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BMJ Open ; 13(11): e080039, 2023 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38035746


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of school teachers from a rural district in a developing country towards children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). DESIGN: A population-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using probability proportionate to size cluster sampling. SETTING: This study was conducted in 21 government schools in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka. PARTICIPANTS: The study sample consisted of 458 teachers with a mean age of 41 completed years ranging from 24 to 59 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: We assessed knowledge, attitudes and sources of information on ADHD using the self-administered, validated Knowledge of Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (KADD), Teacher Attitudes Towards Inclusion Scale (TAIS) and the Perceived and Actual Sources of Information questionnaires. RESULTS: The median KADD score was 11 (IQR 8-14) and 45.5% (n=208) of participants lacked sufficient knowledge. Percentages of the correct answers, misconceptions and 'don't know' responses were 28.2%, 24.5% and 45.5%, respectively. The majority of teachers believed that the children with ADHD generally experience more problems in novel situations than in familiar situations (63.5%), a diagnosis of ADHD by itself makes a child eligible for placement in special education (61.1%), and children with ADHD do not often have difficulties organising tasks and activities (61.1%). Some participants (12%) stated that punishment would improve the outcome of the children with ADHD. The attitudes were positive with TAIS 1 and 2 median scores of 46 (IQR 36-58) and 49 (IQR 40-59). The majority of participants relied on informal knowledge gained through their personal experience in the classroom on ADHD (n=337, 76%). The majority of teachers (n=300, 67.7%) preferred to be educated through seminars. CONCLUSIONS: School teachers possess a positive attitude. However, they have poor knowledge and significant misconceptions regarding ADHD which may affect the identification and management.

Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Criança , Humanos , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Professores Escolares , Sri Lanka
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269888, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834567


OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology and the effect of asthma on pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women from a rural geography. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka enrolling all eligible pregnant women registered in the maternal care program. An interviewer-administered questionnaire-based symptom analysis and clinical assessment was conducted in the first and second trimesters. RESULTS: We recruited 3374 pregnant women aged 15-48 years at conception. Self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma prevalence was 6.6% (n = 223) with only 41.7% (n = 93) on regular medical follow-up for asthma. The prevalence of wheeze reduced from pre-pregnancy (67.0%) to the first (46.4%) and second trimesters (47.7%; p<0.01). Of the 73 asthmatic women who did not have wheeze in the last 3 months preceding pregnancy, new-onset wheeze was reported by 6(8.2%) and 12(16.4%) in the first and second trimester, respectively. Pregnant women who sought medical care for asthma in the private sector had a lower likelihood of developing new-onset wheeze in the first trimester (p = 0.03; unadjusted OR = 0.94;95%CI 0.89-0.99). Thirty-four (33.3%) pregnant women had at least one hospital admission due to exacerbation of wheeze during the first and second trimester. The prevalence of low birth weight (16.0%) was higher among pregnant asthmatic women. CONCLUSION: This study reports the high prevalence of asthma and asthma-associated pregnancy outcomes in women from a rural geography signifying the importance of targeted management.

Asma , Gestantes , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35188209


BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic childhood disease with a low diagnosis rate, causing poor quality of life, absenteeism, decreased school performance and significant healthcare cost. However, data on the prevalence of allergic rhinitis is sparse in preschoolers of rural geography, especially in developing countries. AIM: To describe the epidemiology of allergic rhinitis in preschoolers from a rural geography of a developing country. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka using the WHO-30 cluster methodology with probability proportionate to size sampling. The International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaire was used to assess symptomatology. RESULTS: The response rate was 91.8%, with 548 (51.7%) male and 512 (48.3%) female participants. The mean age was 4.4 (± 0.7) years. Allergic rhinitis was reported in 123 (11.6%; 95% CI 9.7-13.5), and eye symptoms were reported in 41 (3.9%; 95% CI 2.8-5.2) children. Activities of daily living were disturbed due to nasal symptoms in 113 (10.7%; 95% CI 8.8-12.5). Allergic rhinitis was independently associated with severe asthma (OR 6.26; 95% CI 3.54-11.06), sleeping on the floor (OR 4.79; 95% CI 1.33-17.25) and having cats in the households (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.18-2.91). Nasal symptoms were more common in January and August to October months. The standardized local highest monthly temperature, lowest monthly temperature, highest monthly humidity and dew point strongly predicted allergic rhinitis symptom exacerbation (F=4.8, p=0.036, adjusted R square=57.8%, VIF≤2.259, DW=2.1). CONCLUSIONS: Allergic rhinitis affects 1 in 10 preschool children of rural Sri Lanka. The factors associated and environmental factor model developed to predict symptom exacerbation could be used to prevent allergic rhinitis exacerbations.

Allergic rhinitis is a common childhood disease where children suffer nasal symptoms­sneezing, runny nose or blocked nose when the child does not have a cold or the flu­and itchy-watery eyes. We assessed 1060 preschool children from a rural district in Sri Lanka. We report that more than 1 in 10 preschool children from rural Sri Lanka had symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Children with severe asthma symptoms (a medical condition where the airways through which air flows in and out of the lungs become excessively narrow under certain conditions) or those sleeping on the floor or exposed to domestic cats had a higher likelihood of developing allergic rhinitis. These nasal symptoms were more common in January and August to October. We assessed the role of environmental weather factors on increased nasal symptoms during different weather conditions. The standardized highest monthly temperature, lowest monthly temperature, and highest monthly humidity and dew point were predictive of the number of children developing nasal symptoms in a given month in this rural geography.

Qualidade de Vida , Rinite Alérgica , Atividades Cotidianas , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários