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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 101, 2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38238697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alabama is one of seven priority states for the National Ending the HIV Epidemic Initiative due to a disproportionate burden of rural infections. To reverse growing infection rates, the state must increase its focus on prevention efforts, including novel strategies. One such approach is to utilize dashboards that visualize real-time data on the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care continuum to assist in prioritizing evidence-based preventative care for those most vulnerable for HIV infection. METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods evaluation to ascertain stakeholders' perceptions on the acceptability, feasibility, appropriateness, and usability of a PrEP care continuum dashboard, as well as gain insight on ways to improve the activities necessary to sustain it. Clinicians, administrators, and data personnel from participating sites in Alabama completed surveys (n = 9) and participated in key informant interviews (n = 10) to better understand their experiences with the prototype data dashboard and to share feedback on how it can be modified to best fit their needs. RESULTS: Surveys and interviews revealed that all participants find the pilot data dashboard to be an acceptable, feasible, and appropriate intervention for clinic use. Overall, stakeholders find the pilot dashboard to be usable and helpful in administrative efforts, such as report and grant writing; however, additional refining is needed in order to reduce burden and optimize usefulness. Participants voiced concerns about their site's abilities to sustain the dashboard, including the lack of systematized PrEP protocols and limited funds and staff time dedicated to PrEP data collection, cleaning, and upload. CONCLUSION: Study participants from clinics providing HIV prevention services, including PrEP, in Alabama voiced interest in sustaining and refining a data dashboard that tracks clients across the PrEP care continuum. Despite viewing the platform itself as an acceptable, feasible, and appropriate intervention, participants agreed that efforts need to be focused on standardizing PrEP data collection protocols in order to ensure consistent, accurate data capture and that limited funds and staff time are barriers to the sustained implementation of the dashboard in practice.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 94(2S): S13-S20, 2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37707843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Centers for AIDS Research Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Pathway Initiative (CDEIPI) aims to establish programs to develop pathways for successful careers in HIV science among scholars from underrepresented racial and ethnic populations. This article describes cross-site evaluation outcomes during the first 18 months (July 2021-December 2022) across 15 programs. METHODS: The aims of the evaluation were to characterize participants, describe feasibility, challenges, and successes of the programs and provide a basis for the generalizability of best practices to Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) programs in the United States. Two primary data collection methods were used: a quarterly programmatic monitoring process and a centrally managed, individual-level, participant quantitative and qualitative survey. RESULTS: During the first year of evaluation data collection, 1085 racially and ethnically diverse scholars ranging from the high school to postdoctoral levels applied for CDEIPI programs throughout the United States. Of these, 257 (23.7%) were selected to participate based on program capacity and applicant qualifications. Participants were trained by 149 mentors, teachers, and staff. Of the N = 95 participants responding to the individual-level survey, 95.7% agreed or strongly agreed with statements of satisfaction with the program, 96.8% planned to pursue further education, and 73.7% attributed increased interest in a variety of HIV science topics to the program. Qualitative findings suggest strong associations between mentorship, exposure to scientific content, and positive outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide evidence to support the feasibility and impact of novel DEI programs in HIV research to engage and encourage racially and ethnically diverse scholars to pursue careers in HIV science.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Etnicidade , Minorias Étnicas e Raciais , Diversidade, Equidade, Inclusão , Estudantes
3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 94(2S): S5-S12, 2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37707842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to increase diversity among scientific investigators in the HIV research field to be more reflective of communities highly affected by the HIV epidemic. Thus, it is critical to promote the inclusion and advancement of early-stage scholars from racial and ethnic groups underrepresented in HIV science and medicine. METHODS: To widen the HIV research career pathway for early-stage scholars from underrepresented minority groups, the National Institutes of Health supported the development of the Centers for AIDS Research (CFAR) Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Pathway Initiative (CDEIPI). This program was created through partnerships between CFARs and Historically Black Colleges and Universities and other Minority Serving Institutions throughout the United States. RESULTS: Seventeen CFARs and more than 20 Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Serving Institutions have participated in this initiative to date. Programs were designed for the high school (8), undergraduate (13), post baccalaureate (2), graduate (12), and postdoctoral (4) levels. Various pedagogical approaches were used including didactic seminar series, intensive multiday workshops, summer residential programs, and mentored research internship opportunities. During the first 18 months of the initiative, 257 student scholars participated in CDEIPI programs including 150 high school, 73 undergraduate, 3 post baccalaureate, 27 graduate, and 4 postdoctoral students. CONCLUSION: Numerous student scholars from a wide range of educational levels, geographic backgrounds, and racial and ethnic minority groups have engaged in CDEIPI programs. Timely and comprehensive program evaluation data will be critical to support a long-term commitment to this unique training initiative.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Etnicidade , Diversidade, Equidade, Inclusão , Grupos Minoritários
4.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 94(2S): S99-S107, 2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37707856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using the Asset Bundle Model, we sought to understand the social support assets and needs of underrepresented minority (URM) high school, undergraduate, and graduate students. SETTING: Study participants were or had participated in health sciences pathway programs at Birmingham City Schools and/or the University of Alabama at Birmingham. METHODS: We took a concurrent mixed methods approach to conduct an environmental scan of health science pathway programs in the Birmingham, AL area. Four focus groups were conducted between November 2022 and January 2023, and a 225-item online survey was administered between November 4, 2022, and February 4, 2023. Both tools collected data from high school, undergraduate, and graduate students to examine key components of existing health care pathways programs for URMs and identify barriers and facilitators to successful implementation of such programs. RESULTS: Twenty-two students participated in the focus groups, and 168 individuals responded to the survey. Both focus group participants and interview respondents were primarily URMs (eg, 68.2% and 65.7% identified as Black or African American, respectively). Survey responses and focus group discussions showed that, overall, undergraduate and graduate students programs develop more robust identities as future health care professionals through friendships and institutional supports, expand their networks more broadly through mentorship, and feel more supported by family members in their academic endeavors than high school students. CONCLUSIONS: Health science pathway programs for URMs should facilitate and bolster social supports for students, especially those in high school, to enhance persistence through education and into the workforce.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Alabama , Estudantes , Escolaridade , Apoio Social
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(6): ofad257, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37351454

