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1.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697800

RESUMO

AIMS: To develop a generative adversarial network (GAN) capable of generating realistic high-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images. METHODS: This study included 142 628 AS-OCT B-scans from the American University of Beirut Medical Center. The Style and WAvelet based GAN architecture was trained to generate realistic AS-OCT images and was evaluated through the Fréchet Inception Distance (FID) Score and a blinded assessment by three refractive surgeons who were asked to distinguish between real and generated images. To assess the suitability of the generated images for machine learning tasks, a convolutional neural network (CNN) was trained using a dataset of real and generated images over a classification task. The generated AS-OCT images were then upsampled using an enhanced super-resolution GAN (ESRGAN) to achieve high resolution. RESULTS: The generated images exhibited visual and quantitative similarity to real AS-OCT images. Quantitative similarity assessed using FID scored an average of 6.32. Surgeons scored 51.7% in identifying real versus generated images which was not significantly better than chance (p value >0.3). The CNN accuracy improved from 78% to 100% when synthetic images were added to the dataset. The ESRGAN upsampled images were objectively more realistic and accurate compared with traditional upsampling techniques by scoring a lower Learned Perceptual Image Patch Similarity of 0.0905 compared with 0.4244 of bicubic interpolation. CONCLUSIONS: This study successfully developed and leveraged GANs capable of generating high-definition synthetic AS-OCT images that are realistic and suitable for machine learning and image analysis tasks.

2.
J Refract Surg ; 40(4): e199-e207, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593258

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of incorporating Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) and synthetic images in enhancing the performance of a convolutional neural network (CNN) for automated estimation of Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) vault using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). METHODS: This study was a retrospective evaluation using synthetic data and real patient images in a deep learning framework. Synthetic ICL AS-OCT scans were generated using GANs and a secondary image editing algorithm, creating approximately 100,000 synthetic images. These were used alongside real patient scans to train a CNN for estimating ICL vault distance. The model's performance was evaluated using statistical metrics such as mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), and coefficient of determination (R2) for the estimation of ICL vault distance. RESULTS: The study analyzed 4,557 AS-OCT B-scans from 138 eyes of 103 patients for training. An independent, retrospectively collected dataset of 2,454 AS-OCT images from 88 eyes of 56 patients, used prospectively for evaluation, served as the test set. When trained solely on real images, the CNN achieved a MAPE of 15.31%, MAE of 44.68 µm, and RMSE of 63.3 µm. However, with the inclusion of GAN-generated and algorithmically edited synthetic images, the performance significantly improved, achieving a MAPE of 8.09%, MAE of 24.83 µm, and RMSE of 32.26 µm. The R2 value was +0.98, indicating a strong positive correlation between actual and predicted ICL vault distances (P < .01). No statistically significant difference was observed between measured and predicted vault values (P = .58). CONCLUSIONS: The integration of GAN-generated and edited synthetic images substantially enhanced ICL vault estimation, demonstrating the efficacy of GANs and synthetic data in enhancing OCT image analysis accuracy. This model not only shows potential for assisting postoperative ICL evaluations, but also for improving OCT automation when data paucity is an issue. [J Refract Surg. 2024;40(4):e199-e207.].


Assuntos
Cristalino , Miopia , Lentes Intraoculares Fácicas , Humanos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Implante de Lente Intraocular/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Miopia/cirurgia
3.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 35(2): 138-146, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38059758

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posterior chamber phakic intraocular lenses (pIOLs) are increasing in popularity as a viable alternative to laser refractive surgery. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the recent updates to pIOLs and to assess the advancements and safety of the procedure. RECENT FINDINGS: Accurate lens sizing is the key determinant to suitable vault prediction, advancements to sizing formulae including the use of very high frequency (VHF) digital ultrasound and the application of artificial intelligence and machine learning has led to improved vault prediction and safety. The introduction of the central aquaport has been shown to reduce the formation of cataract and is now adopted in most myopic pIOLs. Recently published studies have demonstrated that pIOLs have an excellent safety profile with no increased risk of retinal detachment or endothelial cell loss. Advancements have led to the introduction of extended depth of focus pIOLs for the correction of presbyopia, further research is required to evaluate the efficacy of new lens designs. SUMMARY: pIOL surgery is experiencing traction with improved lens design and increased lenses choices such as larger optical zone and presbyopic options. Accuracy of implantable collamer lens sizing is paramount to the safety and clinical outcomes, greater predictability is likely to encourage more posterior chamber pIOL users due to fewer sizing related complications.


