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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809298

RESUMO

Research demonstrates that stigma and resilience influence transgender peoples' healthcare use. Less is known about transgender Latinas in the U.S. South who face multilevel barriers to healthcare access. We used baseline data from the ChiCAS intervention study. Using logistic regression, we examined how stigma (perceived discrimination related to gender identity, race/ethnicity, sexual behavior and perceived documentation status and internalized transphobia), and resilience (ethnic group pride and social support) are associated with two healthcare outcomes (use of routine medical care and medically supervised gender-affirming hormones). We also explored barriers to accessing both types of care. After removing 13 participants with missing data, our sample size was 131 transgender Latinas in the U.S. South. Most participants (74.8%, n = 98) received routine medical care in the past year and 57.3% (n = 75) had ever received medically supervised gender-affirming hormones. Reports of discrimination were highest for gender identity and documentation status. Race/ethnicity-based discrimination was positively associated with accessing routine medical care in the past year (OR = 1.94, p = 0.048). Having more social support was positively associated with care (routine care: OR = 3.48, p = 0.002 and gender-affirming hormones: OR = 2.33, p = 0.003). The most commonly reported barriers to accessing both types of care included cost, insurance, and not knowing where to go. Findings highlight the importance of social support for healthcare use among transgender Latinas. Social support may be especially important when considering the unique experiences of discrimination faced by transgender Latinas in the U.S. South.

2.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 212: 111608, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574894

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine, among youth and young adults (YYA) with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the association of household food insecurity (HFI) with: 1) HbA1c and 2) episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and severe hypoglycemia. METHODS: HFI was assessed using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module in SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth participants with T1D between 2016 and 2019. Linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, diabetes duration, sex, race, ethnicity, clinic site, parent/participant education, household income, health insurance, and diabetes technology use. RESULTS: Of 1830 participants (mean age 20.8 ± 5.0 years, 70.0 % non-Hispanic White), HbA1c was collected for 1060 individuals (mean HbA1c 9.2 % ± 2.0 %). The prevalence of HFI was 16.4 %. In the past 12 months, 18.2 % and 9.9 % reported an episode of DKA or severe hypoglycemia, respectively. Compared to participants who were food secure, HFI was associated with a 0.33 % (95 % CI 0.003, 0.657) higher HbA1c level. Those with HFI had 1.58 (95 % CI 1.13, 2.21) times the adjusted odds of an episode of DKA and 1.53 (95 % CI 0.99, 2.37) times the adjusted odds of an episode of severe hypoglycemia as those without HFI. CONCLUSIONS: HFI is associated with higher HbA1c levels and increased odds of DKA in YYA with T1D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Insegurança Alimentar , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Masculino , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/metabolismo , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Cetoacidose Diabética/epidemiologia , Cetoacidose Diabética/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência
3.
J Nutr ; 154(3): 1050-1057, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) was not tailored to people with chronic diseases or young adults (YAs). OBJECTIVES: We aim to evaluate whether the 18-item HFSSM meets assumptions underlying the scale among YAs with diabetes. METHODS: Data from 1887 YAs with youth-onset type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes were used from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, 2016-2019, and on 925 who returned for the SEARCH Food Security Cohort Study, 2018-2021, all of whom had completed the HFSSM. Guttman scaling properties (affirmation of preceding less severe items) and Rasch model properties (probability to answer an item based on difficulty level) were assessed. RESULTS: Items 3 (balanced meals) and 6 (eating less than one should) were affirmed more frequently than expected (nonmonotonic response pattern). At 1.2%-3.5%, item nonresponse was rare among type 1 diabetes but higher among type 2 diabetes (range: 3.1%-10.6%). Items 9 (not eating the whole day) and 3 did not meet the Guttman scaling properties. Rasch modeling revealed that item 3 had the smallest difficulty parameter. INFIT indices suggested that some responses to item 3 did not match the pattern in the rest of the sample. Classifying household food insecurity (HFI) based on items 1 and 2 compared with other 2-item combinations, including item 3, revealed a substantial undercount of HFI ranging from 5% to 8% points. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the HFSSM among YAs with diabetes could potentially result in biased HFI reporting and affect estimates of HFI prevalence in this population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Estudos de Coortes , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Segurança Alimentar
4.
J Nutr ; 154(2): 543-553, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38072157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typically, child exposure to food insecurity is assessed by caregiver reports of household food security. Child report has the potential for greater accuracy because it pertains only to the child whose experiences may differ from caregiver reports. OBJECTIVE: We assessed if adolescent-reported food insecurity was associated with levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), acute diabetes-related complications, depressive symptoms, and disordered eating behaviors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, independently from household food security. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis of the multicenter SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Cohort Study (phase 4, 2016-2019) including 601 adolescents aged 10-17 y with type 1 diabetes and their caregivers, household food security, and adolescent-reported food security were assessed using the 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module and the 6-item Child Food Security Assessment questionnaire. Age-stratified (10-13 and 14-17) regression models were performed to estimate independent associations, adjusting for sociodemographics, clinical factors, and household food security. RESULTS: Food insecurity was reported by 13.1% (n = 79) of adolescents and 15.6% (n = 94) of caregivers. Among adolescent-caregiver dyads, 82.5% (n = 496) of reports were concordant and 17.5% (n = 105) discordant, Cohen's κ= 0.3. Adolescent-reported food insecurity was not independently associated with HbA1c, diabetic ketoacidosis, and severe hypoglycemia, including in age-stratified analyses. Adolescent-reported food insecurity was independently associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms [odds ratio (OR): 3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 10.3] and disordered eating behaviors (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4, 4.6) compared with adolescents reporting food security; these associations remained in both age groups for disordered eating behaviors and in the older group for depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes may experience food insecurity differently than caregivers. Adolescent-reported food insecurity was independently associated with depressive symptoms and disordered eating behaviors and thus may be an important attribute to assess in addition to household food security in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hemoglobina Falciforme , Saúde Mental , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Autorrelato , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Segurança Alimentar
5.
J Phys Act Health ; 21(1): 77-84, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37922896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is essential for optimal diabetes management. Household food insecurity (HFI) may negatively affect diabetes management behaviors. The purpose of this study was to cross-sectionally examine the association between HFI and PA in youth and young adults (YYA) with type 1 (N = 1998) and type 2 (N = 391) diabetes from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. METHODS: HFI was measured with the US Household Food Security Survey Module. PA was measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form. Walking, moderate-intensity PA (excluding walking), vigorous-intensity PA, moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA, and total PA were estimated as minutes per week, while time spent sitting was assessed in minutes per day. All were modeled with median regression. Meeting PA guidelines or not was modeled using logistic regression. RESULTS: YYA with type 1 diabetes who experienced HFI spent more time walking than those who were food secure. YYA with type 2 diabetes who experienced HFI spent more time sitting than those who were food secure. CONCLUSIONS: Future research should examine walking for leisure versus other domains of walking in relation to HFI and use objective PA measures to corroborate associations between HFI and PA in YYA with diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Insegurança Alimentar
6.
Am J Public Health ; 114(1): 68-78, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38091558

