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1.
World Psychiatry ; 23(2): 267-275, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727072

RESUMO

Psychotherapies are first-line treatments for most mental disorders, but their absolute outcomes (i.e., response and remission rates) are not well studied, despite the relevance of such information for health care users, providers and policy makers. We aimed to examine absolute and relative outcomes of psychotherapies across eight mental disorders: major depressive disorder (MDD), social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and borderline personality disorder (BPD). We used a series of living systematic reviews included in the Metapsy initiative (www.metapsy.org), with a common strategy for literature search, inclusion of studies and extraction of data, and a common format for the analyses. Literature search was conducted in major bibliographical databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials) up to January 1, 2023. We included randomized controlled trials comparing psychotherapies for any of the eight mental disorders, established by a diagnostic interview, with a control group (waitlist, care-as-usual, or pill placebo). We conducted random-effects model pairwise meta-analyses. The main outcome was the absolute rate of response (at least 50% symptom reduction between baseline and post-test) in the treatment and control conditions. Secondary outcomes included the relative risk (RR) of response, and the number needed to treat (NNT). Random-effects meta-analyses of the included 441 trials (33,881 patients) indicated modest response rates for psychotherapies: 0.42 (95% CI: 0.39-0.45) for MDD; 0.38 (95% CI: 0.33-0.43) for PTSD; 0.38 (95% CI: 0.30-0.47) for OCD; 0.38 (95% CI: 0.33-0.43) for panic disorder; 0.36 (95% CI: 0.30-0.42) for GAD; 0.32 (95% CI: 0.29-0.37) for social anxiety disorder; 0.32 (95% CI: 0.23-0.42) for specific phobia; and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.15-0.36) for BPD. Most sensitivity analyses broadly supported these findings. The RRs were significant for all disorders, except BPD. Our conclusion is that most psychotherapies for the eight mental disorders are effective compared with control conditions, but absolute response rates are modest. More effective treatments and interventions for those not responding to a first-line treatment are needed.

2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-14, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent and burdensome for individuals and society. While there are psychological interventions able to prevent and treat MDD, uptake remains low. To overcome structural and attitudinal barriers, an indirect approach of using online insomnia interventions seems promising because insomnia is less stigmatized, predicts MDD onset, is often comorbid and can outlast MDD treatment. This individual-participant-data meta-analysis evaluated the potential of the online insomnia intervention GET.ON Recovery as an indirect treatment to reduce depressive symptom severity (DSS) and potential MDD onset across a range of participant characteristics. METHODS: Efficacy on depressive symptom outcomes was evaluated using multilevel regression models controlling for baseline severity. To identify potential effect moderators, clinical, sociodemographic, and work-related variables were investigated using univariable moderation and random-forest methodology before developing a multivariable decision tree. RESULTS: IPD were obtained from four of seven eligible studies (N = 561); concentrating on workers with high work-stress. DSS was significantly lower in the intervention group both at post-assessment (d = -0.71 [95% CI-0.92 to -0.51]) and at follow-up (d = -0.84 [95% CI -1.11 to -0.57]). In the subsample (n = 121) without potential MDD at baseline, there were no significant group differences in onset of potential MDD. Moderation analyses revealed that effects on DSS differed significantly across baseline severity groups with effect sizes between d = -0.48 and -0.87 (post) and d = - 0.66 to -0.99 (follow-up), while no other sociodemographic, clinical, or work-related characteristics were significant moderators. CONCLUSIONS: An online insomnia intervention is a promising approach to effectively reduce DSS in a preventive and treatment setting.

3.
Internet Interv ; 35: 100717, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328276

RESUMO

Background: Temstem is a smartphone app developed with and for clinical voice hearing individuals with the aim to reduce their voice hearing distress and improve social functioning. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with adult outpatients suffering from distressing and frequent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) was conducted. Participants were randomized to unguided 'Temstem+AVH monitoring' or unguided 'AVH monitoring only' (control condition). Assessments were performed at baseline, post-intervention (week 5-6), and follow-up (week 9-10). Primary outcomes were voice hearing distress and social functioning, as measured with Experience Sampling Method (ESM), consisting of multiple daily questionnaires during six days. In addition, voices and mood were self-monitored with help of a daily reflective questionnaire. Analyses were linear regression models (intention-to-treat). Results: 44 Participants were allocated to Temstem and 45 to the control condition. No significant differences between the groups were found on both primary outcomes. Conclusion: Our results do not support the effectiveness of stand-alone use of Temstem versus symptom monitoring on voice hearing distress or social functioning in voice hearing individuals. In order to potentially improve effectiveness of an mHealth tool in a population of people with frequent and distressing voices, we recommend to involve persons with lived experience in all stages of development and research; to thoroughly test the (technological) usability before performing an RCT; to test whether guidance of a therapist is needed to optimize effectiveness; and to provide prompts to remind the user to actually use the tool.