Assuntos
Cristalino , Lentes Intraoculares , Miopia , Lentes Intraoculares Fácicas , Humanos , Lentes Intraoculares Fácicas/efeitos adversos , Inteligência Artificial , Implante de Lente Intraocular/efeitos adversos , Miopia/cirurgia
4.
J Refract Surg ; 39(12): 808-816, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38063831

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome of sequential customized therapeutic keratectomy (SCTK) in reducing higher order aberrations (HOAs) and improving quality of vision in highly aberrated corneas consequent to previous radial keratotomy (RK). METHODS: A retrospective review of patients undergoing SCTK treatment from January 2012 to October 2020 was conducted in the Eye Center, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center (Rozzano, Italy). Indications for treatment in patients who had RK were significantly and/or progressively reduced corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) combined with visual symptoms critically affecting quality of life. Preoperative and postoperative CDVA, corneal topography and aberrometry, Scheimpflug tomography, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography were registered. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients who underwent RK a mean of 26.62 ± 7.10 years before SCTK treatment were included. SCTK induced a significant improvement of CDVA from 0.44 ± 0.82 logMAR preoperatively to 0.15 ± 0.64 logMAR postoperatively (P < .001). No patient experienced worsening of CDVA, whereas 8 patients (23,50%) gained one line and 23 patients (67.65%) gained two lines or more. A significant decrease in corneal coma, trefoil, and spherical aberrations was also noted (P = .003, .003, and .004, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: SCTK proved to be a safe and effective option to treat highly aberrated eyes following RK. The authors suggest the use of SCTK as a first-line approach for the treatment of HOAs after RK and avoiding more invasive procedures such as corneal transplantation or intraocular lens implantation. [J Refract Surg. 2023;39(12):808-816.].


Assuntos
Ceratotomia Radial , Ceratectomia Fotorrefrativa , Humanos , Refração Ocular , Ceratectomia Fotorrefrativa/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Topografia da Córnea , Ceratectomia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
J Refract Surg ; 39(7): 474-480, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37449505

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess repeatability and agreement of corneal epithelial thickness mapping in eyes with keratoconus using three optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices featuring different technologies: spectral-domain (SD) OCT combined with Placido disk corneal topography (MS-39), swept-source OCT (Anterion), and SD-OCT (Avanti). METHODS: Three consecutive measurements were acquired with the three devices in 60 eyes with keratoconus. The mean epithelial thickness was calculated in the central 2-mm zone and in 2- to 5-mm and 5- to 7-mm diameter rings. The repeatability was calculated using pooled within-subject standard deviation (Sw). The agreement was assessed by paired t tests and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: The repeatability (Sw) of the epithelial thickness for the central 2-mm zone was 0.91, 0.71, and 0.93 µm for the MS-39, Anterion, and Avanti, respectively. All thicknesses with the MS-39 were greater than those of the Anterion and Avanti, with mean differences of 4.11 ± 1.34 µm (P < .001) and 0.52 ± 1.30 µm (P = .003), respectively. The 95% limits of agreement were 1.484 to 6.736 µm for the MS-39 and Anterion, -3.068 to 2.028 µm for the Avanti and MS-39, and 1.258 to 5.922 µm for for the Avanti and Anterion. CONCLUSIONS: Epithelial thickness mapping results were most repeatable with the Anterion, followed by the MS-39 and Avanti. The MS-39 gave the thickest values, followed by the Avanti and Anterion. The differences were significant, making the devices not interchangeable for epithelial thickness mapping in eyes with keratoconus. [J Refract Surg. 2023;39(7):474-480.].


