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1.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 164 Suppl 1: 5-11, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360035

RESUMO

The UK is usually viewed as having liberal abortion regulations, providing good access to abortion care within a publicly funded health service. However, the underlying laws are authoritarian, dating from an era when public executions drew large crowds and 67 years before women were able to vote. Abortion is only legal when two doctors certify it meets the permitted grounds, and the penalty for self-managed abortion is up to life imprisonment for both the woman and any accomplice. These laws had prevented the use of mifepristone and misoprostol at home. Changes to the regulations for misoprostol in 2018 and mifepristone in 2020 permitted home use, but the government announced they were rescinding the approval for mifepristone in 2022. This article discusses how, despite the opposition of government, significant progressive changes to the abortion laws were achieved. Early medical abortion at home is now protected in law, and safe access zones protect patients and staff from harassment and intimidation from protesters. Despite this progress, increasing numbers of women are facing criminal investigation and face long prison sentences if convicted. The need for decriminalization and for abortion care to be regulated like all other health care is the next pressing issue.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Misoprostol , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Mifepristona , Atenção à Saúde , Reino Unido
2.
BJOG ; 130(12): 9-39, 20231101. tab
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1524823

RESUMO

The purpose of this guideline is to provide guidance on the investigation and care of women and people with recurrent miscarriage.Within this document we use the terms woman and women's health. However, it is important to acknowledge that it is not only women for whom it is necessary to access women's health and reproductive services in order to main-tain their gynaecological health and reproductive wellbeing. Gynaecological and obstetric services and delivery of care must therefore be appropriate, inclusive and sensitive to the needs of those individuals whose gender identity does not align with the sex they were assigned at birth. The term cou-ple is used to describe two individuals trying to conceive, recognising that in some instances these individuals may not be in a relationship. While every effort is made to ensure the RCOG uses inclusive language there are instances where we have been unable to adhere to this, for example where original research is being referenced the language within the publication is used for accuracy.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise Citogenética , Ameaça de Aborto/prevenção & controle , Antitrombinas/análise , Ultrassonografia , Deficiência de Proteína C , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/análise
3.
BJOG ; 130(12): e9-e39, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37334488

RESUMO

In this guideline, recurrent miscarriage has been defined as three or more first trimester miscarriages. However, clinicians are encouraged to use their clinical discretion to recommend extensive evaluation after two first trimester miscarriages, if there is a suspicion that the miscarriages are of pathological and not of sporadic nature. Women with recurrent miscarriage should be offered testing for acquired thrombophilia, particularly for lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies, prior to pregnancy. [Grade C] Women with second trimester miscarriage may be offered testing for Factor V Leiden, prothrombin gene mutation and protein S deficiency, ideally within a research context. [Grade C] Inherited thrombophilias have a weak association with recurrent miscarriage. Routine testing for protein C, antithrombin deficiency and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation is not recommended. [Grade C] Cytogenetic analysis should be offered on pregnancy tissue of the third and subsequent miscarriage(s) and in any second trimester miscarriage. [Grade D] Parental peripheral blood karyotyping should be offered for couples in whom testing of pregnancy tissue reports an unbalanced structural chromosomal abnormality [Grade D] or there is unsuccessful or no pregnancy tissue available for testing. [GPP] Women with recurrent miscarriage should be offered assessment for congenital uterine anomalies, ideally with 3D ultrasound. [Grade B] Women with recurrent miscarriage should be offered thyroid function tests and assessment for thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies. [Grade C] Women with recurrent miscarriage should not be routinely offered immunological screening (such as HLA, cytokine and natural killer cell tests), infection screening or sperm DNA testing outside a research context. [Grade C] Women with recurrent miscarriage should be advised to maintain a BMI between 19 and 25 kg/m2 , smoking cessation, limit alcohol consumption and limit caffeine to less than 200 mg/day. [Grade D] For women diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome, aspirin and heparin should be offered from a positive test until at least 34 weeks of gestation, following discussion of potential benefits versus risks. [Grade B] Aspirin and/or heparin should not be given to women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage. [Grade B] There are currently insufficient data to support the routine use of PGT-A for couples with unexplained recurrent miscarriage, while the treatment may carry a significant cost and potential risk. [Grade C] Resection of a uterine septum should be considered for women with recurrent first or second trimester miscarriage, ideally within an appropriate audit or research context. [Grade C] Thyroxine supplementation is not routinely recommended for euthyroid women with TPO who have a history of miscarriage. [Grade A] Progestogen supplementation should be considered in women with recurrent miscarriage who present with bleeding in early pregnancy (for example 400 mg micronised vaginal progesterone twice daily at the time of bleeding until 16 weeks of gestation). [Grade B] Women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage should be offered supportive care, ideally in the setting of a dedicated recurrent miscarriage clinic. [Grade C].


