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1.
Eur J Nutr ; 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520525

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of fresh fruit, dried fruit, raw vegetables, and cooked vegetables on type 2 diabetes (T2D) progression trajectory. METHODS: We included 429,886 participants in the UK Biobank who were free of diabetes and diabetes complications at baseline. Food groups were determined using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Outcomes were T2D incidence, complications, and mortality. Multi-state model was used to analyze the effects of food groups on T2D progression. RESULTS: During a follow-up of 12.6 years, 10,333 incident T2D cases were identified, of whom, 3961 (38.3%) developed T2D complications and 1169 (29.5%) died. We found that impacts of four food groups on T2D progression varied depending on disease stage. For example, compared to participants who ate less than one piece of dried fruit per day, the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for those who ate ≥ 2 pieces of dried fruit per day were 0.82 (0.77, 0.87), 0.88 (0.85, 0.92), and 0.86 (0.78, 0.95) for transitions from diabetes-free state to incident T2D, from diabetes-free state to total death, and from incident T2D to T2D complications, respectively. Higher intake of fresh fruit was significantly associated with lower risk of disease progression from diabetes-free state to all-cause death. Higher intake of raw and cooked vegetables was significantly associated with lower risks of disease progression from diabetes-free state to incident T2D and to total death. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that higher intake of fresh fruit, dried fruit, raw vegetables, and cooked vegetables could be beneficial for primary and secondary prevention of T2D.

2.
J Glob Health ; 14: 04032, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299774

RESUMO

*Joint senior authorship. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have observed the adverse effects of ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) on heart failure (HF). However, evidence regarding the impacts of specific PM2.5 components remains scarce. METHODS: We included 58 129 patients hospitalised for HF between 2013 and 2017 in 11 cities of Shanxi, China from inpatient discharge database. We evaluated exposure to PM2.5 and its components ((sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), organic matter (OM) and black carbon (BC)), along with meteorological factors using bilinear interpolation at each patients' residential address. We used multivariable logistic and linear regression models to assess the associations of these components with in-hospital case fatality, hospital expenses, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Increase equivalents to the interquartile range (IQR) in OM (odds ratio (OR) = 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.26) and BC (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.26) were linked to in-hospital case fatality. Per IQR increments in PM2.5, SO42-, NO3-, OM, and BC were associated with cost increases of 420.62 (95% CI = 285.75, 555.49), 221.83 (95% CI = 96.95, 346.71), 214.93 (95% CI = 68.66, 361.21), 300.06 (95% CI = 176.96, 423.16), and 303.09 (95% CI = 180.76, 425.42) CNY. Increases of 1 IQR in PM2.5, SO42-, OM, and BC were associated with increases in length of hospital stay of 0.10 (95% CI = 0.02, 0.19), 0.09 (95% CI = 0.02, 0.17), 0.10 (95% CI = 0.03, 0.17), and 0.16 (95% CI = 0.08, 0.23) days. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ambient SO42-, OM, and BC might be significant risk factors for HF, emphasising the importance of formulating customised guidelines for the chemical constituents of PM and controlling the emissions of the most dangerous components.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Tempo de Internação , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 460: 132372, 2023 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37633014

