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1.
J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs ; 37(1): e12455, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368534

RESUMO

TOPIC: Internationally, preventing suicide in children and young people is a priority and there are a range of preventative approaches available for health professionals to use, including brief interventions. Safety planning is one such brief intervention. Safety plans have long been recommended for use with young people who are suicidal but, these were initially developed for adults. A recent scoping review revealed safety plans need to be tailored to children and young people. This review also identified an important practice gap, that parents also require plans supporting them to keep their child safe. PURPOSE: This paper highlights how a Scottish clinical child and adolescent mental health setting in the UK's National Health Service developed and implemented evidence-based safety plans for suicidality-the Lothian Safety Plan for young people and the Lothian Safekeeping Plan for parents. This paper outlines both plans and gives recommendations for their use by healthcare professionals. The parental Lothian Safekeeping Plan is discussed in more depth as this is a novel intervention. CONCLUSION: The Lothian Safekeeping Plan is a clinically led evidence-based practice innovation. It is a specific suicide prevention plan for use by parents as an additional, complementary, and enhanced resource to the Lothian Safety Plan for young people. It is recommended that healthcare professionals also use a parental safety plan when supporting young people presenting with suicidal crisis. Further research is needed to evaluate the impact of these plans.


Assuntos
Medicina Estatal , Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Pais , Ideação Suicida , Prevenção ao Suicídio , Reino Unido , Escócia
2.
Nurse Educ Today ; 133: 106026, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38029694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly 4000 people were accused of witchcraft in Scotland between 1563 and 1736. Some of these were healers, midwives, and nurses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate Scotland's folk-healers and midwives accused of witchcraft and review their work from a nursing and midwifery perspective. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the Survey of Scottish Witchcraft. METHODS: Those on the Survey with witchcraft accusations relating to folk-healing or midwifery were identified and their biographies were created from Survey data (2021). Individual biographical data were descriptively analysed. Healing/midwifery practice information was tabulated and thematically analysed. RESULTS: 142 individuals were identified (85 % women), 51 % were found guilty, 90 % were executed. Most (98 %) were folk-healers with 10 accused for midwifery reasons. Mainly their work was accused of causing harm. Three themes emerged: their use of rituals; unorthodox religious practices and treatments. Rituals included actions carried out a certain number of times. Religious practices frequently referenced Catholicism. Many of their treatments for ingestion, application or bathing used items still recognised for their health properties. Approximately, 10 % of the 142, mainly in the 1500s/early 1600s, utilised expensive items and complex treatments which had more in common with 'elite' knowledge rather than simple folklore. CONCLUSIONS: Across all 142 people, many aspects of their work are identifiable within more contemporary nursing and midwifery practice including their use of rituals, treatments, and holism. Mostly the accused were folk-practitioners, but a few (1500s/early 1600s) appear to have been healers working akin to physicians. Following the Protestant reformation (1560) their work, unlike that of physicians, was marginalised, considered unorthodox and harmful because they were women and/or their work reflected Catholicism. European hospital nursing originates in the monastic houses, but little is known about these early religious nurses. This study is novel in suggesting that whoever taught these accused witch/healers may have been connected to the monastic hospitals pre-Reformation.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Bruxaria , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escócia
3.