Assuntos
Ceratocone , Humanos , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Paquimetria Corneana , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Córnea , Topografia da Córnea/métodos
6.
J Refract Surg ; 39(6): 388-396, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37306201

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe a standardized three-stage flap replacement protocol and report the incidence of microfolds after femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 14,374 consecutive LASIK procedures with the VisuMax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec) by two surgeons was conducted. As per the standardized procedure, all eyes underwent the three-stage flap replacement protocol consisting of controlled standardized minimal irrigation and flap repositioning after ablation, followed by fluorescein-controlled slit-lamp adjustments and slit-lamp adjustments on day 1 (if required). Microfold incidence was recorded at all subsequent visits and recorded by independent observers classified using a standardized 6-point grading system including whether they were refractively or visually significant. RESULTS: Flap thickness used was 80 to 89 µm (7.2%), 90 to 99 µm (51.7%), 100 to 109 µm (17.8%), and 110 to 130 µm (23.2%). Slit-lamp adjustment at day 1 was performed in 956 eyes (6.77%), with the highest incidence in 80 to 89 µm flaps (27.6%). A flap slip occurred in 23 eyes (0.16%) and was managed at the slit lamp for 21 eyes and in the operating room for 2 eyes. At 3 months after surgery, trace microfolds were present in 158 eyes (1.10%), grade 1 in 26 eyes (0.184%), and grade 2 in 2 eyes (0.016%). Grade 1 microfold incidence per flap thickness group was 39.1% for 80 to 89 µm, 30.4% for 90 to 99 µm, 13% for 100 to 109 µm, and 17.4% for 110 to 130 µm. No eyes required a flap lift for microfolds in the operating room. Multivariate regression analysis found microfold incidence to be higher for thinner flaps, higher correction, and larger optical zone. CONCLUSIONS: The three-stage protocol for flap positioning and management resulted in a low incidence of clinically visible microfolds and no visually significant microfolds. Day 1 slit-lamp adjustment was required more frequently in ultra-thin 80 to 89 µm flaps. [J Refract Surg. 2023;39(6):388-396.].


Assuntos
Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fluoresceína , Salas Cirúrgicas
7.
J Refract Surg ; 39(6): 366-373, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37306206

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the incidence of transient light sensitivity syndrome (TLSS) after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), hyperopic LASIK, and myopic small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of consecutive LASIK and myopic SMILE cases, performed with the VisuMax femtosecond laser and MEL 80 or MEL 90 excimer laser (both Carl Zeiss Meditec AG) between January 2010 and February 2021 at London Vision Clinic, London, United Kingdom. A chart review was performed to find cases of clinically significant TLSS, identified as patients prescribed anti-inflammatory medications between 2 weeks and 6 months after surgery to manage photophobia. The incidence of TLSS was calculated for three groups: myopic SMILE, myopic LASIK, and hyperopic LASIK. The incidence of TLSS was then calculated for three subgroups within each treatment type based on spherical equivalent refraction treated. For myopic SMILE and myopic LASIK, it was 0.00 to -4.00 diopters (D) (low), -4.01 to -8.00 D (moderate), and -8.01 to -14.00 D (high). For hyperopic LASIK, it was 0.00 to +2.00 D (low), +2.01 to +4.00 D (moderate), and +4.01 to +6.50 D (high). RESULTS: The range of treatment for myopia was similar between the LASIK and SMILE groups. The incidence of TLSS was 1.2% for the myopic SMILE group, 5.3% for the myopic LASIK group, and 9.0% for the hyperopic LASIK group. The difference was statistically significant between all groups (P < .001). For myopic SMILE, the incidence of TLSS was independent of spherical equivalent refraction for low (1.4%), moderate (1.0%), and high (1.1%) myopia (P > .05). Similarly, for hyperopic LASIK, the incidence was similar for low (9.4%), moderate (8.7%), and high (8.7%) hyperopia (P > .05). In contrast, for myopic LASIK, the incidence of TLSS was "dose-dependent" on refractive error treated, with an incidence of 4.7% for low, 5.8% for moderate, and 8.1% for high myopia (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLSS was higher after myopic LASIK than after myopic SMILE, higher after hyperopic than myopic LASIK, and "dose-dependent" for myopic LASIK but did not vary by correction in myopic SMILE. This is the first report describing the phenomenon of late TLSS occurring between 8 weeks and 6 months after surgery, [J Refract Surg. 2023:39(6):366-373.].