RESUMO

No previous study has examined the impact of air pollution on the cardiovascular disease (CVD) trajectory, especially among asthmatic subjects. Based on the UK Biobank cohort, we retrieved 292,227 adults free of asthma and CVD aged 37-73 years at recruitment (2006-2010). Annual mean concentrations of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) were assessed at each individual's addresses. We used multi-state models to estimate the associations of air pollution with the trajectory from healthy to incident asthma, subsequent CVD, and death. During a median follow-up of 11.7 years, a total of 6338 (2.2%) participants developed asthma, among which, 638 (10.1%) subsequently proceeded to CVD. We observed significant impacts of various air pollutants on the CVD dynamic transitions, with a more substantial effect of particulate matter pollutants than gaseous air pollutants. For example, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for per interquartile range increase in PM2.5 and PM10 were 1.28 (1.13, 1.44) and 1.27 (1.13, 1.43) for transitions from incident asthma to subsequent CVD. In conclusion, long-term air pollution exposure could affect the CVD trajectory. Distinguishing the effect of air pollutants on CVD transition stages has great significance for CVD health management and clinical prevention, especially among asthma patients.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 234: 113380, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, and arsenic has a certain effect in solid tumor chemotherapy. As the rate-limiting enzyme subunit of GSH synthesis, GCLC may be an important target for arsenic to induce apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to exert anti-tumor effect. NF-κB plays an important role in the occurrence and development of cervical cancer and can regulate the expression of GCLC. miR-21 is a potential biomarker of cervical cancer, which can induce apoptosis through ROS regulated the mitochondrial pathway of cells. However, the role of miR-21 in the mitochondrial pathway of cervical cancer cells induced by NaAsO2 through NF-κB/GCLC and GSH synthesis regulated oxidative stress is rarely reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether NaAsO2 might induce mitochondrial damage and apoptosis of cervical cancer cells through NF-κB/ miR-21 /GCLC induced oxidative stress, and play the anti-tumor role of arsenic as a potential drug for the treatment of cervical cancer. METHODS: Hela cells were treated with different concentrations of NaAsO2, D, L-Buthionine-(SR)-sulfoximine (BSO), IκBα inhibitor (BAY 11-7082) and miR-21 Inhibitor. CCK-8 assay, Western Blot, qRT PCR, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit with JC-1,2',7'-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescent probe and Annexin V-FITC were used to measure cell activity, GSH and ROS, mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential (ΔΨm), protein and mRNA expression of GCLC, GCLM, p65, IκBα, p-P65, p-I κBα, Bcl-2, BAX, Caspase3, cleaved-caspase3 and miR-21. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, with the gradual increasing dose of NaAsO2, cell viability was considerable reduced, and increased rate of apoptosis, intracellular GSH level was decreased significantly, ROS was increased, mitochondrial structure was damaged, mitochondrial membrane potential ΔΨm and Bcl2/BAX lowered, the expression of Caspase3 and cleaved-caspase3 were significantly increased, resulting in mitochondrial apoptosis. When Hela cells were treated with 15, 20, and 25 µmol/L NaAsO2, the mRNA and protein levels of GCLC and GCLM were reduced, the expression of p65 in the nucleus was increased, the expression of p-p65/p65, p-IκBα/IκBα and miR-21 were significantly increased. When BSO increased the inhibitory effect of NaAsO2 on GCLC, Compared with NaAsO2 group, the ΔΨm and protein of Bcl-2/BAX, caspase3 and cleaved-capsase3 were increased. When BAY 11-7082 combined with NaAsO2 co-treated, compared with the NaAsO2 group, the protein and mRNA expression of GCLC was increased, NaAsO2-increased expression level of miR-21 was suppressed, and the ΔΨm and cell viability were higher. In addition, compared with the combination of NaAsO2 and miR-21NC, the protein expression of GCLC was increased, the ΔΨm and cell viability reduction were alleviated by miR-21 Inhibitor combined with NaAsO2. CONCLUSION: NaAsO2 may lead to ROS accumulation in Hela cells and trigger mitochondrial apoptosis. The mechanism may be related to the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway and the promotion of miR-21 expression which leads to the inhibition of GCLC expression and the significant decrease of intracellular reductive GSH synthesis.

5.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 32(7): 477-487, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35272572