J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs ; 30(5): 899-910, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37052321

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Suicide prevention is an international healthcare priority. There is an urgent need to use approaches that are helpful and follow research evidence. Safety planning is now widely used in suicide prevention; however, it was developed for use with adults, and little is known about its effectiveness for children/young people. WHAT THE PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This systematic scoping review brings together all research evidence since 2008 that reported how effective safety planning is for children/young people. Findings highlight that when healthcare professionals help children/young people who are suicidal, they need to ensure that the safety plan is completed collaboratively with healthcare professionals and children/young people and that it is appropriate for their age and development. There is also need for healthcare professionals to better recognize and respond to the needs of parents/carers who are caring for a child/young person with suicidal ideations/behaviours. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: There is some research indicating that safety planning is effective for use with children/young people, but such evidence has primarily been obtained from females and there is need for more evidence from male study populations. Further research on its use is needed for certain groups of children/young people including those who are care experienced, or identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. This review highlighted that healthcare professionals need specific training before they deliver safety planning for children/young people. It was identified that parents/carers have additional needs and should be involved in safety planning. An additional resource specifically for parents/carers should be developed. ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a leading cause of death for children and young people and its prevention is a global priority. Many Mental Health Services employ safety planning as a brief intervention. There is some evidence of safety planning effectiveness for adults, but little is known about its effectiveness with young people. AIM: To synthesize research reporting safety planning effectiveness for children/young people with suicidal ideation and identify good practice recommendations. INCLUSION CRITERIA: The review relates to safety planning around suicide prevention for children/young people aged less than 18 years, even if it was within a wider intervention. The review was inclusive of all clinical areas (including mental health, primary care, etc), any geographical location or social economic status and inclusivity around the method of delivery. METHODS: A systematic scoping review of literature reporting effectiveness data for the use of safety planning with children/young people with suicidal ideation. The systematic scoping review protocol (pre-registered with Open Science Framework) followed Joanna Briggs Institute conduct guidance and PRISMA-ScR checklist. DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION: Fifteen studies were reported during 2008-2021. Overall, there is promising, but limited, evidence of effectiveness for safety planning for children/young people but with complete evidence gaps for some demographic sub-groups. Evidence determined that healthcare professionals should deliver a safety planning intervention that is completed collaboratively, developmentally appropriate, and recognizes parental/carer involvement. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Further research is needed but current evidence suggests safety planning should be a routine part of care packages for children/young people with suicidal ideation proportionate to their needs. Developing/implementing these plans needs bespoke health professional training and additional support and resources for parents/carers should be developed.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Suicídio , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Adolescente , Saúde Mental , Atenção à Saúde , Prevenção ao Suicídio
4.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 36(3): 429-447, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36797039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysphagia can have serious health implications including choking and respiratory infection leading to poorer quality of life. People with intellectual disabilities are at higher risk of dysphagia related health complications and early death. Robust dysphagia screening tools are vital for this population. METHOD: A scoping review and appraisal of the evidence for dysphagia and feeding screening tools for use with people with intellectual disabilities was undertaken. RESULTS: Seven studies (using six screening tools) met the review inclusion criteria. Mostly studies were limited by no defined dysphagia criteria, no verification of tools with a gold reference standard (e.g., videofluoroscopic examination) and lack of participant diversity (small samples, narrow age range, severity of intellectual disability or limited settings). CONCLUSIONS: There is urgent need for development and rigorous appraisal of existing dysphagia screening tools to meet the needs of a wider range of people with intellectual disabilities (particularly mild-to-moderate severity) and in wider settings.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Deficiência Intelectual , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia
6.
Arch Public Health ; 79(1): 134, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance poses a serious global public health threat. Hospital misuse of antibiotics has contributed to this problem and evidence-based interventions are urgently needed to change inappropriate prescribing practices. This paper reports the first theoretical stage of a longer-term project to improve antibiotic prescribing in hospitals through design of an effective behaviour-change intervention. METHODS: Qualitative synthesis using meta-ethnography of primary studies reporting doctors' views and experiences of antibiotic prescribing in hospitals for example, their barriers to appropriate prescribing. Twenty electronic databases were systematically searched over a 10-year period and potential studies screened against eligibility criteria. Included studies were quality-appraised. Original participant quotes and author interpretations were extracted and coded thematically into NVivo. All study processes were conducted by two reviewers working independently with findings discussed with the wider team and key stakeholders. Studies were related by findings into clusters and translated reciprocally and refutationally to develop a new line-of-argument synthesis and conceptual model. Findings are reported using eMERGe guidance. RESULTS: Fifteen papers (13 studies) conducted between 2007 and 2017 reporting the experiences of 336 doctors of varying seniority working in acute hospitals across seven countries, were synthesised. Study findings related in four ways which collectively represented multiple challenges to appropriate antibiotic medical prescribing in hospitals: loss of ownership of prescribing decisions, tension between individual care and public health concerns, evidence-based practice versus bedside medicine, and diverse priorities between different clinical teams. The resulting new line-of-argument and conceptual model reflected how these challenges operated on both micro- and macro-level, highlighting key areas for improving current prescribing practice, such as creating feedback mechanisms, normalising input from other specialties and reducing variation in responsibility for antibiotic decisions. CONCLUSIONS: This first meta-ethnography of doctors` experiences of antibiotic prescribing in acute hospital settings has enabled development of a novel conceptual model enhancing understanding of appropriate antibiotic prescribing. That is, hospital antibiotic prescribing is a complex, context-dependent and dynamic process, entailing the balancing of many tensions. To change practice, comprehensive efforts are needed to manage failures in communication and information provision, promote distribution of responsibility for antibiotic decisions, and reduce fear of consequences from not prescribing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration: CRD42017073740 .

