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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 193, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omicron has become the dominant variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) since first reported in November 2021. From the initially detected Wuhan lineage, sublineages BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, BQ, XAG, and XBB have emerged over time and are dominant in many countries. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate which variants are circulating and the clinical characteristics of inpatients infected with the Omicron variant. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study selected hospitalized patients admitted with respiratory symptoms to a hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between June and July 2022. SARS-CoV-2 results were analyzed together with clinical outcomes and vaccination status. A viral genome library was prepared and forwarded to the Illumina MiSeq Platform for sequencing. RESULTS: In total, 37 genomes were sequenced. Concerning the Omicron sublineages, our study detected: BA.1 (21 K), BA.2 (21 L), BA.4 (22A), BA.5 (22B), BA.2.12.1 (22C), BQ.1 (22E), XBB (22F), and XAG recombinant. Omicron BA.5 (30%), BA.2 (19%), and BQ.1 (19%) were the most frequent sublineages, respectively. In total, 38% of patients present hypertension, and the most common symptoms were coughing (62%). Analyzing the COVID-19 vaccination, 30% of patients were fully vaccinated, 49% had a partial vaccination status, and 21% were unvaccinated (no dose). CONCLUSIONS: BA.5 was the most prevalent sublineage in our study and surpassed the predominance of BA.2, as reported by the national genomic surveillance program. BQ.1 was diagnosed earlier in this study than it was officially reported in the state. Current data have demonstrated that the Omicron variant causes less severe infections, with the high rate of transmissibility and mutational landscape causing the rapid emergence of new sublineages.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Pacientes Internados , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tosse
2.
Respir Res ; 25(1): 71, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317218

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Since the worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2, different strategies have been followed to combat the pandemic and limit virus transmission. In the meantime, other respiratory viruses continued to circulate, though at decreased rates. METHODS: This study was conducted between June and July 2022, in a hospital in the metropolitan region of Rio Grande do Sul state, in the southernmost state of Brazil. The 337 hospitalized patients included those with respiratory symptoms without delimitation of age. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detected 15 different respiratory viruses and confirmed coinfections in the samples. Different statistical tests were applied to evaluate the association between associations of clinical characteristics and coinfection. RESULTS: Sampling corresponds to 337 selected and 330 patients analyzed. The principal clinical outcome found was hospital discharge in 309 (94%) cases, while 21 (6%) resulted in death. The principal viral agents related to coinfections were Human rhinovirus, Human enterovirus, and Respiratory syncytial virus. The most frequent viral agent detected was SARS-CoV-2, with 60 (18%) infections, followed by 51 (15%) cases of Respiratory syncytial virus B (15%) and 44 (13%) cases of Human rhinovirus 1. Coinfection was mainly observed in children, while adults and the elderly were more affected by a single infection. Analyzing COVID-19 vaccination, 175 (53%) were unvaccinated while the remainder had at least one dose of the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents information to update the understanding of viral circulation in the region. Furthermore, the findings clarify the behavior of viral infections and possible coinfections in hospitalized patients, considering different ages and clinical profiles. In addition, this knowledge can help to monitor the population's clinical manifestations and prevent future outbreaks of respiratory viruses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Vírus , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2
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