Assuntos
Hiperopia , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ , Miopia , Ferida Cirúrgica , Humanos , Fotofobia/etiologia , Hiperopia/cirurgia , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Miopia/cirurgia
8.
J Refract Surg ; 39(5): 294-301, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37162399

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the first refractive and visual outcomes of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) using the VISUMAX 800 femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG). METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive eyes treated by SMILE using the VISUMAX 800 femtosecond laser at London Vision Clinic, EuroEyes Group, London, United Kingdom. Inclusion criteria were patients aged younger than 45 years, a corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 20/20 or better, and the 3-month postoperative timepoint data being available for analysis. Standard outcomes analysis and vector analysis by the Alpins method were performed. RESULTS: During the study period, 128 eyes of 66 consecutive patients were treated. Three-month data were available for 118 eyes (92%), and 10 eyes (8%) were lost to follow-up. The mean attempted spherical equivalent refraction (SEQ) was -4.65 ± 1.91 diopters (D) (range: -1.90 to -10.05 D) and the mean cylinder was -0.98 ± 0.78 D (range: 0.00 to -4.00 D). The mean age was 30 ± 5 years (range: 20 to 43 years), with 54% women and 46% men. Postoperative SEQ was within ±0.50 D in 86% and ±1.00 D in 100% of eyes. Uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 or better in 91% of eyes. One line of CDVA was lost in 8% of eyes, and no eyes lost two or more lines. There was a small but statistically significant increase in contrast sensitivity at 3, 6, 12, and 18 cpd. CONCLUSIONS: Early outcomes data for SMILE with the second generation VISUMAX 800 femtosecond laser demonstrated an effective and safe option equivalent to published first generation VisuMax outcomes for the treatment myopia and astigmatism. [J Refract Surg. 2023;39(5):294-301.].


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Ferida Cirúrgica , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Adulto , Astigmatismo/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Substância Própria/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Refração Ocular
9.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 54(5): 306-315, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37184989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To introduce VFO and SK VFO Test: new, more representative terminology for symptoms of vitreous floaters/opacities (VFO) and new standardized kinetic (SK) anatomical-functional assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight eyes underwent before-after limited vitrectomy (LV): best-corrected visual acuity, low-luminance visual acuity, Minnesota Low Vision Reading Chart near visual acuity in logMAR, contrast sensitivity function (CV1000E), and straylight measurements (SM) (HDA/LDA/C-Quant). SK infrared confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SK IRcSLO) and swept-source widefield optical coherence tomography (SS-WF-OCT) identified VFO and posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). SK IRcSLO was performed with gaze directed towards the extreme superior, inferior, and lateral directions. RESULTS: Anatomical-functional results after LV improved in 7 eyes (87.5%): objective scatter index (27.34%), disturbance index (47.97%) and C-Quant Log units (2.26%). Pre-LV SK IRcSLO and SS-WFOCT imaging identified dynamic well-defined VFO and PVD status (100%). A residual asymptomatic anterior cortical vitreous-induced shadowing ripple effect was detected post-LV. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first objective-standardized test accounting for VFO kinesis and intermittent effect. There is potential for personalizing treatment and establishing best candidates for laser or surgery. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2023;54:306-315.].


Assuntos
Corpo Vítreo , Descolamento do Vítreo , Humanos , Corpo Vítreo/cirurgia , Transtornos da Visão , Descolamento do Vítreo/diagnóstico , Vitrectomia/métodos
10.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 253: 29-36, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37142173

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop and validate a deep learning neural network for automated measurement of implantable collamer lens (ICL) vault using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective study. METHODS: A total of 2647 AS-OCT scans were used from 139 eyes of 82 subjects who underwent ICL surgery in 3 different centers. Using transfer learning, a deep learning network was trained and validated for estimating the ICL vault on OCT. A trained operator separately reviewed all OCT scans and measured the central vault using a built-in caliper tool. The model was then separately tested on 191 scans. A Bland-Altman plot was constructed and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), and determination coefficient (R2) were calculated to evaluate the strength and validity of the model. RESULTS: On the test set, the model achieved a MAPE of 3.42%, an MAE of 15.82 µm, a RMSE of 18.85 µm, a Pearson correlation coefficient r of +0.98 (P < .00001), and a coefficient of determination R2 of +0.96. There was no significant difference between the vaults of the test set labeled by the technician vs those estimated by the model: 478 ± 95 µm vs 475 ± 97 µm, respectively, P = .064). CONCLUSIONS: Using transfer learning, our deep learning neural network was able to accurately compute the ICL vault from AS-OCT scans, overcoming the limitations of an imbalanced data set and limited training data. Such an algorithm can assist the postoperative assessment in ICL surgery.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Miopia , Lentes Intraoculares Fácicas , Humanos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Implante de Lente Intraocular/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Miopia/cirurgia
11.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 17: 993-1005, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37035513