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Arsenic has been reported to induce apoptosis in malignant tumor cells. Therefore, it has been investigated as a chemotherapy. From a mechanistic standpoint, the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, mediated by GSK-3ß, plays an important role in tumor cell apoptosis. Nonetheless, the regulation of GSK-3ß by arsenic remains controversial. The study aimed to clarify the mechanism of GSK-3ß in arsenic-induced apoptosis of tumor cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 19 articles, which conducts the role of GSK-3ß in the process of arsenic-induced tumor cell apoptosis by the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Compared with that of control group, the expression of GSK-3ß (SMD= -0.92, 95% CI (-1.78, -0.06)), p-Akt (SMD= -5.46,95% CI (-8.67, -2.24)) were increased in the arsenic intervention group. Meanwhile, the combined treatment of arsenic and Akt agonists can inhibit p-GSK-3ß. Using the dose and time subgroup analysis, it was shown that the low-dose (<5 µmol/L) and sub-chronic (>24 h) arsenic exposure could inhibit the expression of p-Akt (P < 0.05). In the subgroup analysis of GSK-3ß sites, arsenic could inhibit p-Akt and GSK-3ß (Ser9) (SMD = -0.95, 95% CI (-1.56, -0.33)). There was a positive dose-response relationship between arsenic and p-GSK-3ß when the dose of arsenic was less than 8 µmol/L. The expression of Mcl-1 and pro-caspase-3 were decreased, while the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cleaved-caspase-3 increased significantly when arsenic stimulated GSK-3ß (Ser9) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The study revealed that arsenic could induce tumor cell apoptosis, by inhibiting p-Akt/GSK-3ß, and triggering the Mcl-1-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Arsênio , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Neoplasias , Arsênio/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Rev Environ Health ; 37(3): 451-461, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Malignant cell proliferation is one of the important mechanisms of arsenic poisoning. A large number of studies have shown that STAT3 plays an important role in cell malignant proliferation, but there are still many contradictions in the effect of arsenic on JAK2/STAT3. This study aims to explore the role of JAK2/STAT3 in arsenic-induced cell proliferation. METHODS: By taking normal cells as the research object and using Standard Mean Difference (SMD) as the effect size, meta-analysis was used to explore the effect of arsenic on JAK2/STAT3. Then, the dose-effect Meta was used to further clarify the dose-effect relationship of arsenic on JAK2/STAT3. RESULTS: Through meta-analysis, this study found that arsenic could promote the phosphorylation of STAT3 (SMD=4.21, 95%CI [1.05, 7.37]), and increase IL-6 and p-JAK2, Vimentin, VEGF expression levels, thereby inducing malignant cell proliferation. In addition, this study also found that arsenic exposure dose (<5 µmol m-3), time(<24 h) and cell type were important sources of heterogeneity in the process of exploring the effects of arsenic on p-STAT3, IL-6 and p-JAK2. Dose-effect relationship meta-analysis results showed that arsenic exposure significantly increased the expression level of IL-6. When the arsenic exposure concentration was less than 7 µmol m-3, the expression level of p-JAK2 upregulated significantly as the arsenic exposure concentration gradually increasing. Moreover, the expression level of p-STAT3 elevated significantly with the gradual increase of the arsenic concentration under 5 µmol m-3 of arsenic exposure, but the expression level of p-STAT3 gradually decreases when the concentration is greater than 5 µmol m-3. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to low dose of arsenic could promote the expression of JAK2/STAT3 and induce the malignant proliferation of cells through upregulating IL-6, and there was dose-effect relationship among them.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Arsênio/toxicidade , Proliferação de Células , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 549: 47-53, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662668

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of CX3CR1 on white matter injury, neurofunction, recognition, and expression of the CD36/15LO/NR4A1 signal in mice with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: CX3CR1GFP/GFP, CX3CR1GFP/+ and C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into 3 groups. We used a controlled cortical impact (CCI) to establish a TBI model and T2wt MRI to detect the TBI lesion. FA and DTI allowed for quantitative evaluation of the structural integrity of white matter tracts. Several behavior tests were used to investigate nerve function; a computer-based tracing system was used to trace and analyze dendrites and cell bodies of microglia and astrocytes in the peri-lesional brain areas. We also used RT-PCR and western blot to detect the effect of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis on CD36/15LO/NR4A1 signal. RESULTS: The fractional anisotropy (FA) at the corpus callosum area of brain was decreased at 3 days post TBI, the average lesion volume CX3CR1GFP/GFP group was increased, and the neurologic deficit scores of mice of Cx3Cr1GFP/+ and wild-type groups were significantly increased compared to Cx3Cr1GFP/GFP group mice. In the Corner turn test, TBI induced impairments in forelimb function that were more severe than Cx3Cr11GFP/+ and wild-type TBI mice. We operated the Y-maze at 3 days post-TBI and the NOR test at 28 days after TBI. There was a significant TBI effect induced in decreased percentage entries into the novel arm in Cx3Cr1GFP/+ and wild-type TBI mice, compared with Cx3Cr1GFP/GFP; Cx3Cr1GFP/+. Wild-type mice showed decreased exploration time in new objects compared with Cx3Cr1GFP/GFP. Those two behavior tests demonstrated that Cx3Cr1 knock-out increased the damage caused by TBI to memory. In the tail suspension and force swimming tests, there was no significant difference between those three groups. CD36 increased in Cx3Cr1GFP/GFP compared with the other three groups at 3 days after TBI. TBI inhibited the expression of NR4A1 at 3 d after damage. Cx3Cr1 deficiency can induce high expression of 15LO, this was unaffected by TBI. CONCLUSION: CX3CR1 deletion can enhance white matter injury. It increased the expression of CD36 and 15LO and increased expression of NR4A1. The lack of CX3CR1 can affect the recovery of nerve function.