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica , Gravidez , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Sêmen , Aborto Habitual/genética , Progesterona/uso terapêutico , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Aspirina/uso terapêutico
4.
BJOG ; 130(11): 1346-1354, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37039256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop core outcome sets (COS) for miscarriage management and prevention. DESIGN: Modified Delphi survey combined with a consensus development meeting. SETTING: International. POPULATION: Stakeholder groups included healthcare providers, international experts, researchers, charities and couples with lived experience of miscarriage from 15 countries: 129 stakeholders for miscarriage management and 437 for miscarriage prevention. METHODS: Modified Delphi method and modified nominal group technique. RESULTS: The final COS for miscarriage management comprises six outcomes: efficacy of treatment, heavy vaginal bleeding, pelvic infection, maternal death, treatment or procedure-related complications, and patient satisfaction. The final COS for miscarriage prevention comprises 12 outcomes: pregnancy loss <24 weeks' gestation, live birth, gestation at birth, pre-term birth, congenital abnormalities, fetal growth restriction, maternal (antenatal) complications, compliance with intervention, patient satisfaction, maternal hospitalisation, neonatal or infant hospitalisation, and neonatal or infant death. Other outcomes identified as important were mental health-related outcomes, future fertility and health economic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study has developed two core outcome sets, through robust methodology, that should be implemented across future randomised trials and systematic reviews in miscarriage management and prevention. This work will help to standardise outcome selection, collection and reporting, and improve the quality and safety of future studies in miscarriage.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Morte Materna , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Aborto Espontâneo/prevenção & controle , Consenso , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Técnica Delfos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 160 Suppl 1: 22-34, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635079

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are the most common causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. They are responsible for 16% of maternal deaths in high-income countries and approximately 25% in low- and middle-income countries. The impact of HDP can be lifelong as they are a recognized risk factor for future cardiovascular disease. During pregnancy, the cardiovascular system undergoes significant adaptive changes that ensure adequate uteroplacental blood flow and exchange of oxygen and nutrients to nurture and accommodate the developing fetus. Failure to achieve normal cardiovascular adaptation is associated with the development of HDP. Hemodynamic alterations in women with a history of HDP can persist for years and predispose to long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, pregnancy and the postpartum period are an opportunity to identify women with underlying, often unrecognized, cardiovascular risk factors. It is important to develop strategies with lifestyle and therapeutic interventions to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular disease in those who have a history of HDP.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
6.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 160 Suppl 1: 35-49, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635081

RESUMO

Obesity is a chronic, progressive, relapsing, and treatable multifactorial, neurobehavioral disease. According to the World Health Organization, obesity affects 15% of women and has long-term effects on women's health. The focus of care in patients with obesity should be on optimizing health outcomes rather than on weight loss. Appropriate and common language, considering cultural sensitivity and trauma-informed care, is needed to discuss obesity. Pregnancy is a time of significant physiological change. Pre-, ante-, and postpartum clinical encounters provide opportunities for health optimization for parents with obesity in terms of, but not limited to, fertility and breastfeeding. Pre-existing conditions may also be identified and managed. Beyond pregnancy, women with obesity are at an increased risk for gastrointestinal and liver diseases, impaired kidney function, obstructive sleep apnea, and venous thromboembolism. Gynecological and reproductive health of women living with obesity cannot be dismissed, with accommodations needed for preventive health screenings and consideration of increased risk for gynecologic malignancies. Mental wellness, specifically depression, should be screened and managed appropriately. Obesity is a complex condition and is increasing in prevalence with failure of public health interventions to achieve significant decrease. Future research efforts should focus on interprofessional care and discovering effective interventions for health optimization.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Obesidade , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher , Período Pós-Parto , Saúde Mental
7.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 160 Suppl 1: 10-21, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635083