RESUMO

Objectives. To evaluate Chicas Creando Acceso a la Salud (Girls Creating Access to Health; ChiCAS), a Spanish-language, small-group intervention designed to increase preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use, consistent condom use, and medically supervised gender-affirming hormone therapy use among Spanish-speaking transgender Latinas who have sex with men. Methods. Participants were 144 HIV-negative Spanish-speaking transgender Latinas, aged 18 to 59 years, living in North and South Carolina. From July 2019 to July 2021, we screened, recruited, and randomized them to the 2-session ChiCAS intervention or the delayed-intervention waitlist control. Participants completed assessments at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Follow-up retention was 94.4%. Results. At follow-up, relative to control participants, ChiCAS participants reported increased PrEP use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.57, 13.7; P < .006). However, ChiCAS participants did not report increased use of condoms or medically supervised gender-affirming hormone therapy. ChiCAS participants reported increases in knowledge of HIV (P < .001), sexually transmitted infections (P < .001), and gender-affirming hormone therapy (P = .01); PrEP awareness (P < .001), knowledge (P < .001), and readiness (P < .001); condom use skills (P < .001); and community attachment (P < .001). Conclusions. The ChiCAS intervention was efficacious in increasing PrEP use among Spanish-speaking, transgender Latinas in this trial. (Am J Public Health. 2024;114(1):68-78. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2023.307444).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Pessoas Transgênero , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , South Carolina , Hormônios , Homossexualidade Masculina
7.
Health Commun ; : 1-12, 2023 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37937858

