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1.
Food Environ Virol ; 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532064

RESUMO

Bat-borne viruses may affect public health and the global economy. These mammals have a wide geographical distribution and unique biological, physiological, and immunogenic characteristics, allowing the dissemination of many known and unknown viruses. Enteric viruses, such as adeno (AdV) and rotaviruses, are recognized as the main causative agents of disease and outbreaks. In the present study, the presence of viruses from Adenoviridae and Reoviridae families was evaluated in molossid, phyllostomid, and vespertilionid bats captured in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, between September 2021 and July 2022. Sixty bat rectal swabs were analyzed by PCR. Eight (13.3%) samples were positive for adenovirus and classified as human mastadenovirus C (HAdV-C) (three samples) and HAdV-E (five samples) by sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. All samples were negative in rotavirus specific RT-PCR. This is the first study to describe the presence of HAdV in samples of Glossophaga soricina, Eptesicus brasiliensis, and Histiotus velatus. Furthermore, the presence of HAdV-E in bats was reported, which is unusual and may suggest that other HAdV genotypes, in addition to HAdV-C, may also be harbored by wild animals. The data generated in the present study reinforces the importance of eco-surveillance of viral agents related to diseases in humans and wild animals. In addition, it is essential to identify possible new hosts or reservoirs that increase the risk of spillover and dissemination of infectious pathogens, helping to prevent and control zoonotic diseases.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 193, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omicron has become the dominant variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) since first reported in November 2021. From the initially detected Wuhan lineage, sublineages BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, BQ, XAG, and XBB have emerged over time and are dominant in many countries. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate which variants are circulating and the clinical characteristics of inpatients infected with the Omicron variant. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study selected hospitalized patients admitted with respiratory symptoms to a hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between June and July 2022. SARS-CoV-2 results were analyzed together with clinical outcomes and vaccination status. A viral genome library was prepared and forwarded to the Illumina MiSeq Platform for sequencing. RESULTS: In total, 37 genomes were sequenced. Concerning the Omicron sublineages, our study detected: BA.1 (21 K), BA.2 (21 L), BA.4 (22A), BA.5 (22B), BA.2.12.1 (22C), BQ.1 (22E), XBB (22F), and XAG recombinant. Omicron BA.5 (30%), BA.2 (19%), and BQ.1 (19%) were the most frequent sublineages, respectively. In total, 38% of patients present hypertension, and the most common symptoms were coughing (62%). Analyzing the COVID-19 vaccination, 30% of patients were fully vaccinated, 49% had a partial vaccination status, and 21% were unvaccinated (no dose). CONCLUSIONS: BA.5 was the most prevalent sublineage in our study and surpassed the predominance of BA.2, as reported by the national genomic surveillance program. BQ.1 was diagnosed earlier in this study than it was officially reported in the state. Current data have demonstrated that the Omicron variant causes less severe infections, with the high rate of transmissibility and mutational landscape causing the rapid emergence of new sublineages.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Pacientes Internados , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tosse
3.
Respir Res ; 25(1): 71, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317218

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Since the worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2, different strategies have been followed to combat the pandemic and limit virus transmission. In the meantime, other respiratory viruses continued to circulate, though at decreased rates. METHODS: This study was conducted between June and July 2022, in a hospital in the metropolitan region of Rio Grande do Sul state, in the southernmost state of Brazil. The 337 hospitalized patients included those with respiratory symptoms without delimitation of age. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detected 15 different respiratory viruses and confirmed coinfections in the samples. Different statistical tests were applied to evaluate the association between associations of clinical characteristics and coinfection. RESULTS: Sampling corresponds to 337 selected and 330 patients analyzed. The principal clinical outcome found was hospital discharge in 309 (94%) cases, while 21 (6%) resulted in death. The principal viral agents related to coinfections were Human rhinovirus, Human enterovirus, and Respiratory syncytial virus. The most frequent viral agent detected was SARS-CoV-2, with 60 (18%) infections, followed by 51 (15%) cases of Respiratory syncytial virus B (15%) and 44 (13%) cases of Human rhinovirus 1. Coinfection was mainly observed in children, while adults and the elderly were more affected by a single infection. Analyzing COVID-19 vaccination, 175 (53%) were unvaccinated while the remainder had at least one dose of the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents information to update the understanding of viral circulation in the region. Furthermore, the findings clarify the behavior of viral infections and possible coinfections in hospitalized patients, considering different ages and clinical profiles. In addition, this knowledge can help to monitor the population's clinical manifestations and prevent future outbreaks of respiratory viruses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Vírus , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(2): 2129-2144, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38057673