7.
Harm Reduct J ; 17(1): 10, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People experiencing homelessness have higher rates of problematic substance use but difficulty engaging with treatment services. There is limited evidence regarding how problematic substance use treatment should be delivered for these individuals. Previous qualitative research has explored perceptions of effective treatment by people who are homeless, but these individual studies need to be synthesised to generate further practice-relevant insights from the perspective of this group. METHODS: Meta-ethnography was conducted to synthesise research reporting views on substance use treatment by people experiencing homelessness. Studies were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases (CINAHL; Criminal Justice Abstracts; Health Source; MEDLINE; PsycINFO; SocINDEX; Scopus; and Web of Science) and websites and were quality appraised. Original participant quotes and author interpretations were extracted and coded thematically. Concepts identified were compared to determine similarities and differences between studies. Findings were translated (reciprocally and refutationally) across studies, enabling development of an original over-arching line-of-argument and conceptual model. RESULTS: Twenty-three papers published since 2002 in three countries, involving 462 participants, were synthesised. Findings broadly related, through personal descriptions of, and views on, the particular intervention components considered effective to people experiencing homelessness. Participants of all types of interventions had a preference for harm reduction-oriented services. Participants considered treatment effective when it provided a facilitative service environment; compassionate and non-judgemental support; time; choices; and opportunities to (re)learn how to live. Interventions that were of longer duration and offered stability to service users were valued, especially by women. From the line-of-argument synthesis, a new model was developed highlighting critical components of effective substance use treatment from the service user's perspective, including a service context of good relationships, with person-centred care and an understanding of the complexity of people's lives. CONCLUSION: This is the first meta-ethnography to examine the components of effective problematic substance use treatment from the perspective of those experiencing homelessness. Critical components of effective problematic substance use treatment are highlighted. The way in which services and treatment are delivered is more important than the type of treatment provided. Substance use interventions should address these components, including prioritising good relationships between staff and those using services, person-centred approaches, and a genuine understanding of individuals' complex lives.


Assuntos
Redução do Dano , Pessoas Mal Alojadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Antropologia Cultural , Humanos
8.
