding protein. Radiolabelled-binding assays yielded a Kd of 47 nM for (+)-ABA binding to spinach Rubisco, which was validated by ITC, and found to be similar to reported and experimentally derived values for the native ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) substrate. Functionally, (+)-ABA caused only weak inhibition of Rubisco catalytic activity (Ki of 2.1 mM), but more potent inhibition of Rubisco activation (Ki of ~ 130 µM). Comparative structural analysis of Rubisco in the presence of (+)-ABA with RuBP in the active site revealed only a putative low occupancy (+)-ABA binding site on the surface of the large subunit at a location distal from the active site. However, subtle distortions in electron density in the binding pocket and in silico docking support the possibility of a higher affinity (+)-ABA binding site in the RuBP binding pocket. Overall we conclude that (+)-ABA interacts with Rubisco. While the low occupancy (+)-ABA binding site and weak non-competitive inhibition of catalysis may not be relevant, the high affinity site may allow ABA to act as a negative effector of Rubisco activation.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/química , Ácido Abscísico/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo
15.
Phytochemistry ; 113: 96-107, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24726371

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone known to mediate numerous plant developmental processes and responses to environmental stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ABA acts, through a genetically redundant family of ABA receptors entitled Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor (RCAR)/Pyrabactin Resistant 1 (PYR1)/Pyrabactin Resistant-Like (PYL) receptors comprised of thirteen homologues acting in concert with a seven-member set of phosphatases. The individual contributions of A. thaliana RCARs and their binding partners with respect to specific physiological functions are as yet poorly understood. Towards developing efficacious plant growth regulators selective for specific ABA functions and tools for elucidating ABA perception, a panel of ABA analogs altered specifically on positions around the ABA ring was assembled. These analogs have been used to probe thirteen RCARs and four type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) and were also screened against representative physiological assays in the model plant Arabidopsis. The 1'-O methyl ether of (S)-ABA was identified as selective in that, at physiologically relevant levels, it regulates stomatal aperture and improves drought tolerance, but does not inhibit germination or root growth. Analogs with the 7'- and 8'-methyl groups of the ABA ring replaced with bulkier groups generally retained the activity and stereoselectivity of (S)- and (R)-ABA, while alteration of the 9'-methyl group afforded an analog that substituted for ABA in inhibiting germination but neither root growth nor stomatal closure. Further in vitro testing indicated differences in binding of analogs to individual RCARs, as well as differences in the enzyme activity resulting from specific PP2Cs bound to RCAR-analog complexes. Ultimately, these findings highlight the potential of a broader chemical genetics approach for dissection of the complex network mediating ABA-perception, signaling and functionality within a given species and modifications in the future design of ABA agonists.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Arabidopsis , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/agonistas , Ácido Abscísico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Abscísico/química , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Transdução de Sinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
FEBS Open Bio ; 4: 496-509, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24944884

RESUMO

Pyrabactin receptors (PYR) play a central role in abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction; they are ABA receptors that inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C). Molecular aspects contributing to increased basal activity of PYR against PP2C are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. An extensive series of MD simulations of the apo-form of mutagenized PYR1 as a homodimer and in complex with homology to ABA-insensitive 1 (HAB1) phosphatase are reported. In order to investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms mediating PYR1 activity, the MD data was analyzed by essential collective dynamics (ECD), a novel approach that allows the identification, with atomic resolution, of persistent dynamic correlations based on relatively short MD trajectories. Employing the ECD method, the effects of select mutations on the structure and dynamics of the PYR1 complexes were investigated and considered in the context of experimentally determined constitutive activities against HAB1. Approaches to rationally design constitutively active PYR1 constructs to increase PP2C inhibition are discussed.

17.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 9(6): e1003114, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23825939