RESUMO

Since starts the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic identified the presence of genomic fragments of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in various environmental matrices: domestic sewage, surface waters, and contaminated freshwater. Environmental monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 is a tool for evaluating trend curves over the months, compared to several clinical cases of the disease. The objective of this study was to monitor the SARS-CoV-2 in environmental samples collected in different sites in a metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. During 10 months from 2020 to 2021, 300 samples were collected weekly and biweekly from nine points located in 3 cities: one point from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in São Leopoldo (fortnightly collection), two points in Dilúvio Stream in Porto Alegre (fortnightly collection), two points in Pampa and Luiz Rau Streams (weekly collection), and two points in public fountains (fortnightly collection) in Novo Hamburgo. After collection, samples were concentrated by ultracentrifugation, and viral nucleic acids were extracted using MagMax® Core Nucleic Acid Purifications kits and submitted to RT-qPCR, using E, N1, and N2 gene targets of SARS-CoV-2. Only 7% (3/41) samples from public fountains were positive, with a mean viral load (VL) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA of 5.02 × 101 gc/l (2.41~8.59 × 101 gc/l), while the streams had average VL of 7.43 × 105 gc/l (Pampa), 7.06 × 105 gc/l (Luiz Rau), 2.01 × 105 gc/l (Dilúvio), and 4.46 × 105 cg/l (WWTP). The results showed varying levels of viral presence in different sample types, with a demonstrated correlation between environmental viral load and clinical COVID-19 cases. These findings contribute to understanding virus persistence and transmission pathways in the environment. Continuous monitoring, especially in less developed regions, is crucial for early detection of vaccine resistance, new variants, and potential COVID-19 resurgence.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , RNA Viral , Brasil/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental
5.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(10): e202200411, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085355

RESUMO

There is growing interest in exploring Digitalis cardenolides as potential antiviral agents. Hence, we herein investigated the influence of structural features and lipophilicity on the antiherpes activity of 65 natural and semisynthetic cardenolides assayed in vitro against HSV-1. The presence of an α,ß-unsaturated lactone ring at C-17, a ß-hydroxy group at C-14 and C-3ß-OR substituents were considered essential requirements for this biological activity. Glycosides were more active than their genins, especially monoglycosides containing a rhamnose residue. The activity enhanced in derivatives bearing an aldehyde group at C-19 instead of a methyl group, whereas inserting a C-5ß-OH improved the antiherpes effect significantly. The cardenolides lipophilicity was accessed by measuring experimentally their log P values (n-octanol-water partition coefficient) and disclosed a range of lipophilicity (log P 0.75±0.25) associated with the optimal antiherpes activity. In silico studies were carried out and resulted in the establishment of two predictive models potentially useful to identify and/or optimize novel antiherpes cardenolides. The effectiveness of the models was confirmed by retrospective analysis of the studied compounds. This is the first SAR study addressing the antiherpes activity of cardenolides. The developed computational models were able to predict the active cardenolides and their log P values.


Assuntos
Digitalis , Digitalis/química , Cardenolídeos/farmacologia , 1-Octanol , Ramnose , Estudos Retrospectivos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Glicosídeos , Lactonas , Aldeídos , Água
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321987