RESUMO

Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for people with HIV (PWH), irrespective of CD4 cell count, to improve their health and reduce the risk of transmission to sexual partners through long-term viral suppression. We identified risk factors for viral rebound among patients with a period of stable viral suppression to inform counseling and monitoring. Methods: We conducted a multisite, retrospective study of PWH with a 2-year period of sustained viral suppression in the United States using the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify characteristics independently associated with any viral rebound (viral load [VL] ≥200 copies/mL) and sustained viral rebound (VL ≥200 copies/mL followed by a VL that was also ≥200 copies/mL within 6 months), within 2 years of follow-up. Results: Among 3496 eligible patients with a 2-year period of sustained viral suppression, most (90%) continued to have viral suppression over 2 additional years; 10% experienced viral rebound, and 4% experienced sustained viral rebound. In multivariable analyses, Black race, current smoking, integrase strand transfer inhibitor use, and 5- to 9-year duration of ART were positively associated, and being age ≥50 years was negatively associated, with any viral rebound. Only current smoking and 5- to 9-year (vs 2- to 4-year) duration of ART were positively associated, and being age ≥60 years was negatively associated, with sustained viral rebound. Conclusions: Most people retained in clinical care and with HIV viral suppression on ART will have persistent viral suppression. However, some patients may benefit from additional treatment adherence support.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 937, 2023 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37226199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achieving early and sustained viral suppression (VS) following diagnosis of HIV infection is critical to improving outcomes for persons with HIV (PWH). The Deep South of the United States (US) is a region that is disproportionately impacted by the domestic HIV epidemic. Time to VS, defined as time from diagnosis to initial VS, is substantially longer in the South than other regions of the US. We describe the development and implementation of a distributed data network between an academic institution and state health departments to investigate variation in time to VS in the Deep South. METHODS: Representatives of state health departments, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the academic partner met to establish core objectives and procedures at the beginning of the project. Importantly, this project used the CDC-developed Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System (eHARS) through a distributed data network model that maintained the confidentiality and integrity of the data. Software programs to build datasets and calculate time to VS were written by the academic partner and shared with each public health partner. To develop spatial elements of the eHARS data, health departments geocoded residential addresses of each newly diagnosed individual in eHARS between 2012-2019, supported by the academic partner. Health departments conducted all analyses within their own systems. Aggregate results were combined across states using meta-analysis techniques. Additionally, we created a synthetic eHARS data set for code development and testing. RESULTS: The collaborative structure and distributed data network have allowed us to refine the study questions and analytic plans to conduct investigations into variation in time to VS for both research and public health practice. Additionally, a synthetic eHARS data set has been created and is publicly available for researchers and public health practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: These efforts have leveraged the practice expertise and surveillance data within state health departments and the analytic and methodologic expertise of the academic partner. This study could serve as an illustrative example of effective collaboration between academic institutions and public health agencies and provides resources to facilitate future use of the US HIV surveillance system for research and public health practice.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Universidades , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S.
7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1070420, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36936213