RESUMO

The pyrabactin resistance 1 (PYR1)/PYR1-like (PYL)/regulatory component of abscisic acid (ABA) response (RCAR) proteins comprise a well characterized family of ABA receptors. Recent investigations have revealed two subsets of these receptors that, in the absence of ABA, either form inactive homodimers (PYR1 and PYLs 1-3) or mediate basal inhibition of downstream target type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs; PYLs 4-10) respectively in vitro. Addition of ABA has been shown to release the apo-homodimers yielding ABA-bound monomeric holo-receptors that can interact with PP2Cs; highlighting a competitive-interaction process. Interaction selectivity has been shown to be mediated by subtle structural variations of primary sequence and ligand binding effects. Now, the dynamical contributions of ligand binding on interaction selectivity are investigated through extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of apo and holo-PYR1 in monomeric and dimeric form as well as in complex with a PP2C, homology to ABA insensitive 1 (HAB1). Robust comparative interpretations were enabled by a novel essential collective dynamics approach. In agreement with recent experimental findings, our analysis indicates that ABA-bound PYR1 should efficiently bind to HAB1. However, both ABA-bound and ABA-extracted PYR1-HAB1 constructs have demonstrated notable similarities in their dynamics, suggesting that apo-PYR1 should also be able to make a substantial interaction with PP2Cs, albeit likely with slower complex formation kinetics. Further analysis indicates that both ABA-bound and ABA-free PYR1 in complex with HAB1 exhibit a higher intra-molecular structural stability and stronger inter-molecular dynamic correlations, in comparison with either holo- or apo-PYR1 dimers, supporting a model that includes apo-PYR1 in complex with HAB1. This possibility of a conditional functional apo-PYR1-PP2C complex was validated in vitro. These findings are generally consistent with the competitive-interaction model for PYR1 but highlight dynamical contributions of the PYR1 structure in mediating interaction selectivity suggesting added degrees of complexity in the regulation of the competitive-inhibition.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cinética , Ligantes , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica
18.
Mol Cell ; 41(3): 343-53, 2011 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21292166

RESUMO

In Escherichia coli, translocation of exported proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane is dependent on the motor protein SecA and typically begins only after synthesis of the substrate has already been completed (i.e., posttranslationally). Thus, it has generally been assumed that the translocation machinery also recognizes its protein substrates posttranslationally. Here we report a specific interaction between SecA and the ribosome at a site near the polypeptide exit channel. This interaction is mediated by conserved motifs in SecA and ribosomal protein L23, and partial disruption of this interaction in vivo by introducing mutations into the genes encoding SecA or L23 affects the efficiency of translocation by the posttranslational pathway. Based on these findings, we propose that SecA could interact with its nascent substrates during translation in order to efficiently channel them into the "posttranslational" translocation pathway.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/química , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Sequência Conservada , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Transporte Proteico , Canais de Translocação SEC , Proteínas SecA , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
J Biol Chem ; 285(11): 8302-15, 2010 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20071329

RESUMO

Snake venoms are a mixture of pharmacologically active proteins and polypeptides that have led to the development of molecular probes and therapeutic agents. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of a novel neurotoxin, haditoxin, from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra). Haditoxin exhibited novel pharmacology with antagonism toward muscle (alphabetagammadelta) and neuronal (alpha(7), alpha(3)beta(2), and alpha(4)beta(2)) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with highest affinity for alpha(7)-nAChRs. The high resolution (1.5 A) crystal structure revealed haditoxin to be a homodimer, like kappa-neurotoxins, which target neuronal alpha(3)beta(2)- and alpha(4)beta(2)-nAChRs. Interestingly however, the monomeric subunits of haditoxin were composed of a three-finger protein fold typical of curaremimetic short-chain alpha-neurotoxins. Biochemical studies confirmed that it existed as a non-covalent dimer species in solution. Its structural similarity to short-chain alpha-neurotoxins and kappa-neurotoxins notwithstanding, haditoxin exhibited unique blockade of alpha(7)-nAChRs (IC(50) 180 nm), which is recognized by neither short-chain alpha-neurotoxins nor kappa-neurotoxins. This is the first report of a dimeric short-chain alpha-neurotoxin interacting with neuronal alpha(7)-nAChRs as well as the first homodimeric three-finger toxin to interact with muscle nAChRs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Neurotóxicas de Elapídeos/química , Venenos Elapídicos/química , Elapidae , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/química , Receptores Nicotínicos/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Galinhas , Proteínas Neurotóxicas de Elapídeos/genética , Proteínas Neurotóxicas de Elapídeos/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Diafragma/efeitos dos fármacos , Diafragma/fisiologia , Dimerização , Venenos Elapídicos/genética , Venenos Elapídicos/farmacologia , Biblioteca Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Oócitos/fisiologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Conformação Proteica , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Xenopus , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7
20.
FEBS Lett ; 583(14): 2407-13, 2009 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19560460

RESUMO

Here we present a method to purify large amounts of highly pure and stably arrested ribosome-nascent chain complexes (RNCs) from Escherichia coli cells. It relies on the combined use of translation-arrest sequences to generate nascent polypeptides of specified length and subsequent tag purification of the RNCs. Moreover, we adapted this method for the in vivo production of RNCs with specific isotope labeling of the nascent chains for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. This method opens therefore possibilities for a wide range of biochemical and structural studies exploring conformations of nascent chains during the early steps of protein folding and targeting.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Ribossomos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Substâncias Macromoleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...