Qual Health Res ; 30(3): 471-485, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933427

RESUMO

Rates of hospital presentation for self-harm have increased in recent years, and although clinical practice guidelines on clinical provision prioritize positive patient experiences, the quality of provision remains variable. This systematic review provides an updated and extended synthesis of qualitative research on the following: (a) patients' experiences of treatment following presentation to hospital; and (b) patients' perceptions of the impact of treatment on recurrent self-harm and/or suicidal ideation, and future help-seeking. Twenty-six studies were identified for inclusion in the final synthesis. Three meta-themes emerged: (a) individuals undertake extensive identity work when presenting with self-harm, navigating the process of becoming a patient, and negotiating the type of patient they want to be; (b) care ranges from gentle to hostile, with care at admission and discharge being particularly disorientating; and (c) negative experiences of clinical treatment may increase future self-harm. Emerging research gaps include the need for further theoretically informed qualitative research in this area.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 35, 2019 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decision making in health and social care requires robust syntheses of both quantitative and qualitative evidence. Meta-ethnography is a seven-phase methodology for synthesising qualitative studies. Developed in 1988 by sociologists in education Noblit and Hare, meta-ethnography has evolved since its inception; it is now widely used in healthcare research and is gaining popularity in education research. The aim of this article is to provide up-to-date, in-depth guidance on conducting the complex analytic synthesis phases 4 to 6 of meta-ethnography through analysis of the latest methodological evidence. METHODS: We report findings from a methodological systematic review conducted from 2015 to 2016. Fourteen databases and five other online resources were searched. Expansive searches were also conducted resulting in inclusion of 57 publications on meta-ethnography conduct and reporting from a range of academic disciplines published from 1988 to 2016. RESULTS: Current guidance on applying meta-ethnography originates from a small group of researchers using the methodology in a health context. We identified that researchers have operationalised the analysis and synthesis methods of meta-ethnography - determining how studies are related (phase 4), translating studies into one another (phase 5), synthesising translations (phase 6) and line of argument synthesis - to suit their own syntheses resulting in variation in methods and their application. Empirical research is required to compare the impact of different methods of translation and synthesis. Some methods are potentially better at preserving links with the context and meaning of primary studies, a key principle of meta-ethnography. A meta-ethnography can and should include reciprocal and refutational translation and line of argument synthesis, rather than only one of these, to maximise the impact of its outputs. CONCLUSION: The current work is the first to articulate and differentiate the methodological variations and their application for different purposes and represents a significant advance in the understanding of the methodological application of meta-ethnography.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/normas , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Aculturação , Adaptação Psicológica , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Antropologia Cultural/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 25, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709371

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to provide guidance to improve the completeness and clarity of meta-ethnography reporting. BACKGROUND: Evidence-based policy and practice require robust evidence syntheses which can further understanding of people's experiences and associated social processes. Meta-ethnography is a rigorous seven-phase qualitative evidence synthesis methodology, developed by Noblit and Hare. Meta-ethnography is used widely in health research, but reporting is often poor quality and this discourages trust in and use of its findings. Meta-ethnography reporting guidance is needed to improve reporting quality. DESIGN: The eMERGe study used a rigorous mixed-methods design and evidence-based methods to develop the novel reporting guidance and explanatory notes. METHODS: The study, conducted from 2015 to 2017, comprised of: (1) a methodological systematic review of guidance for meta-ethnography conduct and reporting; (2) a review and audit of published meta-ethnographies to identify good practice principles; (3) international, multidisciplinary consensus-building processes to agree guidance content; (4) innovative development of the guidance and explanatory notes. FINDINGS: Recommendations and good practice for all seven phases of meta-ethnography conduct and reporting were newly identified leading to 19 reporting criteria and accompanying detailed guidance. CONCLUSION: The bespoke eMERGe Reporting Guidance, which incorporates new methodological developments and advances the methodology, can help researchers to report the important aspects of meta-ethnography. Use of the guidance should raise reporting quality. Better reporting could make assessments of confidence in the findings more robust and increase use of meta-ethnography outputs to improve practice, policy, and service user outcomes in health and other fields. This is the first tailored reporting guideline for meta-ethnography. This article is being simultaneously published in the following journals: Journal of Advanced Nursing, Psycho-oncology, Review of Education, and BMC Medical Research Methodology.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Guias como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas
11.