RESUMO

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) requires co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shares transmission routes with these viruses. Among 4,932 US women infected with or at-risk for HIV during 1994-2015, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity was more common in women with HIV (2.8% vs. 1.2%; p = 0.001); HDV was more common among participants enrolled during 2013-2015 (p = 0.0004) and those with resolved rather than active hepatitis C (1.9% vs. 0.5%; p = 0.02). Among HBsAg-positive women (n = 117), HDV antibody prevalence was 22% and did not vary by HIV status; HDV infection was associated with the presence of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis at enrollment (adjusted odds ratio, 5.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-22.29). Our results demonstrate the importance of HDV testing in HBV-infected US women.

8.
medRxiv ; 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36778309

RESUMO

Background: The U.S. Southeast has a high burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 disease. We used public data sources and community engagement to prioritize county selections for a precision population health intervention to promote a SARS-CoV-2 testing intervention in rural Alabama during October 2020 and March 2021. Methods: We modeled factors associated with county-level SARS-CoV-2 percent positivity using covariates thought to associate with SARS-CoV-2 acquisition risk, disease severity, and risk mitigation practices. Descriptive epidemiologic data were presented to scientific and community advisory boards to prioritize counties for a testing intervention. Results: In October 2020, SARS-CoV-2 percent positivity was not associated with any modeled factors. In March 2021, premature death rate (aRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07, 1.25), percent Black residents (aRR 1.00, 95% CI 1.00, 1.01), preventable hospitalizations (aRR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00, 1.06), and proportion of smokers (aRR 0.231, 95% CI 0.10, 0.55) were associated with average SARS-CoV-2 percent positivity. We then ranked counties based on percent positivity, case fatality, case rates, and number of testing sites using individual variables and factor scores. Top ranking counties identified through factor analysis and univariate associations were provided to community partners who considered ongoing efforts and strength of community partnerships to promote testing to inform intervention. Conclusions: The dynamic nature of SARS-CoV-2 proved challenging for a modelling approach to inform a precision population health intervention at the county level. Epidemiological data allowed for engagement of community stakeholders implementing testing. As data sources and analytic capacities expand, engaging communities in data interpretation is vital to address diseases locally.

9.
AIDS Behav ; 27(8): 2478-2487, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633763

RESUMO

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated rapid expansion of telehealth as part of healthcare delivery. This study compared HIV-related no-shows by visit type (in-person; video; telephone) during the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2020-September 2021) from the Data for Care Alabama project. Using all primary care provider visits, each visit's outcome was categorized as no-show or arrived. A logistic regression model using generalized estimating equations accounting for repeat measures in individuals and within sites calculated odds ratios (OR) and their accompanying 95% confidence interval (CI) for no-shows by visit modality. The multivariable models adjusted for sociodemographic factors. In-person versus telephone visits [OR (95% CI) 1.64 (1.48-1.82)] and in-person versus video visits [OR (95% CI) 1.53 (1.25-1.85)] had higher odds of being a no-show. In-person versus telephone and video no-shows were significantly higher. This may suggest success of telehealth visits as a method for HIV care delivery even beyond COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Telemedicina , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Alabama/epidemiologia
10.
AIDS Behav ; 27(5): 1514-1522, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322220

RESUMO

We compared retention in care outcomes between a pre-COVID-19 (Apr19-Mar20) and an early-COVID-19 (Apr20-Mar21) period to determine whether the pandemic had a significant impact on these outcomes and assessed the role of patient sociodemographics in both periods in individuals enrolled in the Data for Care Alabama project (n = 6461). Using scheduled HIV primary care provider visits, we calculated a kept-visit measure and a missed-visit measure and compared them among the pre-COVID-19 and early-COVID-19 periods. We used logistic regression models to calculated odds ratios (OR) and accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, individuals had lowers odds of high visit constancy [OR (95% CI): 0.85 (0.79, 0.92)] and higher odds of no-shows [OR (95% CI): 1.27 (1.19, 1.35)] during the early-COVID-19 period. Compared to white patients, Black patients were more likely to miss an appointment and transgender people versus cisgender women had lower visit constancy in the early-COVID-19 period.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Cooperação do Paciente , Feminino , Humanos , Alabama/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero
11.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 21: 23259582221144451, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36537589