RESUMO

Adolescents and young adults continue to use e-cigarettes, and communication campaigns are needed to decrease use among these populations. We developed and tested a point-of-sale communication campaign focused on e-cigarette chemical exposure. We developed messages based on formative research and tested them (versus text-only messages) in a nationally-representative online survey among adolescents and young adults (16-25) (Phase 1). Based on survey findings, we selected a message focused on nicotine and brain development for the point-of-sale trial (Phase 2). We then conducted a cluster-randomized trial at six gas stations with convenience stores, randomly assigned to the intervention (messages displayed) or no message control condition. We conducted intercept surveys with repeated cross-sectional samples of 50 participants (ages 16-25) per store, at baseline and a four-week follow-up. Phase 1 included 1,636 participants in the online study. Intervention messages were rated as more attention grabbing than plain text messages (p < .05), though were rated similarly on other outcomes. Exposure to intervention messages resulted in larger changes from pre- to posttest for beliefs about addiction and relative harms versus cigarettes (p < .05). Phase 2 included 586 participants in the point-of-sale study. Real-world campaign exposure was low (31.8%), and no differences were found between conditions. E-cigarette prevention messages focused on nicotine's impact on brain development show promise. However, garnering attention for communication campaigns in saturated point-of-sale environments, often dominated by tobacco advertising, is challenging. Future efforts should utilize additional communication channels to directly target adolescents and young adults.

8.
Clin Diabetes ; 41(4): 510-517, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37849515

RESUMO

Successful transition from a pediatric to adult diabetes care provider is associated with reduced ambulatory diabetes care visits and increased acute complications. This study aimed to determine whether the degree of independence in diabetes care and the rate of acute complications after transition to adult diabetes care were associated with individuals' student or employment status. Nonstudents were found to be less likely than students to be independent with diabetes care, and employed nonstudents were at lower risk of diabetic ketoacidosis than unemployed nonstudents. Additional support may be needed for young adults who are not students or are unemployed to improve independence and reduce the risk for acute complications.

9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 250: 110895, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37517263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify distinct trajectories of tobacco, cannabis, and their co-use among African Americans, and to investigate whether these patterns were associated with polygenic risk scores (PRS) for tobacco and cannabis use. METHOD: Participants (N=428 participants; 50.9% male) were initially recruited for an elementary school-based prevention in a Mid-Atlantic city when they were in first grade. From ages 14-26, participants reported on their frequency of tobacco and cannabis use in the past year during annual assessments. DNA was collected from participants at age 21. PRS for smoking heaviness (i.e., cigarettes per day) and lifetime cannabis use were created based on genome-wide association study results derived from Liu et al. (2019) and Pasman et al. (2018), respectively. RESULTS: We identified five distinct trajectories of tobacco and cannabis co-use, including (1) Low Tobacco and Cannabis Use, (2) Adolescent Limited Tobacco and Cannabis Use, (3) Experimental Cannabis, Young Adult Increasing Tobacco, (4) Experimental Tobacco, Young Adult Increasing Cannabis, and (5) High, Chronic Tobacco and Cannabis Use. Compared to the Low Tobacco and Cannabis Use subgroup, individuals in the High, Chronic Tobacco and Cannabis Use subgroup had greater PRS for smoking heaviness, and individuals in the Experimental Cannabis, Young Adult Increasing Tobacco subgroup had higher PRS for lifetime cannabis use. CONCLUSIONS: Polygenic risk for lifetime cannabis use and smoking heaviness is associated with the developmental progression of tobacco and cannabis co-use among African Americans, furthering knowledge on the etiology of co-use in this population.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Uso da Maconha , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Negro ou Afro-Americano/genética , Cannabis , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/etnologia , Uso da Maconha/genética , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/genética
10.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 48(10): 1436-1445, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37349473