Assuntos
Araquidonato 15-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/deficiência , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Substância Branca/lesões , Substância Branca/metabolismo , Animais , Anisotropia , Axônios/patologia , Comportamento Animal , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/metabolismo , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9414196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic is a toxic metalloid widely present in nature, and arsenic poisoning in drinking water is a serious global public problem. Glutathione is an important reducing agent that inhibits arsenic-induced oxidative stress and participates in arsenic methylation metabolism. Therefore, glutathione plays an important role in regulating arsenic toxicity. In recent years, a large number of studies have shown that arsenic can regulate glutathione synthesis in many ways, but there are many contradictions in the research results. At present, the mechanism of the effect of arsenic on glutathione synthesis has not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We will conduct a meta-analysis to illustrate the effects of arsenic on GSH synthesis precursors Glu, Cys, Gly, and rate-limiting enzyme γ-GCS in mammalian models, as well as the regulation of p38/Nrf2 of γ-GCS subunit GCLC, and further explore the molecular mechanism of arsenic affecting glutathione synthesis. RESULTS: This meta-analysis included 30 studies in vivo and 58 studies in vitro, among which in vivo studies showed that arsenic exposure could reduce the contents of GSH (SMD = -2.86, 95% CI (-4.45, -1.27)), Glu (SMD = -1.11, 95% CI (-2.20,-0.02)), and Cys (SMD = -1.48, 95% CI (-2.63, -0.33)), with no statistically significant difference in p38/Nrf2, GCLC, and GCLM. In vitro studies showed that arsenic exposure increased intracellular GSH content (SMD = 1.87, 95% CI (0.18, 3.56)) and promoted the expression of p-p38 (SMD = 4.19, 95% CI (2.34, 6.05)), Nrf2 (SMD = 4.60, 95% CI (2.34, 6.86)), and GCLC (SMD = 1.32, 95% CI (0.23, 2.41)); the p38 inhibitor inhibited the expression of Nrf2 (SMD = -1.27, 95% CI (-2.46, -0.09)) and GCLC (SMD = -5.37, 95% CI (-5.37, -2.20)); siNrf2 inhibited the expression of GCLC, and BSO inhibited the synthesis of GSH. There is a dose-dependent relationship between the effects of exposure on GSH in vitro. Conclusions. These indicate the difference between in vivo and in vitro studies of the effect of arsenic on glutathione synthesis. In vivo studies have shown that arsenic exposure can reduce glutamate and cysteine levels and inhibit glutathione synthesis, while in vitro studies have shown that chronic low-dose arsenic exposure can activate the p38/Nrf2 pathway, upregulate GCLC expression, and promote glutathione synthesis.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsênio/toxicidade , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos
9.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 198(2): 449-463, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124230

RESUMO

The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. We included 39 articles for meta-analysis. The results showed that low-dose exposure to arsenic (≤ 10 µmol/L) could promote the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylation-protein kinase B (p-AKT). High-dose arsenic exposure (> 10 µmol/L) promoted the expression of PI3K, HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and p38MAPK (P38). Acute arsenic exposure (< 24 h) promoted the expression of PI3K, HIF-1α, and VEGF. Chronic arsenic exposure (≥ 24 h) promoted the expression of PI3K, p-AKT, and P38. Moreover, for normal tissue-derived cells, arsenic could induce the increased expression of PI3K, p-AKT, HIF-1α, and VEGF. For tumor tissue-derived cells, arsenic could induce the expression of PI3K, p-AKT, and P38. We found that arsenic exposure could activate the PI3K/AKT pathway, further induce the high expression of HIF-1α, and then upregulate the levels of miRNA-21 and VEGF, promote the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and ultimately lead to malignant cell proliferation. Our findings indicated that arsenic could increase the expression of HIF-1α by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway and eventually induce malignant cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Arsênio/toxicidade , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
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