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the changes on epithelial thickness before and after topical treatment in primary Sjögren syndrome-associated dry eye disease (SS-DED). Methods: This was a prospective study that included referred women with SS-DED and healthy age-matched controls. Corneal epithelial thickness was evaluated using high-definition anterior segment optical coherence tomography (Cirrus 5000 HD-OCT) in the baseline first consultation, and four weeks after treatment with preservative free 1mg/1mL sodium hyaluronate. Schirmer test 1 (ST1), tear break-up time (TBUT), tear meniscus height (TMH), SICCA Ocular Surface Score (SICCA OSS) and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) were evaluated. Statistical significance was defined as p-value <0.05. Results: The study included 40 eyes, 20 with SS-DED and 20 controls. At baseline, SS-DED patients had lower ST1 (11.1 ± 2.2mm vs 14.1 ± 3.1mm, p<0.01), faster TBUT (9.1 ± 1.8s vs 13.2 ± 1.1s, p<0.01) and lower TMH (211.2 ± 68.4 µm vs 217.2 ± 60.1µm; p<0.01) than the control group, whereas SICCA OSS and OSDI were higher (p<0.01). The superior epithelium was thinner in SS-DED group (41.1 ± 3.2 µm vs 43.1± 2.3 µm, p<0.01). After treatment, ST1, TBUT, TMH, SICCA OSS, and OSDI improved (p<0.01), and superior epithelium thickened (p<0.01) in the SS-DED group. Conclusion: Treatment with sodium hyaluronate improved ST1, TBUT, TMH, SICCA-OSS, and OSDI score. Superior epithelium tends to be thinner in SS-DED but becomes thicker with treatment. Our results seem to illustrate the morphological changes in the corneal epithelium in DED, which could be further recognized as a clinical biomarker of SS-DED.

12.
J Refract Surg ; 39(1): 6-14, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630432

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the outcomes of PRESBYOND Laser Blended Vision LASIK (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG) in presbyopic commercial and military pilots requiring Class 1 aeromedical certification. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 23 consecutive pilots who underwent PRESBYOND Laser Blended Vision LASIK. Postoperative visits were conducted at 1 day and 1, 3, and 12 months. Standard outcomes analysis was performed using the data at 12 months. Objective quality of vision measures including mesopic contrast sensitivity (CSV-1000; VectorVision), Ocular Scatter Index (HD Analyzer; Keeler), and straylight (C-Quant; Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH) were determined before and 3 months after surgery. A questionnaire to assess the functional vision of pilots before and after surgery was derived to record subjective outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 23 pilots treated, data were available at 12 months for 22 pilots (95.7%) and at 3 months for 1 pilot (4.3%). Median age was 55 years (range: 42 to 65 years). At 12 months, binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 or better in 100% and 20/16 or better in 52% of pilots. Binocular uncorrected intermediate visual acuity was J3 in 73%, J5 in 95%, and J10 in 100% of pilots. Binocular uncorrected near visual acuity was J1 or better in 78% and J2 or better in 100% of pilots. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent refraction relative to the target was -0.04 ± 0.34 diopters (D) (range: -0.63 to +0.63 D), with 93% within ±0.50 D. There was a statistically significant increase in contrast sensitivity at 3, 6, 12, and 18 cpd. C-Quant straylight was 1.07 ± 0.16 before surgery and 1.06 ± 0.16 at 1 to 3 months after surgery (P = .705). All pilots achieved Class 1 medical certification from the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority and resumed flying. All pilots reported improved functionality compared to the previous vision correction method. CONCLUSIONS: PRESBYOND Laser Blended Vision LASIK enabled presbyopic commercial pilots to continue to fly without the need for glasses. With consideration of the visually challenging cockpit environment, PRESBYOND Laser Blended Vision LASIK provides clear continuous vision for tasks at near, intermediate, and far distance. Class 1 pilots reported a subjective improvement in visual tasks and comfort following surgery. [J Refract Surg. 2023;39(1):6-14.].