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Disease clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic to severe multiple organ damage. SARS-CoV-2 uses ACE2 as a cellular receptor, which is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, allowing viral replication in the gastrointestinal tract. Viral RNA has been detected in the stool of COVID-19 patients and viable viruses had been isolated in some of these samples. Thus, a putative role of SARS-CoV-2 fecal-oral transmission has been argued. SARS-CoV-2 is shed in human excreta and further disposed in the sewerage or in the environment, in poor basic sanitation settings. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a valuable population level approach for monitoring viral pathogens and has been successfully used in different contexts. This review summarizes the current global experience on SARS-CoV-2 WBE in distinct continents and viral detection in polluted surface water. The advantages and concerns of this strategy for SARS-CoV-2 surveillance are discussed. Outcomes suggest that WBE is a valuable early warning alert and a helpful complementary surveillance tool to subside public health response, to tailor containment and mitigation measures and to determine target populations for testing. In poor sanitation settings, contaminated rivers could be alternatively used as a source for environmental surveillance.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Saneamento , Águas Residuárias/virologia
7.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(2): 711-717, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784949

RESUMO

Several emerging viral agents related to gastroenteritis are distributed in human and animal populations and may contaminate the environment due to anthropic activities. The objective of this study was to analyze the seasonal contamination by enteric virus and coliforms in water from streams in the Vale do Taquari, draining a large number of pig farms. Microbiological contamination was evidenced by the detection of total and thermotolerant coliforms, reaching their peak in December. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), Enterovirus-G (EV-G) genome, and Sapelovirus-A (SV-A) genome were not detected. On the other hand, Rotavirus (RV) was detected in 3% (1/32) of the samples, whereas Teschovirus-A (PTV) was detected in 6% (2/32). This is the first detection of PTV in environmental samples in Brazil, pointing that the virus is being shedded from swine herds to watersheds. Human mastadenovirus (HAdV) was the most frequent detected viral agent in 9.3% (3/32) with values of 2.54 × 105, 7.13 × 104, and 3.09 × 105 genome copies/liter (gc/L). The circulation of coliforms and viral pathogens is noticeable due to anthropic activities and to the management of animal waste from the pig farming. In this way, enteric viruses can assist in monitoring the quality of watersheds and in tracking sources of contamination.


Assuntos
Enterite/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Teschovirus/isolamento & purificação , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Brasil , Enterite/virologia , Fazendas , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Teschovirus/genética , Vírus/classificação , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 142: 335-349, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232312

RESUMO

Anthropogenic contamination of beaches in the south of Brazil was assessed by detection of Escherichia coli, human mastadenovirus species C (HAdV-C) and F (HAdV-F) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Sampling was carried out in October (2016), and in January, April and July (2017). Water, sediment, sea surface microlayer (SML), bivalves, and air sentinel samples were evaluated. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was used to estimate the probability of swimmer infection. HAdV-C was present in 26% of the samples, for both qPCR and viral isolation. The highest rates of detection in genomic copies (GC) were in water (2.42E+10 GC/L), SML (2.08E+10 GC/L), sediment (3.82E+08 GC/g) and bivalves (3.91E+07 GC/g). QMRA estimated daily and annual risks with a maximum value (9.99E-01) in almost all of the samples. Viable HAdV-C was often detected in the SML, pointing that this is a source of infection for people bathing in these waters.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Bivalves/virologia , Sedimentos Geológicos/virologia , Água do Mar/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Animais , Praias , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Medição de Risco/métodos , Natação , Microbiologia da Água
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 651(Pt 1): 298-308, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240914