RESUMO

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is underused in the southern United States (US), a region with high HIV incidence. Clinical decision support (CDS) tools could increase PrEP prescriptions. We explored barriers to PrEP delivery and views of CDS tools to identify refinements for implementation strategies for PrEP prescribing and PrEP CDS tools. We conducted focus groups with health care providers from two federally qualified health centers in Alabama and analyzed the results using rapid qualitative methods. Barriers to PrEP included providers' lack of training in PrEP, competing priorities and time constraints during clinical visits, concerns about side effects, and intensive workload. We identified refinements to the planned implementation strategies to address the barriers, including training all clinic staff in PrEP and having CDS PrEP alerts in electronic health records sent to all staff. Development and deployment of CDS tools in collaboration with providers has potential to increase PrEP prescribing in high-priority jurisdictions.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Alabama , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Pessoal de Saúde/educação
12.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(9): e35646, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many women with HIV (WWH) have suboptimal adherence to oral antiretroviral therapy (ART) due to multilevel barriers to HIV care access and retention. A long-acting injectable (LAI) version of ART was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2021 and has the potential to overcome many of these barriers by eliminating the need for daily pill taking. However, it may not be optimal for all WWH. It is critical to develop tools that facilitate patient-provider shared decision making about oral versus LAI ART modalities to promote women's adherence and long-term HIV outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study will develop and pilot test a web-based patient decision aid called i.ART+support (i.ARTs). This decision aid aims to support shared decision making between WWH and their providers, and help women choose between oral and LAI HIV treatment. METHODS: The study will occur in 3 phases. In phase 1, we will utilize a mixed methods approach to collect data from WWH and medical and social service providers to inform i.ARTs content. During phase 2, we will conduct focus groups with WWH and providers to refine i.ARTs content and develop the web-based decision aid. In phase 3, i.ARTs will be tested in a randomized controlled trial with 180 women in Miami, Florida, and assessed for feasibility, usability, and acceptability, as well as to evaluate the associations between receiving i.ARTs and viral suppression, ART pharmacy refills, and clinic attendance. RESULTS: This study was funded in March 2021. Columbia University's IRB approved the study protocols (approval number IRB-AAAT5314). Protocols for phase 1 interviews have been developed and interviews with service providers started in September 2021. We will apply for Clinicaltrials.gov registration prior to phase 3, which is when our first participant will be enrolled in the randomized controlled trial. This is anticipated to occur in April 2023. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to develop a web-based patient decision aid to support WWH choices between oral and LAI ART. Its strengths include the incorporation of both patient and provider perspectives, a mixed methods design, and implementation in a real-world clinical setting. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/35646.

13.
Implement Sci Commun ; 3(1): 85, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have a limited understanding on how to best integrate technologies to support antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence in routine HIV care. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with multidisciplinary providers caring for pregnant and postpartum people with HIV and asked providers about their perspectives on utilizing adherence support technologies such as text messages, video check-ins with providers or automated with facial recognition for directly-observed-therapy, signaling pill bottle, and signaling pill to support ART adherence. Each approach generated an adherence report. The interview instrument was guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and included questions on the implementation climate, barriers, and facilitators to the clinical integration of the adherence approach and strategies that could be used to maximize this integration. The order of adherence support technologies was randomized to minimize bias. We used a modified grounded theory to develop the coding structure and two coders applied the codebook to the transcripts after establishing strong inter-rater reliability with 20% of interviews (kappa = 0.82). RESULTS: Between March and December 2020, we conducted 26 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with providers who weighed several factors when considering each approach, including the approach's effect on patient-provider interaction in and outside of the clinic visit, timing for and duration of the approach's utility, threat of disclosing status, and added burden to providers (e.g., needing to act on generated information) or to patients (e.g., needing to hide the signaling pills, responding to text messages). Providers' most preferred approach was text-messages, and the least preferred was the signaling pill. Barriers to acceptability varied by approach and included perceived surveillance, violation of privacy, added time demand for providers, potential inaccuracy of the adherence data generated, and negative impact on the patient-provider relationship, particularly if the approach was perceived as coercive. Payers anticipated regulatory hurdles with unfamiliar approaches, particularly the signaling pill and signaling pill bottle. Facilitators included strengthened therapeutic alliance, predictable reminder mechanisms, and options for customization according to patient preference. CONCLUSIONS: Our study elucidates barriers and facilitators to integrating technology-based adherence support approaches in clinical care to support adherence of pregnant and postpartum people with HIV.