Assuntos
Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ , Militares , Pilotos , Humanos , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Refração Ocular , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 251: 126-142, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549584

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To optimize artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms to integrate Scheimpflug-based corneal tomography and biomechanics to enhance ectasia detection. DESIGN: Multicenter cross-sectional case-control retrospective study. METHODS: A total of 3886 unoperated eyes from 3412 patients had Pentacam and Corvis ST (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH) examinations. The database included 1 eye randomly selected from 1680 normal patients (N) and from 1181 "bilateral" keratoconus (KC) patients, along with 551 normal topography eyes from patients with very asymmetric ectasia (VAE-NT), and their 474 unoperated ectatic (VAE-E) eyes. The current TBIv1 (tomographic-biomechanical index) was tested, and an optimized AI algorithm was developed for augmenting accuracy. RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the TBIv1 for discriminating clinical ectasia (KC and VAE-E) was 0.999 (98.5% sensitivity; 98.6% specificity [cutoff: 0.5]), and for VAE-NT, 0.899 (76% sensitivity; 89.1% specificity [cutoff: 0.29]). A novel random forest algorithm (TBIv2), developed with 18 features in 156 trees using 10-fold cross-validation, had a significantly higher AUC (0.945; DeLong, P < .0001) for detecting VAE-NT (84.4% sensitivity and 90.1% specificity; cutoff: 0.43; DeLong, P < .0001) and a similar AUC for clinical ectasia (0.999; DeLong, P = .818; 98.7% sensitivity; 99.2% specificity [cutoff: 0.8]). Considering all cases, the TBIv2 had a higher AUC (0.985) than TBIv1 (0.974; DeLong, P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: AI optimization to integrate Scheimpflug-based corneal tomography and biomechanical assessments augments accuracy for ectasia detection, characterizing ectasia susceptibility in the diverse VAE-NT group. Some patients with VAE may have true unilateral ectasia. Machine learning considering additional data, including epithelial thickness or other parameters from multimodal refractive imaging, will continuously enhance accuracy. NOTE: Publication of this article is sponsored by the American Ophthalmological Society.


Assuntos
Ceratocone , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Topografia da Córnea/métodos , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Inteligência Artificial , Dilatação Patológica/diagnóstico , Paquimetria Corneana/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Curva ROC , Tomografia/métodos
14.
J Refract Surg ; 38(12): 760-769, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476297

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in patients who have hyperopia with or without astigmatism. METHODS: This was a prospective multicenter trial including 374 eyes of 199 patients treated by SMILE for hyperopia using the VisuMax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG). Inclusion criteria were sphere up to +6.00 diopters (D), cylinder up to 5.00 D, and maximum hyperopic meridian up to +7.00 D, with preoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 20/25 or better. The optical zone was 6.3 mm with a transition zone of 2 mm. The minimum lenticule thickness was set at 25 µm in the center and at 10 µm at the edge. Patients were examined at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Standard refractive surgery outcomes analysis was performed. RESULTS: The preoperative spherical equivalent was +3.20 ± 1.48 D (range: +0.25 to +6.50 D). At the 12-month follow-up visit, 81% of eyes treated were within ±0.50 D and 93% of eyes were within ±1.00 D of intended correction. A total of 1.2% of eyes lost two or more lines of CDVA at the 12-month follow-up visit, and 83% were at least 20/20, corresponding to a safety index of 1.005 at 12 months. Of the 219 eyes with plano target, 68.8% had an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better and 88% were at least 20/25 uncorrected at 12 months. There were no statistically significant changes in contrast sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: SMILE was found to be an effective treatment method for the correction of compound hyperopic astigmatism, demonstrating a high level of efficacy, predictability, safety, and stability. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(12):760-769.].


Assuntos
Hiperopia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Hiperopia/cirurgia
15.
J Refract Surg ; 38(11): 725-732, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367263