J Adv Nurs ; 75(5): 1126-1139, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644123

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to provide guidance to improve the completeness and clarity of meta-ethnography reporting. BACKGROUND: Evidence-based policy and practice require robust evidence syntheses which can further understanding of people's experiences and associated social processes. Meta-ethnography is a rigorous seven-phase qualitative evidence synthesis methodology, developed by Noblit and Hare. Meta-ethnography is used widely in health research, but reporting is often poor quality and this discourages trust in and use of its findings. Meta-ethnography reporting guidance is needed to improve reporting quality. DESIGN: The eMERGe study used a rigorous mixed-methods design and evidence-based methods to develop the novel reporting guidance and explanatory notes. METHODS: The study, conducted from 2015 - 2017, comprised of: (1) a methodological systematic review of guidance for meta-ethnography conduct and reporting; (2) a review and audit of published meta-ethnographies to identify good practice principles; (3) international, multidisciplinary consensus-building processes to agree guidance content; (4) innovative development of the guidance and explanatory notes. FINDINGS: Recommendations and good practice for all seven phases of meta-ethnography conduct and reporting were newly identified leading to 19 reporting criteria and accompanying detailed guidance. CONCLUSION: The bespoke eMERGe Reporting Guidance, which incorporates new methodological developments and advances the methodology, can help researchers to report the important aspects of meta-ethnography. Use of the guidance should raise reporting quality. Better reporting could make assessments of confidence in the findings more robust and increase use of meta-ethnography outputs to improve practice, policy, and service user outcomes in health and other fields. This is the first tailored reporting guideline for meta-ethnography. This article is being simultaneously published in the following journals: Journal of Advanced Nursing, Psycho-oncology, Review of Education, and BMC Medical Research Methodology.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Guias como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
Psychooncology ; 28(3): 447-458, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644150

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to provide guidance to improve the completeness and clarity of meta-ethnography reporting. BACKGROUND: Evidence-based policy and practice require robust evidence syntheses which can further understanding of people's experiences and associated social processes. Meta-ethnography is a rigorous seven-phase qualitative evidence synthesis methodology, developed by Noblit and Hare. Meta-ethnography is used widely in health research, but reporting is often poor quality and this discourages trust in and use of its findings. Meta-ethnography reporting guidance is needed to improve reporting quality. DESIGN: The eMERGe study used a rigorous mixed-methods design and evidence-based methods to develop the novel reporting guidance and explanatory notes. METHODS: The study, conducted from 2015 to 2017, comprised of: (1) a methodological systematic review of guidance for meta-ethnography conduct and reporting; (2) a review and audit of published meta-ethnographies to identify good practice principles; (3) international, multidisciplinary consensus-building processes to agree guidance content; (4) innovative development of the guidance and explanatory notes. FINDINGS: Recommendations and good practice for all seven phases of meta-ethnography conduct and reporting were newly identified leading to 19 reporting criteria and accompanying detailed guidance. CONCLUSION: The bespoke eMERGe Reporting Guidance, which incorporates new methodological developments and advances the methodology, can help researchers to report the important aspects of meta-ethnography. Use of the guidance should raise reporting quality. Better reporting could make assessments of confidence in the findings more robust and increase use of meta-ethnography outputs to improve practice, policy, and service user outcomes in health and other fields. This is the first tailored reporting guideline for meta-ethnography. This article is being simultaneously published in the following journals: Journal of Advanced Nursing, Psycho-oncology, Review of Education, and BMC Medical Research Methodology.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Psico-Oncologia/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 24(3): 217-229, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is amongst the leading causes of death in young people globally and a health priority worldwide. For children and young people (CYP) attempting or considering suicide there is no agreed treatment model. Development of treatment models should be informed by the views and experiences of CYP using services. METHODS: Meta-ethnography was used to systematically identify and synthesise studies reporting the views of CYP who used mental health services following suicidal behaviour. Relevant studies were quality appraised. First order (participants) and second order (original author) data were translated to identify common and disconfirming themes and concepts. Translated findings were synthesised and led to a new hypothesis supported by additional 'linguistic analysis' of texts to construct a novel third order line-of-argument. RESULTS: Four studies conducted since 2006 in three countries involving 44 young people aged 11-24 years were synthesised. Translation revealed that suicidal CYP do not know where or how to access help, they cannot access help directly and when seen by mental health practitioners they do not feel listened to. Line-of-argument synthesis identified a silence around suicidality within the conversations CYP have with mental health practitioners and within academic research reporting. Use of the term 'self-harm' to encompass suicidal behaviours potentially contributes to this silence by avoiding the word 'suicide'. CONCLUSIONS: Children and young people who are suicidal need to have easy access to mental health services. When using services, they want to feel listened to and have suicidal feelings acknowledged. This involves professionals referring explicitly to suicide not just self-harm.