RESUMO

In this study, total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli, enterovirus (EV), rotavirus (RV), and human mastadenovirus species C and F (HAdV-C and HAdV-F) were evaluated in water samples from Belo Stream. For HAdV-C and F, the infectivity was assessed by integrated cell culture quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (ICC-qPCR). Samples were collected monthly (May/2015 to April/2016) at four sites. Viral analyses were performed for both ultracentrifuge-concentrated and unconcentrated samples. For site P4 (used for recreational purposes), QMRA was applied to estimate health risks associated with exposure to E. coli and HAdV-C and F. TC and E. coli were present throughout the collection period. EV and RV were not detected. HAdV-C were present in 8.51% (1.89E + 06 to 2.28E + 07 GC (Genomic Copies)/L) and 21.27% (2.36E + 05 to 1.29E + 07 GC/L) for unconcentrated and concentrated samples, respectively. For HAdV-F were 12.76% (2.77E + 07 to 3.31E + 08 GC/L) and 48.93% (1.10E + 05 to 4.50E + 08 GC/L) for unconcentrated and concentrated samples, respectively. For unconcentrated samples, infectivity for HAdV-C was detected in 37.20% (1st ICC-qPCR) and 25.58% (2nd ICC-qPCR). For HAdV-F, infectivity was detected in 6.97% (1st ICC-qPCR) and 6.97% (2nd ICC-qPCR). For concentrated samples, HAdV-C infectious was observed in 17.02% (1st ICC-qPCR) and in 8.51% (2nd ICC-qPCR). For HAdV-F, were present in 8.51% for both 1st and 2nd ICC-qPCR. Statistical analyzes showed significant difference between the collection sites when analyzed the molecular data of HAdV-F, data of TC and E. coli. Correlation tests showed direct correlation between HAdV-F with E. coli and TC. E. coli concentrations translated to the lowest estimates of infection risks (8.58E-05 to 2.17E-03). HAdV-F concentrations were associated with the highest infection risks at 9.99E-01 and for group C, 1.29E-01 to 9.99E-01. These results show that commonly used bacterial indicators for water quality may not infer health risks associated with viruses in recreational freshwaters.


Assuntos
Medição de Risco , Rios/microbiologia , Qualidade da Água , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Recreação , Rios/virologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18063, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039055

RESUMO

Cymbopogon citratus and C. nardus are noteworthy among the several existing plant species displaying medicinal properties, due to the potential pharmacological activity of these species, including antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-trypanosomal activities. The objective of this study was to carry out in vitro toxicity tests of plant extracts from both species and analyze potential antiviral activity against Human mastadenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5). Two cell lines (A549 and VERO) were used and mitochondrial and lysosomal viability were determined by the MTT and neutral red assay, respectively, after two exposure times (24 hours and six days). The aim of these assays was to counteract the behavior of the extracts against the different cell lines and determine their non-toxic concentration range, in order to evaluate possible antiviral activity against HAdV-5. Plaque reduction and inhibition index of viral titer assays were performed using the maximum non-cytotoxic concentrations (MNCC) of each extract. The results indicate MNCC at 625 µg/mL for all extracts, except for Cymbopogon nardus obtained with 80% ethanol (CN80), which showed toxicity at concentrations higher than 312.5 µg/mL. CN80 was the only extract that displayed potential activity against HAdV-5, at a concentration of 75 µg/mL, becoming a candidate for extract fraction purification and/or the isolation of substances related to the observed antiviral activity


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/análise , Mastadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Cymbopogon/toxicidade , Antivirais/análise , Técnicas In Vitro , Sobrevivência Celular
11.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 60: e69, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427404

RESUMO

Hepatitis A virus (HAV), a member of Picornaviridae family, is the main causative agent of acute viral hepatitis in the world, mainly in developing countries. HAV may be present in contaminated water and food and its presence is often associated to a lesser extent with socioeconomic factors and environmental quality. The main goals in the present study were to standardize a cell culture combined to a polymerase chain reaction protocol for the detection and quantification of viral viability and analyze whether the virus could be found in water samples collected in four urban streams of Sinos River watershed. Virus recovery was assayed from known virus concentrations measured in experimentally contaminated raw and ultrapure water (MilliQ®). Recovery rates ranged from 270% in raw water to 15,000% in ultrapure water. In a second step, a qPCR coupled to a previous passage in cells, demonstrated more analytical sensitivity when compared to samples assayed without a previous passage in cell cultures. HAV genome was detected in only 1 of 84 samples analyzed, pointing to a very low occurrence of HAV in water samples in the studied region. These findings are remarkable, since no more than 5% of the domestic sewage in this area is treated pointing to a low occurrence of HAV in the population living nearby during the study period.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , População Urbana
12.
J Water Health ; 16(1): 102-111, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424724