14.
Am J Public Health ; 112(10): 1399-1403, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952331

RESUMO

Rural communities are often underserved by public health testing initiatives in Alabama. As part of the National Institutes of Health's Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics‒Underserved Populations initiative, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, along with community partners, sought to address this inequity in COVID-19 testing. We describe the participatory assessment, selection, and implementation phases of this project, which administered more than 23 000 COVID-19 tests throughout the state, including nearly 4000 tests among incarcerated populations. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(10):1399-1403. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306985).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , População Rural , Alabama , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Populações Vulneráveis
15.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(S1): S161-S166, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ending the HIV Epidemic initiatives provide a unique opportunity to use implementation scientific methods to guide implementation of evidence-based practices and evaluate their effectiveness in real-word settings to improve HIV inequities. This report demonstrates our use of Implementation Mapping (IM) to engage participating county health departments, AIDS services organizations, and community-based organizations in the development of a data dashboard to track the PrEP care continuum for the state of Alabama, an Ending the HIV Epidemic hotspot. METHODS: Our project is guided by an overarching Implementation Research Logic Model and by the tenets of IM, a 5-step approach to support researchers and community partners in the systematic selection, development, and/or tailoring of implementation strategies to increase program adoption, implementation, and sustainability. RESULTS: Step 1, the needs assessment, established baseline data elements for a PrEP care continuum for participating community-based organizations, AIDS services organizations, and the state health department as well as investigated their desire for data visualization and willingness to share data to inform initiatives to improve PrEP access. Step 2 identified adaptability, relative advantage, and complexity as determinants of intervention adoption. Based on findings from steps 1 and 2, the investigators and community partners determined to move forward with development of a data dashboard. Step 3 identified the following implementation strategies to support a dashboard, including development of educational materials, synchronous and asynchronous training, technical assistance, and improved record systems. DISCUSSION: Using IM supports community-engaged researchers in designing strategies to end the epidemic that are context-specific and more impactful in real-word settings.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Alabama , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos
16.
AIDS Care ; 34(6): 762-770, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749465

RESUMO

In Myanmar, an Asian country with one of the highest HIV-1 prevalence rates, counseling prior to initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) is standard care, either by a healthcare worker (standard counselor, SC) or trained counselor who is also living with HIV (peer counselor, PC). PC is commonly utilized in Myanmar and other resource-limited settings. However, its benefit over SC is unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of people living with HIV (PLWH), who completed either only PC or only SC before treatment initiation across four cities in Myanmar. Participants were evaluated for HIV knowledge, stigma, antiretroviral adherence, barriers to care, social support satisfaction and attitudes regarding both counseling processes. Bivariate analyses and multivariable mixed effects modeling were conducted to compare differences in these measures among PC and SC participants. Among 1006 participants (49% PC; 51% SC), 52% were females and median age was 37 years in those receiving PC and 40 years in those receiving SC. More than 70% of participants in both groups achieved up to grade school education. The average duration since HIV diagnosis was 4.6 years for PC and 5.7 years for SC participants. HIV knowledge and attitudes regarding counseling were good in both groups and more PC participants credited their HIV counselor for knowledge (75% vs 63%, p < 0.001). Compared to SC, PC participants had lower enacted stigma (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 0.75, Confidence Interval (CI) [0.65, 0.86]), mean internalized stigma (-0.24, CI [-0.34, -0.14]), and risk of antiretroviral therapy non-adherence (Odds Ratio 0.59, CI [0.40, 0.88]), while reporting higher levels of barriers to care (9.63, CI [8.20, 11.75]). Our findings demonstrate potential benefits of PC compared to SC, and support the utilization of PC to enhance HIV health outcomes within the unique societal and geographical context of Myanmar, and possibly beyond.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Aconselhamento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Mianmar
17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 89(1): 19-26, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542090