RESUMO

The period before and during pregnancy is increasingly recognized as an important stage for addressing malnutrition. This can help to reduce the risk of noncommunicable diseases in mothers and passage of risk to their infants. The FIGO Nutrition Checklist is a tool designed to address these issues. The checklist contains questions on specific dietary requirements, body mass index, diet quality, and micronutrients. Through answering these questions, awareness is generated, potential risks are identified, and information is collected that can inform health-promoting conversations between women and their healthcare professionals. The tool can be used across a range of health settings, regions, and life stages. The aim of this review is to summarize nutritional recommendations related to the FIGO Nutrition Checklist to support healthcare providers using it in practice. Included is a selection of global dietary recommendations for each of the components of the checklist and practical insights from countries that have used it. Implementation of the FIGO Nutrition Checklist will help identify potential nutritional deficiencies in women so that they can be addressed by healthcare providers. This has potential longstanding benefits for mothers and their children, across generations.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Dieta , Gravidez , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Aconselhamento , Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde
8.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 160 Suppl 1: 56-67, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635082

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes (GDM) impacts approximately 17 million pregnancies worldwide. Women with a history of GDM have an 8-10-fold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and a 2-fold higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with women without prior GDM. Although it is possible to prevent and/or delay progression of GDM to type 2 diabetes, this is not widely undertaken. Considering the increasing global rates of type 2 diabetes and CVD in women, it is essential to utilize pregnancy as an opportunity to identify women at risk and initiate preventive intervention. This article reviews existing clinical guidelines for postpartum identification and management of women with previous GDM and identifies key recommendations for the prevention and/or delayed progression to type 2 diabetes for global clinical practice.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Período Pós-Parto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
9.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273966, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054212

RESUMO

The early transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in the UK are unknown but their investigation is critical to aid future pandemic planning. We tested over 11,000 anonymised, stored historic antenatal serum samples, given at two north-west London NHS trusts in 2019 and 2020, for total antibody to SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (anti-RBD). Estimated prevalence of seroreactivity increased from 1% prior to mid-February 2020 to 17% in September 2020. Our results show higher prevalence of seroreactivity to SARS-CoV-2 in younger, non-white ethnicity, and more deprived groups. We found no significant interaction between the effects of ethnicity and deprivation. Derived from prevalence, the estimated incidence of seroreactivity reflects the trends observed in daily hospitalisations and deaths in London that followed 10 and 13 days later, respectively. We quantified community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in London, which peaked in late March / early April 2020 with no evidence of community transmission until after January 2020. Our study was not able to determine the date of introduction of the SARS-CoV-2 virus but demonstrates the value of stored antenatal serum samples as a resource for serosurveillance during future outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e057847, 2022 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify factors that influenced women who chose to leave academic medicine. DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Independent consultants led a focus group of women in medicine who had left academia after completion of their postgraduate research degree at Imperial College London Faculty of Medicine. Thematic analysis was performed on the transcribed conversations. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Nine women physicians who completed a postgraduate degree (MD or PhD) at a large London Medical School and Academic Health Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, but did not go on to pursue a career in academic medicine. RESULTS: Influences to leave clinical academia were summarised under eight themes-career intentions, supervisor support, institutional human resources support, inclusivity, work-life balance, expectations, mentors and role models, and pregnancy and maternity leave. CONCLUSION: The women in our focus group reported several factors contributing to their decision to leave clinical academia, which included lack of mentoring tailored to specific needs, low levels of acceptance for flexible working to help meet parental responsibilities and perceived explicit gender biases. We summarise the multiple targeted strategies that Imperial College London has implemented to promote retention of women in academic medicine, although more research needs to be done to ascertain the most effective interventions.