RESUMO

Brain imaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) have shown that long-term cocaine use is associated with lower levels of dopamine (DA) D2/D3 receptors (D2/D3R); less consistent are the effects on DA transporter (DAT) availability. However, most studies have been conducted in male subjects (humans, monkeys, rodents). In this study, we used PET imaging in nine drug-naïve female cynomolgus monkeys to determine if baseline measures of DAT, with [18F]FECNT, and D2/D3R availability, with [11C]raclopride, in the caudate nucleus, putamen and ventral striatum were associated with rates of cocaine self-administration and if these measures changed during long-term (~13 months) cocaine self-administration and following time-off (3-9 months) from cocaine. Cocaine (0.2 mg/kg/injection) and 1.0 g food pellets were available under a multiple fixed-interval (FI) 3-min schedule of reinforcement. In contrast to what has been observed in male monkeys, baseline D2/D3R availability was positively correlated with rates of cocaine self-administration only during the first week of exposure; DAT availability did not correlate with cocaine self-administration. D2/D3R availability decreased ~20% following cumulative intakes of 100 and 1000 mg/kg cocaine; DAT availability did not significantly change. These reductions in D2/D3R availability did not recover over 9 months of time-off from cocaine. To determine if these reductions were reversible, three monkeys were implanted with osmotic pumps that delivered raclopride for 30 days. We found that chronic treatment with the D2/D3R antagonist raclopride increased D2/D3R availability in the ventral striatum but not in the other regions when compared to baseline levels. Over 13 months of self-administration, tolerance did not develop to the rate-decreasing effects of self-administered cocaine on food-reinforced responding, but number of injections and cocaine intake significantly increased over the 13 months. These data extend previous findings to female monkeys and suggest sex differences in the relationship between D2/D3R availability related to vulnerability and long-term cocaine use.


Assuntos
Cocaína , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Haplorrinos , Animais , Feminino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina , Receptores de Dopamina D3 , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Cocaína/efeitos adversos , Autoadministração , Racloprida
11.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 225: 173545, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37004977

RESUMO

Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is a significant problem worldwide, with no FDA-approved treatments. Epidemiological data indicate that only about 17 % of people that use cocaine will meet DSM criteria for CUD. Thus, the identification of biomarkers predictive of eventual cocaine use may be of great value. Two potentially useful predictors of CUD are social hierarchies in nonhuman primates and delay discounting. Both social rank and preference for a smaller, immediate reinforcer relative to a larger, delayed reinforcer have been predictive of CUD. Therefore, we wanted to determine if there was also a relationship between these two predictors of CUD. In the present study, monkeys cocaine-naive responded under a concurrent schedule of 1- vs. 3-food pellets and delivery of the 3-pellet option was delayed. The primary dependent variable was the indifference point (IP), which is the delay that results in 50 % choice for both options. In the initial determination of IP, there were no differences based on sex or social rank of the monkeys. When the delays were redetermined after ~25 baseline sessions (range 5-128 sessions), dominant females and subordinate males showed the largest increases in IP scores from the first determination to the second. Because 13 of these monkeys had prior PET scans of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR), we examined the relationship between KOR availability and IP values and found that the change in IP scores from the first to the second determination significantly negatively predicted average KOR availability in most brain regions. Future studies will examine acquisition to cocaine self-administration in these same monkeys, to determine if IP values are predictive of vulnerability to cocaine reinforcement.


Assuntos
Cocaína , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Macaca fascicularis , Receptores Opioides kappa , Comportamento de Escolha , Cocaína/farmacologia , Fenótipo , Autoadministração , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
12.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 123(8): 1162-1172.e1, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36990427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household food insecurity is associated with poor dietary intake in the general population, but little is known about this association in persons with diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We examined the degree of adherence to the dietary reference intakes and 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans overall and according to food security status and diabetes type among youth and young adults (YYA) with youth-onset diabetes. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND SETTING: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study includes 1,197 YYA with type 1 diabetes (mean age = 21 ± 5 years) and 319 YYA with type 2 diabetes (25 ± 4 years). Participants (or parents if younger than age 18 years) completed the US Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey Module, wherein ≥3 affirmations indicate food insecurity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire and compared with age- and sex-specific dietary reference intakes for 10 nutrients and dietary components (calcium; fiber; magnesium; potassium; sodium; vitamins C, D, and E; added sugar; and saturated fat). STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Median regression models controlled for sex- and type-specific means for age, diabetes duration, and daily energy intake. RESULTS: Prevalence of guideline adherence was overarchingly poor, with <40% of participants meeting recommendations for eight of 10 nutrients and dietary components; however, higher adherence (>47%) was observed for vitamin C and added sugars. YYA with type 1 diabetes who were food insecure were more likely to meet recommendations for calcium, magnesium, and vitamin E (P < 0.05), and less likely for sodium (P < 0.05) than those with food security. In adjusted models, YYA with type 1 diabetes who were food secure had closer median adherence to sodium (P = 0.002) and fiber (P = 0.042) guidelines than those food insecure. No associations were observed in YYA with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity is associated with lesser adherence to fiber and sodium guidelines in YYA with type 1 diabetes, which may lead to diabetes complications and other chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Magnésio , Cálcio , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Dieta , Vitaminas , Ácido Ascórbico , Cálcio da Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Insegurança Alimentar , Sódio
13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 160: 1-7, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36764195