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the objective change in light disturbance around a glare source using the Light Disturbance Analyzer (LDA) (Binarytarget Lda) and correlate this with the validated subjective quality of vision (QoV) questionnaire in small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for high compound myopic astigmatism. METHODS: This was a prospective study recruiting 114 patients undergoing SMILE with attempted spherical equivalent refraction (SEQ) correction from -9.00 to -13.00 diopters (D), and cylinder up to 5.00 D. The LDA was used before and 3 and 12 months after surgery to evaluate the Light Disturbance Area, Light Disturbance Index, Best Fit Circle Radius, and Best Fit Circle Irregularity. Patients completed the Rasch-validated QoV questionnaire before and 12 months after surgery. Correlation analysis was performed between the LDA parameters and the QoV frequency, severity, and bothersomeness for halos and starbursts. RESULTS: At 12 months, there was a non-statistically signifcant change of 11.9% for Light Disturbance Area and Light Disturbance Index and 6.5% for Best Fit Circle Radius. There was an increase of 81.9% for Best Fit Circle Irregularity (P = .017). Light Disturbance Area, Light Disturbance Index, and Best Fit Circle Radius correlated with bothersomeness for QoV halos, and with frequency, severity and bothersomeness for QoV star-bursts (P < .05), albeit with a low correlation coefficient (R2 < 0.13). There was no correlation between increase in Best Fit Circle Irregularity and the halo and starburst scores from the QoV questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: LDA Best Fit Circle Irregularity was found to increase following high myopic SMILE. Other LDA parameters appeared to increase, but a much larger sample would be required to find statistical significance. The change in LDA parameters was only weakly correlated with QoV halo and starburst metrics, representing the wide variation in inter-subject perception. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(11):725-732.].


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Cirurgia da Córnea a Laser , Miopia , Humanos , Astigmatismo/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Substância Própria/cirurgia , Acuidade Visual , Miopia/cirurgia , Refração Ocular , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 16: 2453-2461, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35968053

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of eye rubbing on the epithelial thickness profile in tomographically normal corneas by AS-OCT and to compare right and left eyes in right-handed children. Methods: Thirty right-handed boys (mean age 11.2 years) with ocular allergy and history of eye rubbing were evaluated using Scheimpflug (Pentacam HR, Oculus Wetzlar, Germany) and anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Epithelial thickness (ET) and full corneal thickness (CT) parameters were compared between right and left eyes with a non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. A p-value lower than 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Results: No eyes had topometric nor tomographic criteria for keratoconus. The min-max ET was lower in right eyes (-2.8 µm vs -3.5; p = 0.02). The difference between inferior and superior (I-S) octants was lower in right eyes (1.1 µm vs 1.9 µm; p = 0.03) as a result of inferotemporal thinning. The highest ET difference was registered between nasal and temporal octants and was more pronounced in the right eyes (2 µm vs 3.1 µm; p < 0.001). Conclusion: AS-OCT analyses reveal different epithelial thickness patterns between the eyes in young atopic patients, likely eye rubbers. Inferior and temporal epithelial thickness seem to be more affected by thinning in the eye on the side of the dominant hand.

17.
J Refract Surg ; 38(8): 529-537, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947001

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the optical consequences of epithelial remodeling in irregular corneas and their impact on the choice of different surface ablation techniques. METHODS: Anterior corneal and stromal surface topographies and epithelial thickness maps were analyzed in 24 eyes with irregular corneal optics. On two of the eyes, four different surface ablation techniques were simulated: (1) conventional anterior topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), (2) transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK), (3) transepithelial anterior topography-guided PRK, and (4) stromal topography-guided PRK. RESULTS: Stromal surface topographies showed higher keratometric values, astigmatism, asphericity, and corneal higher order aberrations compared to topographies of anterior corneas covered by epithelium. Transepithelial anterior topography-guided PRK and stromal topography-guided PRK both resulted in regularized stromal surface, transepithelial PTK achieved partial regularization corresponding to the smoothing effect of the epithelial remodeling, and conventional anterior topography-guided PRK delivered after epithelial removal resulted in residual stromal surface irregularities. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in optical landscapes between the stromal and anterior surfaces in irregular corneas will represent a source of error when anterior topography-guided treatments are delivered on the deepithelialized stroma, as in conventional PRK. In contrast, anterior topography-guided ablations performed as transepithelial PRK and stromal topography-guided PRK delivered after epithelial removal address the full stromal irregularity, whereas transepithelial PTK alone may be used when topography-guided treatments are not possible. The authors conclude topography-guided PRK of irregular corneas should lead to significantly improved regularization only if it includes the effect of epithelial remodeling. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(8):529-537.].