Assuntos
Medicina , Faculdades de Medicina , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Docentes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Mentores , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
Clin Obstet Gynecol ; 64(3): 415-421, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231525

RESUMO

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were launched in 2016 to expand the 2000 Millennium Development Goals. SDG-5 calls on governments to achieve gender equality and empowerment of all girls, highlighting the importance of sexual and reproductive health (SRH). There are large variations across the globe in maternity safety and there is clear evidence that a significant percentage of maternity mortality is preventable through the provision of reliable contraception and safe abortion services for women. If SDG-5 is to be achieved by 2030, it is essential that women have access to appropriate life-saving healthcare and support services.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Anticoncepção , Feminino , Equidade de Gênero , Humanos , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva
12.
Lancet ; 397(10285): 1658-1667, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915094

RESUMO

Miscarriage is generally defined as the loss of a pregnancy before viability. An estimated 23 million miscarriages occur every year worldwide, translating to 44 pregnancy losses each minute. The pooled risk of miscarriage is 15·3% (95% CI 12·5-18·7%) of all recognised pregnancies. The population prevalence of women who have had one miscarriage is 10·8% (10·3-11·4%), two miscarriages is 1·9% (1·8-2·1%), and three or more miscarriages is 0·7% (0·5-0·8%). Risk factors for miscarriage include very young or older female age (younger than 20 years and older than 35 years), older male age (older than 40 years), very low or very high body-mass index, Black ethnicity, previous miscarriages, smoking, alcohol, stress, working night shifts, air pollution, and exposure to pesticides. The consequences of miscarriage are both physical, such as bleeding or infection, and psychological. Psychological consequences include increases in the risk of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicide. Miscarriage, and especially recurrent miscarriage, is also a sentinel risk marker for obstetric complications, including preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, placental abruption, and stillbirth in future pregnancies, and a predictor of longer-term health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and venous thromboembolism. The costs of miscarriage affect individuals, health-care systems, and society. The short-term national economic cost of miscarriage is estimated to be £471 million per year in the UK. As recurrent miscarriage is a sentinel marker for various obstetric risks in future pregnancies, women should receive care in preconception and obstetric clinics specialising in patients at high risk. As psychological morbidity is common after pregnancy loss, effective screening instruments and treatment options for mental health consequences of miscarriage need to be available. We recommend that miscarriage data are gathered and reported to facilitate comparison of rates among countries, to accelerate research, and to improve patient care and policy development.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Aborto Habitual/economia , Aborto Habitual/epidemiologia , Aborto Habitual/fisiopatologia , Aborto Habitual/psicologia , Aborto Espontâneo/economia , Aborto Espontâneo/fisiopatologia , Aborto Espontâneo/psicologia , Endometrite/epidemiologia , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Hemorragia Uterina/epidemiologia
13.
Lancet ; 397(10285): 1668-1674, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915095

RESUMO

The physical and psychological effect of miscarriage is commonly underappreciated. The journey from diagnosis of miscarriage, through clinical management, to supportive aftercare can be challenging for women, their partners, and caregivers. Diagnostic challenges can lead to delayed or ineffective care and increased anxiety. Inaccurate diagnosis of a miscarriage can result in the unintended termination of a wanted pregnancy. Uncertainty about the therapeutic effects of interventions can lead to suboptimal care, with variations across facilities and countries. For this Series paper, we have developed recommendations for practice from a literature review, appraisal of guidelines, and expert group discussions. The recommendations are grouped into three categories: (1) diagnosis of miscarriage, (2) prevention of miscarriage in women with early pregnancy bleeding, and (3) management of miscarriage. We recommend that every country reports annual aggregate miscarriage data, similarly to the reporting of stillbirth. Early pregnancy services need to focus on providing an effective ultrasound service, as it is central to the diagnosis of miscarriage, and be able to provide expectant management of miscarriage, medical management with mifepristone and misoprostol, and surgical management with manual vacuum aspiration. Women with the dual risk factors of early pregnancy bleeding and a history of previous miscarriage can be recommended vaginal micronised progesterone to improve the prospects of livebirth. We urge health-care funders and providers to invest in early pregnancy care, with specific focus on training for clinical nurse specialists and doctors to provide comprehensive miscarriage care within the setting of dedicated early pregnancy units.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/diagnóstico , Aborto Espontâneo/prevenção & controle , Aborto Espontâneo/terapia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Ultrassonografia
14.
Lancet ; 397(10285): 1675-1682, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915096