RESUMO

This study used data from a longitudinal prevention study in an urban cohort to examine associations between nicotine dependence, alcohol, and cannabis use disorder and disorder criteria at age 20, with opioid use disorder (OUD) incidence or criteria onset by age 30. The study sample included 1408 participants (57.5% female, 72.5% African American) drawn from two cohorts of participants in a mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. as part of a series of randomized controlled trials of elementary school-based universal prevention interventions. Lifetime cannabis use disorder (CUD), alcohol use disorder (AUD; both DSM-IV), and current nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, FTND) assessed at age 20 were used to predict (1) DSM-IV lifetime OUD at age 30, and (2) OUD criteria between ages 20 and 30 in multivariable logistic regression models. Covariates for all analyses included sociodemographics (sex, race, and free/reduced-priced lunch status), community disadvantage, and intervention status. Nicotine dependence (FTND≥3) at age 20 predicted age 30 DSM-IV lifetime OUD (aOR = 2.37; 95% CI 1.02,5.54). The number of CUD criteria (aOR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09,1.57) and nicotine dependence severity scores (aOR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.05,1.41) at age 20 predicted any OUD criteria between the ages of 20 and 30. Findings are consistent with previous research on opioid use behavior in young adulthood and suggest that nicotine dependence and CUD criteria among urban young people predict onset of OUD and OUD criteria in young adulthood.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Tabagismo , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Adolescente , Masculino , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Incidência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais
14.
Health Commun ; 38(6): 1201-1212, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781799