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding social and structural barriers that determine antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence can improve care. Assessment of such factors is limited in Myanmar, a country with high HIV prevalence and increasing number of people living with HIV initiating ART. METHODS: Questionnaires were administered to adults with HIV across 4 Myanmar cities to estimate adherence and its potential determinants, including HIV knowledge, social support, barriers to care, enacted and internalized stigma, and engagement in peer-to-peer HIV counseling (PC). Associations were determined using logistic mixed-effects modeling. RESULTS: Among 956 participants, the mean age was 39 years, 52% were female, 36% had CD4 <350 cells/mm3, and 50% received pre-ART PC. Good adherence was reported by 74% of participants who had better HIV knowledge than those reporting nonadherence. Among nonadherent, 44% were forgetful and 81% were careless about taking ART. Among all participants, most (53%) were very satisfied with their social support and 79% reported lack of financial resources as barriers to care. Participants most frequently reported being viewed differently by others (30%) and feeling as if they were paying for past karma or sins because of their HIV diagnosis (66%). Enacted stigma (odds ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 0.92, P < 0.01) and internalized stigma (odds ratio 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.56 to 0.95, P = 0.023) were associated with worse adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Increased self-reported ART adherence in Myanmar is associated with less enacted and internalized stigma. These findings suggest the benefit of developing and promoting adherence interventions, which are focused on mitigating HIV-related stigma in the county.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Estigma Social
18.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(12): e30398, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly a quarter of the 1.1 million individuals with HIV in the United States are women. Racial and ethnic minority women in the Southern United States are disproportionately impacted. Reproductive-age women with HIV are prone to poor HIV outcomes but remain underrepresented in HIV research. We will answer contemporary questions related to the health outcomes in this population by enrolling a prospective cohort of reproductive-age women with and without HIV in the Southern United States. OBJECTIVE: The Study of Treatment and Reproductive Outcomes (STAR) will enroll and retain 2000 reproductive-age women with and without HIV. The STAR will leverage the infrastructure of the US-based Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS)/Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Combined Cohort Study, comprising the WIHS (a cohort of women with and at risk for HIV, which began in 1993), and the MACS (a cohort of gay and bisexual men with and at risk for HIV, which began in 1984). Although the advancing age of the participants enrolled in the MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study provides an opportunity to address the questions related to HIV and aging, the research questions pertinent to the reproductive years must also be addressed. The STAR will conduct high-priority scientific research in key areas with the overall aim of addressing the unique needs of reproductive-age women with HIV. METHODS: The STAR is a prospective, observational cohort study that will be conducted at 6 sites in the United States-Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Jackson, Mississippi; Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Miami, Florida; and Washington, District of Columbia. Visits will occur semiannually for 2 years, with additional visits for up to 5 years. At each visit, the participating women will complete a structured interview for collecting key demographic, psychosocial, and clinical variables, and undergo biospecimen collection for laboratory testing and repositing (blood, urine, hair, vaginal, anal, and oral specimens). Pregnant women and infants will undergo additional study assessments. The initial scientific focus of the STAR is to understand the roles of key social determinants of health, depression, reproductive health, and oral health on HIV and pregnancy outcomes across the reproductive life span. RESULTS: Enrollment in the STAR commenced in February 2021 and is ongoing. CONCLUSIONS: Through in-depth, longitudinal data and biospecimen collection, the newly initiated STAR cohort will create a platform to answer scientific questions regarding reproductive-age women with and without HIV. STAR will be uniquely positioned to enable investigators to conduct high-impact research relevant to this population. Building on the legacy of the MACS and WIHS cohorts, the STAR is designed to foster multidisciplinary collaborations to galvanize scientific discoveries to improve the health of reproductive-age women with HIV and ameliorate the effects of the HIV epidemic in this population in the United States.

20.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 19: 2325958220919290, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351155

RESUMO

Estimating the population with undiagnosed HIV (PUHIV) is the most methodologically challenging aspect of evaluating 90-90-90 goals. The objective of this review is to discuss assumptions, strengths, and shortcomings of currently available methods of this estimation. Articles from 2000 to 2018 on methods to estimate PUHIV were reviewed. Back-calculation methods including CD4 depletion and test-retest use diagnosis CD4 count, or previous testing history to determine likely infection time thus, providing an estimate of PUHIV for previous years. Biomarker methods use immunoassays to differentiate recent from older infections. Statistical techniques treat HIV status as missing data and impute data for models of infection. Lastly, population surveys using HIV rapid testing most accurately calculates the current HIV prevalence. Although multiple methods exist to estimate the number of PUHIV, the appropriate method for future applications depends on multiple factors, namely data availability and population of interest.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Estatística como Assunto/métodos , Doenças não Diagnosticadas/epidemiologia , Nações Unidas , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Análise de Dados , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência
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