RESUMO

Women who have had repeated miscarriages often have uncertainties about the cause, the likelihood of recurrence, the investigations they need, and the treatments that might help. Health-care policy makers and providers have uncertainties about the optimal ways to organise and provide care. For this Series paper, we have developed recommendations for practice from literature reviews, appraisal of guidelines, and a UK-wide consensus conference that was held in December, 2019. Caregivers should individualise care according to the clinical needs and preferences of women and their partners. We define a minimum set of investigations and treatments to be offered to couples who have had recurrent miscarriages, and urge health-care policy makers and providers to make them universally available. The essential investigations include measurements of lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, thyroid function, and a transvaginal pelvic ultrasound scan. The key treatments to consider are first trimester progesterone administration, levothyroxine in women with subclinical hypothyroidism, and the combination of aspirin and heparin in women with antiphospholipid antibodies. Appropriate screening and care for mental health issues and future obstetric risks, particularly preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, and stillbirth, will need to be incorporated into the care pathway for couples with a history of recurrent miscarriage. We suggest health-care services structure care using a graded model in which women are offered online health-care advice and support, care in a nurse or midwifery-led clinic, and care in a medical consultant-led clinic, according to clinical needs.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual/diagnóstico , Aborto Habitual/prevenção & controle , Aborto Habitual/terapia , Aborto Habitual/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle
16.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(6): 1362-1366, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459428

RESUMO

Maternal mortality is falling in most of the world's countries, but, for 20 years, the United States has seen no reduction. Over this period, a dozen countries in various stages of development, all spending much less than the United States on health, achieved their United Nations' Millennium Development Goal of 2015 (Millennium Development Goal 5: improve maternal health), with substantial reductions in maternal mortality rates. To consider whether interventions successful in reducing global maternal mortality rates could help the United States to lower its rate, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, at the 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics' Rio de Janeiro World Congress, convened a panel of the presidents and representatives from five national societies with wide maternal mortality rate ranges and health expenditures and whose national societies had focused on reducing maternal mortality for Millennium Development Goal 5. They identified expanded access to reproductive health care, particularly contraception and safe abortion, as key interventions that had proven effective in decreasing maternal mortality rates worldwide.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Saúde Reprodutiva , Brasil/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global/tendências , Objetivos , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(2): 167-176, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008730

RESUMO

Progesterone is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. Several small trials have suggested that progesterone supplementation may reduce the risk of miscarriage in women with recurrent or threatened miscarriage. Cochrane Reviews summarized the evidence and found that the trials were small with substantial methodologic weaknesses. Since then, the effects of first-trimester use of vaginal micronized progesterone have been evaluated in 2 large, high-quality, multicenter placebo-controlled trials, one targeting women with unexplained recurrent miscarriages (the PROMISE [PROgesterone in recurrent MIScarriagE] trial) and the other targeting women with early pregnancy bleeding (the PRISM [PRogesterone In Spontaneous Miscarriage] trial). The PROMISE trial studied 836 women from 45 hospitals in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands and found a 3% greater live birth rate with progesterone but with substantial statistical uncertainty. The PRISM trial studied 4153 women from 48 hospitals in the United Kingdom and found a 3% greater live birth rate with progesterone, but with a P value of .08. A key finding, first observed in the PROMISE trial, and then replicated in the PRISM trial, was that treatment with vaginal micronized progesterone 400 mg twice daily was associated with increasing live birth rates according to the number of previous miscarriages. Prespecified PRISM trial subgroup analysis in women with the dual risk factors of previous miscarriage(s) and current pregnancy bleeding fulfilled all 11 conditions for credible subgroup analysis. For the subgroup of women with a history of 1 or more miscarriage(s) and current pregnancy bleeding, the live birth rate was 75% (689/914) with progesterone vs 70% (619/886) with placebo (rate difference 5%; risk ratio, 1.09, 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.15; P=.003). The benefit was greater for the subgroup of women with 3 or more previous miscarriages and current pregnancy bleeding; live birth rate was 72% (98/137) with progesterone vs 57% (85/148) with placebo (rate difference 15%; risk ratio, 1.28, 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.51; P=.004). No short-term safety concerns were identified from the PROMISE and PRISM trials. Therefore, women with a history of miscarriage who present with bleeding in early pregnancy may benefit from the use of vaginal micronized progesterone 400 mg twice daily. Women and their care providers should use the findings for shared decision-making.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual/prevenção & controle , Ameaça de Aborto/tratamento farmacológico , Progesterona/uso terapêutico , Progestinas/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravaginal , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Progestinas/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 40(3): 373-377, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347420