14.
BMC Fam Pract ; 16: 145, 2015 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26487557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal asthma action plans (PAAPs) have been guideline recommended for years, but consistently under-issued by health professionals and under-utilised by patients. Previous studies have investigated sub-optimal PAAP implementation but more insight is needed into barriers to their use from the perspective of professionals, patients and primary care teams. METHODS: A maximum variation sample of professional and patient participants were recruited from five demographically diverse general practices and another group of primary care professionals in one Scottish region. Interviews were digitally recorded and data thematically analysed using NVivo. RESULTS: Twenty-nine semi-structured interviews were conducted (11 adults with asthma, seven general practitioners, ten practice nurses, one hospital respiratory nurse). Three over-arching themes emerged: 1) patients generally do not value PAAPs, 2) professionals do not fully value PAAPs and, 3) multiple barriers reduce the value of PAAPs in primary care. Six patients had a PAAP but these were outdated, not reflecting their needs and not used. Patients reported not wanting or needing PAAPs, yet identified circumstances when these could be useful. Fifteen professionals had selectively issued PAAPs with eight having reviewed one. Many professionals did not value PAAPs as they did not see patients using these and lacked awareness of times when patients could have benefited from one. Multi-level compounding barriers emerged. Individual barriers included poor patient awareness and professionals not reinforcing PAAP use. Organisational barriers included professionals having difficulty accessing PAAP templates and fragmented processes including patients not being asked to bring PAAPs to their asthma appointments. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care PAAP implementation is in a vicious cycle. Professionals infrequently review/update PAAPs with patients; patients with out-dated PAAPs do not value or use these; professionals observing patients' lack of interest in PAAPs do not discuss these. Patients observing this do not refer to their plans and perceive them to be of little value in asthma self-management. Twenty-five years after PAAPs were first recommended, primary care practices are still not ready to support their implementation. Breaking this vicious cycle to create a healthcare context more conducive to PAAP implementation requires a whole systems approach with multi-faceted interventions addressing patient, professional and organisational barriers.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 14: 119, 2014 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25407140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syntheses of qualitative studies can inform health policy, services and our understanding of patient experience. Meta-ethnography is a systematic seven-phase interpretive qualitative synthesis approach well-suited to producing new theories and conceptual models. However, there are concerns about the quality of meta-ethnography reporting, particularly the analysis and synthesis processes. Our aim was to investigate the application and reporting of methods in recent meta-ethnography journal papers, focusing on the analysis and synthesis process and output. METHODS: Methodological systematic review of health-related meta-ethnography journal papers published from 2012-2013. We searched six electronic databases, Google Scholar and Zetoc for papers using key terms including 'meta-ethnography.' Two authors independently screened papers by title and abstract with 100% agreement. We identified 32 relevant papers. Three authors independently extracted data and all authors analysed the application and reporting of methods using content analysis. RESULTS: Meta-ethnography was applied in diverse ways, sometimes inappropriately. In 13% of papers the approach did not suit the research aim. In 66% of papers reviewers did not follow the principles of meta-ethnography. The analytical and synthesis processes were poorly reported overall. In only 31% of papers reviewers clearly described how they analysed conceptual data from primary studies (phase 5, 'translation' of studies) and in only one paper (3%) reviewers explicitly described how they conducted the analytic synthesis process (phase 6). In 38% of papers we could not ascertain if reviewers had achieved any new interpretation of primary studies. In over 30% of papers seminal methodological texts which could have informed methods were not cited. CONCLUSIONS: We believe this is the first in-depth methodological systematic review of meta-ethnography conduct and reporting. Meta-ethnography is an evolving approach. Current reporting of methods, analysis and synthesis lacks clarity and comprehensiveness. This is a major barrier to use of meta-ethnography findings that could contribute significantly to the evidence base because it makes judging their rigour and credibility difficult. To realise the high potential value of meta-ethnography for enhancing health care and understanding patient experience requires reporting that clearly conveys the methodology, analysis and findings. Tailored meta-ethnography reporting guidelines, developed through expert consensus, could improve reporting.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Editoração , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