RESUMO

Adenoviruses (AdV) are related to respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in animals and human beings. Their wide genetic diversity in water bodies and their resistance to environmental conditions allow the use of AdV as a reliable marker for detection of fecal contamination. In this work, the diversity of AdV along Belo Stream - in the city of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - was evaluated. Samples were compared in both concentrated and unconcentrated forms. The identification of different AdV species was performed by amplifying a partial sequence of the DNA polymerase gene. AdV was detected in 24 out of 55 concentrated samples (43.6%) and the following species were identified: human adenovirus (HAdV) species C (4/55; 7.2%), D (6/55; 10.9%), E (2/55; 3.6%), and F (9/55; 16.3%). AdV related to other mammalian hosts, such as bovine adenovirus (1/55, 1.8%) and murine adenovirus (2/55, 3.6%), have also been identified; 23.6% (13/55) of the unconcentrated samples were positive, and identified as HAdV species C (6/55, 10.9%), D (1/55, 1.8%), and F (6/55, 10.9%). Results obtained evidenced the presence and the great diversity of AdV, mainly of human origin, circulating in Belo Stream. As expected, the concentration step performed helped to detect AdV in more samples.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Variação Genética , Rios , Microbiologia da Água , Animais , Brasil , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
13.
J Pharm Sci ; 105(7): 2194-203, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27290627

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated the antiherpes activity of pentyl gallate (PG), suggesting that it could be a promising candidate for the topical treatment of human herpes labialis. PG low aqueous solubility represents a major drawback to its incorporation in topical dosage forms. Hence, the feasibility of incorporating PG into nanoemulsions, the ability to penetrate the skin, to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 replication, and to cause dermal sensitization or toxicity were evaluated. Oil/water nanoemulsions containing 0.5% PG were prepared by spontaneous emulsification. The in vitro PG distribution into porcine ear skin after topical application of nanoemulsions was assessed, and the in vitro antiviral activity against HSV-1 replication was evaluated. Acute dermal toxicity and risk of dermal sensitization were evaluated in rat model. Nanoemulsions presented nanometric particle size (from 124.8 to 143.7 nm), high zeta potential (from -50.1 to -66.1 mV), loading efficiency above 99%, and adequate stability during 12 months. All formulations presented anti-HSV-1 activity. PG was able to reach deeper into the dermis more efficiently from the nanoemulsion F4. This formulation as well as PG were considered safe for topical use. Nanoemulsions seem to be a safe and effective approach for topically delivering PG in the treatment of human herpes labialis infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Herpes Labial/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antivirais/toxicidade , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Emulsões , Ácido Gálico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Gálico/uso terapêutico , Ácido Gálico/toxicidade , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Irritantes , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Absorção Cutânea , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Dermatopatias/patologia , Solubilidade , Suínos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Water Sci Technol ; 72(12): 2291-300, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26676018

RESUMO

Viral concentration method by adsorption-elution with negative membranes has been widely employed for concentrating viruses from environmental samples. In order to provide an adequate assessment of its recovery efficiency, this study was conducted to assess viral recovery rates for viral species commonly found in water (HAdV-5, EV, RV, BAdV and CAV-2), quantifying viral genomes at the end of the five different steps of the process. Recovery rates were analyzed for several viruses combined in a single water sample and for each virus assayed separately. Ultrapure water samples were artificially contaminated and analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). High recovery rates were found after the final stage when assessed individually (89 to 125%) and combined in the same sample (23 to > 164%). HAdV-5 exhibited >100% recovery when assayed with human viruses and other AdVs, whereas BAdV and CAV-2 were not detected. These data suggest that recovery efficiency could be related to viral structural characteristics, their electric charges and other interactions, so that they are retained with greater or lesser efficiency when coupled. This protocol could be applied to environmental samples, since high recovery rates were observed and infectious viruses were detected at the end of the concentration process.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Adenoviridae/classificação , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/fisiologia , Adsorção , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/fisiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cloreto de Magnésio , Membranas Artificiais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/fisiologia , Interferência Viral
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 187(11): 720, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26514803