RESUMO

Bladder neck descent (BND) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of stress incontinence and prolapse. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel 2D technique for the evaluation of BND, the Urethral Descent Assessment Technique (UDAT). UDAT involves measuring BND during dynamic manoeuvres in live 2D ultrasound, by using the geometrical properties of parallel lines. The internal urethral meatus and distal end of the urethra are used as reference points. Y1 is the urethral height at rest (also the urethral length when the urethra is straight). Y2 is the urethral height on Valsalva. Y1 and Y2 are parallel lines. Y1-Y2 = BND. A horizontal line (X) connecting Y1 and Y2 is the forward movement of the bladder neck.Y1 mean 30.4 mm (95% CI ± 1.36 mm). Y2 mean 24.2 mm (95% CI ± 2.58 mm). X mean 12.1 mm (95% CI ± 1.66 mm). BND mean 6.2 mm (95% CI ± 1.47 mm). Bland-Altman plots and linear regression showed that UDAT is repeatable and reliable.Impact statementWhat is already known on this subject? Bladder neck descent (BND) has been associated with stress incontinence and prolapse nearly a century. In 1975, Green introduced a classification based on X-ray cysto-urethrograms. Between 1989 and 1995, a 2D technique was described that had several limitations.What do the results of this study add? This study validates a novel technique for the assessment of bladder neck descent using 2D ultrasound and provides a reference range of BND for normal nulliparous women.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? This is a simple and quick technique that could be adopted in research and clinical practice in the future to assess stress incontinence and anterior compartment prolapse.


Assuntos
Cistocele/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Uretra/diagnóstico por imagem , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Manobra de Valsalva
19.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e030968, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767585

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of burnout in doctors practising obstetrics and gynaecology, and assess the association with defensive medical practice and self-reported well-being. DESIGN: Nationwide online cross-sectional survey study; December 2017-March 2018. SETTING: Hospitals in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 5661 practising obstetrics and gynaecology consultants, specialty and associate specialist doctors and trainees registered with the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and defensive medical practice (avoiding cases or procedures, overprescribing, over-referral) using a 12-item questionnaire. The odds ratios (OR) of burnout with defensive medical practice and self-reported well-being. RESULTS: 3102/5661 doctors (55%) completed the survey. 3073/3102 (99%) met the inclusion criteria (1462 consultants, 1357 trainees and 254 specialty and associate specialist doctors). 1116/3073 (36%) doctors met the burnout criteria, with levels highest amongst trainees (580/1357 (43%)). 258/1116 (23%) doctors with burnout reported increased defensive practice compared with 142/1957 (7%) without (adjusted OR 4.35, 95% CI 3.46 to 5.49). ORs of burnout with well-being items varied between 1.38 and 6.37, and were highest for anxiety (3.59, 95% CI 3.07 to 4.21), depression (4.05, 95% CI 3.26 to 5.04) and suicidal thoughts (6.37, 95% CI 95% CI 3.95 to 10.7). In multivariable logistic regression, being of younger age, white or 'other' ethnicity, and graduating with a medical degree from the UK or Ireland had the strongest associations with burnout. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of burnout were observed in obstetricians and gynaecologists and particularly among trainees. Burnout was associated with both increased defensive medical practice and worse doctor well-being. These findings have implications for the well-being and retention of doctors as well as the quality of patient care, and may help to inform the content of future interventions aimed at preventing burnout and improving patient safety.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Ginecologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
BMJ ; 367: l5928, 2019 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604711
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