BMC Pediatr ; 14: 63, 2014 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24593304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to prescribed treatments is the primary cause of treatment failure in pediatric long-term conditions. Greater understanding of parents and caregivers' reasons for non-adherence can help to address this problem and improve outcomes for children with long-term conditions. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies. Medline, Embase, Cinahl and PsycInfo were searched for relevant studies published in English and German between 1996 and 2011. Papers were included if they contained qualitative data, for example from interviews or focus groups, reporting the views of parents and caregivers of children with a range of long-term conditions on their treatment adherence. Papers were quality assessed and analysed using thematic synthesis. RESULTS: Nineteen papers were included reporting 17 studies with caregivers from 423 households in five countries. Long-term conditions included; asthma, cystic fibrosis, HIV, diabetes and juvenile arthritis. Across all conditions caregivers were making on-going attempts to balance competing concerns about the treatment (such as perceived effectiveness or fear of side effects) with the condition itself (for instance perceived long-term threat to child). Although the barriers to implementing treatment regimens varied across the different conditions (including complexity and time-consuming nature of treatments, un-palatability and side-effects of medications), it was clear that caregivers worked hard to overcome these day-to-day challenges and to deal with child resistance to treatments. Yet, carers reported that strict treatment adherence, which is expected by health professionals, could threaten their priorities around preserving family relationships and providing a 'normal life' for their child and any siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment adherence in long-term pediatric conditions is a complex issue which needs to be seen in the context of caregivers balancing the everyday needs of the child within everyday family life. Health professionals may be able to help caregivers respond positively to the challenge of treatment adherence for long-term conditions by simplifying treatment regimens to minimise impact on family life and being aware of difficulties around child resistance and supportive of strategies to attempt to overcome this. Caregivers would also welcome help with communicating with children about treatment goals.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Adesão à Medicação , Pediatria , Criança , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Trials ; 13: 216, 2012 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23164151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-standing randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence indicates that asthma action plans can improve patient outcomes. Internationally, however, these plans are seldom issued by professionals or used by patients/carers. To understand how the benefits of such plans might be realised clinically, we previously investigated barriers and facilitators to their implementation in a systematic review of relevant RCTs and synthesised qualitative studies exploring professional and patient/carer views. Our final step was to integrate these two separate studies. METHODS: First, a theoretical model of action plan implementation was proposed, derived from our synthesis of 19 qualitative studies, identifying elements which, if incorporated into future interventions, could promote their use. Second, 14 RCTs included in the quantitative synthesis were re-analysed to assess the extent to which these elements were present within their interventions (that is, 'strong', 'weak' or 'no' presence) and with what effect. Matrices charted each element's presence and strength, facilitating analysis of element presence and action plan implementation. RESULTS: Four elements (professional education, patient/carer education, (patient/carer and professional) partnership working and communication) were identified in our model as likely to promote asthma plan use. Thirteen interventions reporting increased action plan implementation contained all four elements, with two or more strongly present. One intervention reporting no effect on action plan implementation contained only weakly present elements. Intervention effectiveness was reported using a narrow range of criteria which did not fully reflect the four elements. For example, no study assessed whether jointly developed action plans increased use. Whilst important from the professional and patient/carer perspectives, the integral role of these elements in intervention delivery and their effect on study outcomes was under-acknowledged in these RCTs. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel approach provides an evidence-base for future action plan interventions. Such interventions need to ensure all elements in our implementation model (patient/carer and professional education to support development of effective partnership working and communication) are strongly present within them and a wider range of criteria better reflecting the realities of clinical practice and living with asthma are used to measure their effectiveness. We now intend to test such a complex intervention using a cluster trial design.