RESUMO

Climate variables may interfere with the environmental persistence and spread of pathogenic microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of human adenovirus (HAdV) and total and thermotolerant coliforms in treated and untreated water and report gastroenteritis cases in seven cities located in the hydrographic basin of the Sinos River (HBSR), Southern Brazil. The data on water quality from samples collected at catchment areas of HBSR from March to December 2011 were compared with precipitation records, virus detection rates and viral loads, and information on enteric diseases among residents of the region. There was a marked increase in precipitation intensity in April, July, and August and a decrease in May and November. The number of HAdV genome copies (gc) in untreated water ranged from 2.1×10(8) gc/L in June to 7.8×10(1) gc/L in December, and in treated water, from 6.3×10(4) gc/L in September to 4.1×10(1) gc/L in November. The most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms ranged from 5×10(1) MPN/100 mL in December to 2.4×10(5) MPN/100 mL in July, and thermotolerant coliforms ranged from 1×10(1) MPN/100 mL in August to 6.9×10(4) MPN/100 mL in July. A total of 79 hospital admissions due to gastroenteritis were registered in the cities studied. The results for coliforms in untreated water demonstrate deficits in sanitation and wastewater treatment. These findings also indicate a possible relationship between the occurrence of rainfalls after dry periods and an increase in the number of gastroenteritis cases and in HAdV load quantified in surface water collected for conventional potabilization.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Chuva/virologia , Rios/virologia , Purificação da Água , Qualidade da Água
16.
Braz J Microbiol ; 46(3): 715-23, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26413052

RESUMO

Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/classificação , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Penaeidae/virologia , Poluição da Água , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Geografia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Esgotos/virologia
17.
Braz J Microbiol ; 46(3): 749-52, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26413056

RESUMO

Human adenoviruses (HAdV), members of the Adenoviridae family, are excreted through the fecal route and may be present in the feces of humans consuming contaminated food or water. The presence of HAdV from different serotypes in the feces of healthy individuals was already reported using conventional polymerase chain reaction; however, real-time PCR (qPCR) may reveal not only the rates of detection as well as demonstrate the viral loads excreted by healthy persons. Aiming to identify and characterize the presence of adenoviruses in stool samples, 147 fecal samples from patients with no records of diarrhea were analyzed (74 from winter season and 73 from summer) by Real-Time PCR (qPCR) assay and conventional PCR. HAdV genome was present in 43.8% (32/73) of stools samples collected during summer season and 21.6% (16/74) during winter. The rate of detection of genomic copies (gc) ranged from 4.04×10(2) to 6.72×10(5)gc/g of feces among the 147 samples analyzed, of which the ranged of genomic copies of DNA HAdV was major in summer. All samples were negative when tested for rotaviruses (RV) and noroviruses (NoV) by PCR conventional and qPCR respectively. HAdV is excreted constantly by infected individuals in the absence of clinical signs and the occurrence may vary seasonally.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/classificação , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): l7235-723, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469613

RESUMO

Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems..


Assuntos
Animais , Adenoviridae/classificação , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Penaeidae/virologia , Poluição da Água , Brasil , Ecossistema , Esgotos/virologia , Geografia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 715-723, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755819

RESUMO

Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

.


Assuntos
Animais , Adenoviridae/classificação , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Penaeidae/virologia , Poluição da Água , Brasil , Ecossistema , Geografia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Esgotos/virologia
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 749-752, July-Sept. 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755826

RESUMO

Human adenoviruses (HAdV), members of the Adenoviridae family, are excreted through the fecal route and may be present in the feces of humans consuming contaminated food or water. The presence of HAdV from different serotypes in the feces of healthy individuals was already reported using conventional polymerase chain reaction; however, real-time PCR (qPCR) may reveal not only the rates of detection as well as demonstrate the viral loads excreted by healthy persons. Aiming to identify and characterize the presence of adenoviruses in stool samples, 147 fecal samples from patients with no records of diarrhea were analyzed (74 from winter season and 73 from summer) by Real-Time PCR (qPCR) assay and conventional PCR. HAdV genome was present in 43.8% (32/73) of stools samples collected during summer season and 21.6% (16/74) during winter. The rate of detection of genomic copies (gc) ranged from 4.04×102 to 6.72×105gc/g of feces among the 147 samples analyzed, of which the ranged of genomic copies of DNA HAdV was major in summer. All samples were negative when tested for rotaviruses (RV) and noroviruses (NoV) by PCR conventional and qPCR respectively. HAdV is excreted constantly by infected individuals in the absence of clinical signs and the occurrence may vary seasonally.

.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/classificação , Brasil , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano
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