RESUMO

Many adolescents and young adults hold erroneous beliefs that cigarillos and waterpipe tobacco (WT) are safer than cigarettes, contributing to use. Communication campaigns can correct misperceptions and increase risk beliefs. We tested point-of-sale (POS) communication campaigns focused on chemical exposure for cigarillos and WT. We conducted two cluster randomized trials at 20 gas stations with convenience stores (10 stores for cigarillos, 10 for WT) in North Carolina between June and November 2017. Within each trial, stores were randomly assigned to either the intervention (campaign messages displayed) or a no message control condition. We conducted intercept surveys with repeated cross-sectional samples of 50 adolescents and young adults (ages 16-25) per store, at baseline and follow-up. There were 978 participants (mean age = 20.9 years) in the cigarillo trial, and 998 participants (mean age = 21.0 years) in the WT trial. Rates of campaign exposure were low (26% for cigarillos; 24.3% for WT). The cigarillo campaign increased knowledge that ammonia is in cigarillo smoke (p < .01). There were also significant increases in knowledge about ammonia and cyanide in cigarillo smoke and arsenic in WT smoke (p < .05) in the sub-sample who reported exposure to the campaign. No differences were found in outcome expectancies, product attitudes, worry about chemical exposure, or behavioral intentions in either campaign. Garnering attention for communication campaigns in saturated POS environments, often dominated by tobacco advertising, is challenging. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of anti-tobacco campaigns at the POS and points to several lessons learned for future POS campaigns.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco para Cachimbos de Água , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Adulto , Amônia , Estudos Transversais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fumaça
15.
Diabetes Care ; 46(2): 278-285, 2023 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of household food insecurity (HFI) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation among youth and young adults (YYA) with diabetes overall and by type, and sociodemographic characteristics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study included participants with youth-onset type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. HFI was assessed using the 18-item U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) administered from 2016 to 2019; three or more affirmations on the HFSSM were considered indicative of HFI. Participants were asked about SNAP participation. We used χ2 tests to assess whether the prevalence of HFI and SNAP participation differed by diabetes type. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine differences in HFI by participant characteristics. RESULTS: Of 2,561 respondents (age range, 10-35 years; 79.6% ≤25 years), 2,177 had type 1 diabetes (mean age, 21.0 years; 71.8% non-Hispanic White, 11.8% non-Hispanic Black, 13.3% Hispanic, and 3.1% other) and 384 had type 2 diabetes (mean age, 24.7 years; 18.8% non-Hispanic White, 45.8% non-Hispanic Black, 23.7% Hispanic, and 18.7% other). The overall prevalence of HFI was 19.7% (95% CI 18.1, 21.2). HFI was more prevalent in type 2 diabetes than type 1 diabetes (30.7% vs. 17.7%; P < 0.01). In multivariable regression models, YYA receiving Medicaid or Medicare or without insurance, whose parents had lower levels of education, and with lower household income had greater odds of experiencing HFI. SNAP participation was 14.1% (95% CI 12.7, 15.5), with greater participation among those with type 2 diabetes compared with those with type 1 diabetes (34.8% vs. 10.7%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Almost one in three YYA with type 2 diabetes and more than one in six with type 1 diabetes reported HFI in the past year-a significantly higher prevalence than in the general U.S. population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Assistência Alimentar , Idoso , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Criança , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Características da Família , Pobreza , Medicare , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos
16.
Tob Control ; 32(2): 211-217, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration requires six text-only warnings for cigar products, including cigarillos. Research has demonstrated the superiority of pictorial over text-only cigarette warnings, yet the relative effectiveness of pictorial warnings for cigarillos has not been examined. We examined the impact of pictorial cigarillo warnings compared with text-only warnings. METHODS: Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of US young adult (18-29) cigarillo users and susceptible non-users. Participants were randomised to one of three experimental conditions: text-only or one of two pictorial conditions (combined for analyses). For each warning, we assessed negative emotional reactions, cognitive elaboration (ie, thinking about cigarillo risks) and perceived message effectiveness (PME). RESULTS: Participants (N=661) were 46.5% female, 64.7% white and 21.9% Hispanic; 34.1% reported past 30-day cigarillo use; 41.4% were lifetime users (excluding past 30-day use); and 24.4% were susceptible non-users. Pictorial warnings elicited more negative emotional reactions and higher PME than text-only warnings (p values<0.01), with interactions showing the largest effects for past 30-day users (emotional reactions: d=0.99, PME: d=0.63). For cognitive elaboration, there was no main effect of warning type, but an interaction revealed effects for past 30-day users (p<0.05, d=0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Pictorial cigarillo warnings elicited greater negative emotional reactions and PME compared with text-only warnings. These effects and the effects on cognitive elaboration were strongest for past 30-day users. Our findings extend research on cigarette warnings to cigarillos, demonstrating that pictorial warnings are superior to text-only warnings for cigarillos in eliciting beneficial responses.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Produtos , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Emoções/fisiologia
17.
Diabetes Care ; 46(2): 262-269, 2023 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between household food insecurity (HFI) and fear of hypoglycemia among young adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data of 1,676 young adults with youth-onset diabetes (84% type 1, 16% type 2) and 568 adolescents (<18 years old; mean age 15.1 years) with type 1 diabetes from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Adult participants and parents of adolescent participants completed the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Adults, adolescents, and parents of adolescents completed the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey, where answers range from 1 to 4. The outcomes were mean score for fear of hypoglycemia and the behavior and worry subscale scores. Linear regression models identified associations between HFI and fear of hypoglycemia scores. RESULTS: Adults with type 1 diabetes experiencing HFI had higher fear of hypoglycemia scores (0.22 units higher for behavior, 0.55 units for worry, 0.40 units for total; all P < 0.0001) than those without HFI. No differences by HFI status were found for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Parents of adolescents reporting HFI had a 0.18 unit higher worry score than those not reporting HFI (P < 0.05). Adults with type 2 diabetes experiencing HFI had higher fear of hypoglycemia scores (0.19 units higher for behavior, 0.35 units for worry, 0.28 units for total; all P < 0.05) than those in food secure households. CONCLUSIONS: Screening for HFI and fear of hypoglycemia among people with diabetes can help providers tailor diabetes education for those who have HFI and therefore fear hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Medo , Insegurança Alimentar , Pais
18.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 48(2): 410-417, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100655