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 27(4): 384-90, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22004781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Synthesizing qualitative research is an important means of ensuring the needs, preferences, and experiences of patients are taken into account by service providers and policy makers, but the range of methods available can appear confusing. This study presents the methods for synthesizing qualitative research most used in health research to-date and, specifically those with a potential role in health technology assessment. METHODS: To identify reviews conducted using the eight main methods for synthesizing qualitative studies, nine electronic databases were searched using key terms including meta-ethnography and synthesis. A summary table groups the identified reviews by their use of the eight methods, highlighting the methods used most generally and specifically in relation to health technology assessment topics. RESULTS: Although there is debate about how best to identify and quality appraise qualitative research for synthesis, 107 reviews were identified using one of the eight main methods. Four methods (meta-ethnography, meta-study, meta-summary, and thematic synthesis) have been most widely used and have a role within health technology assessment. Meta-ethnography is the leading method for synthesizing qualitative health research. Thematic synthesis is also useful for integrating qualitative and quantitative findings. Four other methods (critical interpretive synthesis, grounded theory synthesis, meta-interpretation, and cross-case analysis) have been under-used in health research and their potential in health technology assessments is currently under-developed. CONCLUSIONS: Synthesizing individual qualitative studies has becoming increasingly common in recent years. Although this is still an emerging research discipline such an approach is one means of promoting the patient-centeredness of health technology assessments.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Qualitativa , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/organização & administração , Antropologia Cultural , Humanos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
19.
Prim Care Respir J ; 20(2): 170-7; 4 p following 177, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21445536

RESUMO

AIM: To identify from the literature what terms are used for 'asthma plans', with what meaning, and in what context(s). METHODS: Linguistic analysis of a selected body of asthma literature from 1989-2009. RESULTS: A wide range of asthma plan terminology was evident, with terms such as 'action plans', 'self-management plans' and 'treatment plans' being applied inconsistently and synonymously. For individual patients the term 'asthma plan' can describe a clinically-determined list of prescribed medication, an agreed plan to guide self-management of changing symptoms, or a more holistic 'living with asthma' plan. In some contexts the term 'asthma plan' was also used to describe an organisational system of care, which causes further ambiguity. CONCLUSIONS: Within the literature, a plethora of terms is used inconsistently and with varied meaning. This is a potential, but previously unrecognised, barrier to asthma plan implementation. A taxonomy of asthma plans and a standardised definitions of terms is required.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Compreensão , Linguística/métodos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Terminologia como Assunto , Humanos , Semântica , Reino Unido
20.
Patient Educ Couns ; 85(2): e131-43, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21396793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand better what helps and/or hinders asthma action plan use from the professionals and patients/carers perspective. METHODS: Systematic review and qualitative synthesis (using meta-ethnography). RESULTS: Nineteen studies (20 papers) were included in an analysis of patients/carers' and professionals' views. Seven main influences on action plan implementation were identified including perceived un-helpfulness and irrelevance of the plans. Translation and synthesis of the original authors' interpretations suggested that action plan promotion and use was influenced by professional and patient/carers' asthma beliefs and attitudes and patient/carer experiences of managing asthma. Action plan use is hindered because professionals and patients/carers have different explanatory models of asthma, its management and their respective roles in the management process. Patients/carers, based on their experiential knowledge of their condition, perceive themselves as capable, effective in managing their asthma, but health professionals do not always share this view. CONCLUSION: Professionally provided medically focused action plans that do not 'fit' with and incorporate the patients'/carers' views of asthma, and their management strategies, will continue to be under-utilised. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Professionals need to develop a more patient-centred, partnership-based, approach to the joint development and review of action plans, recognising the experiential asthma knowledge of patients/carers.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Antropologia Cultural , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Humanos , Autocuidado , Apoio Social
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