Assuntos
Epitélio Corneano , Ceratectomia Fotorrefrativa , Córnea/cirurgia , Topografia da Córnea , Epitélio Corneano/cirurgia , Humanos , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Ceratectomia Fotorrefrativa/métodos , Acuidade Visual
18.
J Refract Surg ; 38(8): 488-496, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947004

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for myopia in a large population of young adults. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, the patient population consisted of the first 4,138 consecutive SMILE treatments using the VisuMax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec) between 2012 and 2018 at the London Vision Clinic. Inclusion criteria were myopic spherical equivalent up to -9.00 diopters (D), cylinder up to 6.00 D, corrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better, age younger than 40 years, and follow-up of 12 months. Outcomes analysis was performed using the Standard Graphs for Reporting Refractive Surgery. RESULTS: Data were available at 12 months in 3,722 eyes (90%), and 416 eyes (10%) were lost to follow-up. Mean attempted spherical equivalent refraction (SEQ) was -4.61 ± 1.84 D (range: -1.12 to -9.00 D). Mean cylinder was -0.78 ± 0.66 D (range: 0.00 to -6.00 D). Postoperatively, the mean SEQ relative to target was -0.13 ± 0.30 D (range: -1.35 to +1.25 D) and was within ±0.50 D in 88.1% and ±1.00 D in 99.6% of eyes. Uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 or better in 95.4% of eyes and 20/25 or better in 98.7% of eyes. One line of CDVA was lost in 3.0% of eyes, and 0.08% (n = 3) lost two or more lines of CDVA, for which CDVA was restored following phototherapeutic keratectomy treatment. There was a statistically significant improvement of 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, and 0.07 log units for contrast sensitivity at 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree, respectively (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: SMILE achieved excellent outcomes for myopia up to -9.00 D with cylinder up to -5.50 D for a large population in patients without presbyopia. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(8):488-496.].


Assuntos
Lasers de Excimer , Miopia , Adulto , Substância Própria/cirurgia , Humanos , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Miopia/cirurgia , Refração Ocular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Saudi J Ophthalmol ; 36(1): 25-35, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971489

RESUMO

In this review, we discuss the applications of epithelial thickness mapping in corneal refractive surgery. The review describes that the epithelial thickness profile is nonuniform in the normal eye, being thinner superiorly than inferiorly and thinner temporally than nasally. It is postulated that this is due to the eyelid forces and blinking action on the superior cornea. Changes in the epithelial thickness profile have been found to be highly predictable, responding to compensate for changes in the stromal curvature gradient, using the eyelid as an outer template. This leads to characteristic changes in the epithelial thickness profile that can be used for early screening in keratoconus, postoperative monitoring for early signs of corneal ectasia, and for determining whether further steepening can be performed without the risk of apical syndrome following primary hyperopic treatment. Compensatory epithelial thickness changes are also a critical part of diagnosis in irregular astigmatism as these partially mask the stromal surface irregularities. The epithelial thickness map can then be used to plan a trans-epithelial photorefractive keratectomy treatment for cases of irregularly irregular astigmatism.

20.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 33(4): 258-268, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779050

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As more devices become available that offer corneal epithelial thickness mapping, this is becoming more widely used for numerous applications in corneal refractive surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: The epithelial thickness profile is nonuniform in the normal eye, being thinner superiorly than inferiorly and thinner temporally than nasally. Changes in the epithelial thickness profile are highly predictable, responding to compensate for changes in the stromal curvature gradient, using the eyelid as an outer template. This leads to characteristic changes that can be used for early screening in keratoconus, postoperative monitoring for early signs of corneal ectasia, and for determining whether further steepening can be performed without the risk of apical syndrome following primary hyperopic treatment. Compensatory epithelial thickness changes are also a critical part of diagnosis in irregular astigmatism as these partially mask the stromal surface irregularities. The epithelial thickness map can then be used to plan a trans-epithelial PRK treatment for cases of irregularly irregular astigmatism. Other factors can also affect the epithelial thickness profile, including dry eye, anterior basement membrane dystrophy and eyelid ptosis. SUMMARY: Epithelial thickness mapping is becoming a crucial tool for refractive surgery, in particular for keratoconus screening, ectasia monitoring, hyperopic treatment planning, and therapeutic diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Hiperopia , Ceratocone , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Refrativos , Astigmatismo/diagnóstico , Córnea/cirurgia , Dilatação Patológica , Humanos , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Ceratocone/cirurgia
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