RESUMO

Recent positron emission tomography (PET) studies of kappa opioid receptors (KOR) in humans reported significant relationships between KOR availability and social status, as well as cocaine choice. In monkey models, social status influences physiology, receptor pharmacology and behavior; these variables have been associated vulnerability to cocaine abuse. The present study utilized PET imaging to examine KOR availability in socially housed, cocaine-naïve female and male monkeys, and peripheral measures of KORs with neuron-derived extracellular vesicles (NDE). KOR availability was assessed in dominant and subordinate female and male cynomolgus macaques (N = 4/rank/sex), using PET imaging with the KOR selective agonist [11C]EKAP. In addition, NDE from the plasma of socially housed monkeys (N = 13/sex; N = 6-7/rank) were isolated by immunocapture method and analyzed for OPRK1 protein expression by ELISA. We found significant interactions between sex and social rank in KOR availability across 12 of 15 brain regions. This was driven by female data, in which KOR availability was significantly higher in subordinate monkeys compared with dominant monkeys; the opposite relationship was observed among males, but not statistically significant. No sex or rank differences were observed for NDE OPRK1 concentrations. In summary, the relationship between brain KOR availability and social rank was different in female and male monkeys. This was particularly true in female monkeys. We hypothesize that lower [11C]EKAP binding potentials were due to higher concentrations of circulating dynorphin, which is consistent with greater vulnerability in dominant compared with subordinate females. These findings suggest that the KOR is an important target for understanding the neurobiology associated with vulnerability to abused drugs and sex differences, and detectable in peripheral circulation.


Assuntos
Cocaína , Vesículas Extracelulares , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Cocaína/farmacologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Receptores Opioides kappa/metabolismo
19.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20232023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38765732

RESUMO

Objective: We evaluated the association of household food insecurity (FI) with cognition in youth and young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D). Design: In this cross-sectional study, age-adjusted scores for composite Fluid Cognition, and sub-domain scores for Receptive Language and Inhibitory Control and Attention, were modeled stratified by diabetes-type using linear regression, with FI in the past year as the predictor, controlling for covariates. Tests for processing speed, inhibitory control/attention, working memory, episodic memory, and cognitive flexibility were administered to measure composite Fluid Cognition score. The NIHT-CB Picture Vocabulary Test was used to assess Crystallized Cognition score and rapid identification of congruent versus noncongruent items were used to assess Inhibitory Control and Attention score. Setting: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study, representative of 5 U.S. states. Participants: Included 1574 youth and young adults with T1D or T2D, mean age of 21 years, mean diabetes duration of 11 years, 51% non-Hispanic white, and 47% had higher HbA1c levels (>9% HbA1c). Results: Approximately 18% of the 1,240 participants with T1D and 31% of the 334 with T2D experienced FI. The food-insecure group with T1D had a lower composite Fluid Cognition score (ß= -2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI)= -4.8, -0.1) and a lower Crystallized Cognition score (ß= -3.4, CI= -5.6, -1.3) than food-secure peers. Findings were attenuated to non-significance after adjustment for demographics. Among T2D participants, no associations were observed. In participants with T1D effect modification by glycemic levels were found in the association between FI and composite Fluid Cognition score but adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics attenuated the interaction (p=0.0531). Conclusions: Food-insecure youth and young adults with T1D or T2D did not have different cognition compared to those who were food-secure after adjustment for confounders. Longitudinal research is needed to further understand relations amongst these factors.


Assuntos
Cognição , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insegurança Alimentar , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Cognição/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Características da Família
20.
J Pain Res ; 15: 3847-3858, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36514481

RESUMO

Introduction: Cannabidiol (CBD) products are available nearly nationwide in the US and can coexist with medical or recreational programs. North Carolina (NC) is an example of a state with a program dedicated to integrating hemp cultivation and medicinal CBD exclusively, containing a multitude of retailers selling it as a primary product. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandates that non-FDA approved CBD products cannot be marketed using medical or health-related claims and has sent warning letters to retailers violating these terms. We aim to characterize the online content of the NC CBD market by analyzing retailers' websites to determine whether hemp/CBD shops comply with FDA regulations in terms of medical claims and analyze the claimed CBD content and price of products offered online. Methods: We randomly selected three CBD retailers from the ten most populated cities of NC. We analyzed their website content: product type, medical claims, other disclaimers, price, and CBD content. Results: We found that edible, oral, inhalable, and topical products are offered in similar proportions. Word analysis of product description revealed that "pain" and "pain relief" were the most common medical claim, followed by inflammation and anxiety. Health claims were mostly related to wellbeing. Other attributes indicate that products are associated with pleasant flavors or sensations (ie, cool, lavender, delicious, honey, menthol), which resembles the strategies used for tobacco advertisement. Most products (61%) claimed to contain less than 1000 mg of CBD. The median price of products ranged from $15-30 per 300 mg. We found a positive correlation between CBD content and price. Discussion: Our data demonstrate that the NC online CBD market does not comply with FDA regulations, primarily targets patients with pain, inflammation, or anxiety, and offers products with low CBD concentration and high prices. New policies should limit the access and online promotion of non-pharmaceutical grade CBD products.

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