4.
Trials ; 25(1): 40, 2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature indicates that adolescent girls who talk with close friends about interpersonal problems or worries in an excessive, speculative way, and with an intense focus on distress (i.e., co-rumination) are at heightened risk for developing internalizing symptoms and disorders as well as reduced friendship quality. However, to date, there are no prevention programs available that target high levels of co-rumination between adolescent girls. As such, we developed the blended school-based mindfulness prevention program Happy Friends, Positive Minds (HFPM) that targets co-rumination at the dyadic level, i.e., between two close female friends. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of HFPM to reduce co-rumination and internalizing problems and to enhance wellbeing and social-emotional behavior in Dutch adolescent girls. METHODS: A cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (cRCT) will be conducted to evaluate HFPM effectiveness. We will recruit 160 female friendship dyads (n = 320 girls) aged 13 to 15 years who will be characterized by high levels of self-reported co-rumination. The cRCT has two arms: (1) an intervention condition in which 160 girls (80 friendship dyads) will receive the 14-week HFPM program in two consecutive cohorts (cohort 1 in academic year 2023/2024 and cohort 2 in academic year 2024/2025, and (2) a control condition in which 160 girls (80 dyads) will receive care-as-usual (CAU) in two consecutive cohorts (cohort 1 in academic year 2023/2024 and cohort 2 in academic year 2024/2025). Data will be collected at baseline (T0), during the program (T1;T2; T3), immediately after the program (T4), and at 1-year follow-up (T5). Participant-level self-reported risk for (early onset) depression and anxiety, self-reported and observed co-rumination, self- and friend-reported friendship quality, self-reported positive and negative affect, self-reported interpersonal responses to positive affect, and self-reported anhedonia symptoms will be the outcome variables. DISCUSSION: This study will provide insights into the short-term and long-term effects of the HFPM program on girls' internalizing problems, wellbeing, and social-emotional behavior. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials, identifier: ISRCTN54246670. Registered on 27 February 2023.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento Social , Amigos/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 82: 101920, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37988886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a global health problem. Although effective treatments for it exist, early interventions that prevent PTSD from developing are lacking. The aim of this pilot analogue trauma study was to compare the effects of two potential early intervention strategies, namely Tetris_dualtask and imagery rescripting (IR) to a no-intervention control group on intrusion frequency and the vividness and emotionality of aversive film memory. METHODS: Sixty healthy students were subjected to the trauma film paradigm and randomly allocated to either: Tetris_dualtask, IR or no-intervention. Main outcomes were the number of film-related intrusions at one week and vividness and emotionality ratings of the most aversive film memory. Secondary outcomes were PTSD-like symptoms, intrusion intensity, and explicit film memory. RESULTS: The Tetris_dualtask group reported significant fewer intrusions compared to the no-intervention group; whereas the IR group did not. No effect was found on vividness and emotionality ratings, PTSD-like symptoms, intrusion intensity, and explicit memory. LIMITATIONS: The sample size was small, and analogue trauma in healthy individuals was examined, thus generalizability may be limited. Also, to increase comparability between interventions, the duration of Tetris_dualtask and IR was standardized. As a result, the IR intervention was shorter compared to other studies, which might have decreased its efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this pilot study suggest that playing Tetris during retrieval of traumatic images, might hold potential as an early intervention strategy to reduce intrusions in the early aftermath of trauma and adversity. However, future large-scale replication research is needed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Afeto , Imagens, Psicoterapia/métodos , Memória , Projetos Piloto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
6.
Internet Interv ; 34: 100646, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38099094

RESUMO

Transdiagnostic individually-tailored digital interventions reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety in adults with moderate effects. However, research into these approaches for college students is scarce and contradicting. In addition, the exact reasons for intervention dropout in this target group are not well known, and the use of individually-tailored intervention features, such as optional modules, has not yet been explored. The current study aimed to (1) investigate reasons for dropout from a guided internet-based transdiagnostic individually-tailored intervention for college students assessed in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and (2) evaluate whether participants used tailoring features intended for their baseline symptoms. A sample of college students with mild to moderate depression and/or anxiety symptoms (n = 48) in the Netherlands (partially) followed a guided internet-based transdiagnostic individually-tailored intervention. We contacted those who did not complete the entire intervention (n = 29) by phone to report the reasons for intervention dropout. Further, we descriptively explored the use of tailoring features (i.e., depression versus anxiety trajectory) and optional modules of the intervention in the whole sample. We identified a range of person- and intervention-related reasons for intervention dropout, most commonly busy schedules, needs for different kinds of help, or absence of personal contact. Furthermore, only less than half of the participants used the individually-tailoring features to address the symptoms they reported as predominant. In conclusion, digital interventions clear about the content and targeted symptoms, tested in user research could prevent dropout and create reasonable expectations of the intervention. Participants would benefit from additional guidance when using tailoring features of digital interventions, as they often do not choose the tailoring features targeting their baseline symptoms.

7.
J Pers Oriented Res ; 9(1): 42-50, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37389029

RESUMO

Background: Suicidal ideation (SI) is a significant and long-lasting mental health problem, with a third of individuals still experiencing SI after two years. To date, most Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) studies of SI have assessed its day-to-day course over one to four consecutive weeks and found no consistent trends in average SI severity over time. Aim: The current proof of concept study assessed daily fluctuations of SI over a time span of 3 to 6 months to explore whether individual trends in SI severity could be detected, and if so, if the trajectory of changes were gradual or sudden. The secondary aim was to explore whether changes in SI severity could be detected at an early stage. Method: Five adult outpatients with depression and SI used an EMA app on their smartphone in addition to their regular treatment for 3 to 6 months, where SI was assessed 3 times a day. To detect trends in SI for each patient, three models were tested: a null model, a gradual change model and a sudden change model. To detect changes in SI before a new plateau was reached, Early Warning Signals and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average control charts were used. Results: In each patient, average SI severity had a unique trajectory of sudden and/or gradual changes. Additionally, in some patients, increases in both sudden and gradual SI could be detected at an early stage. Conclusions: The study presents a first indication of unique individual trends in SI severity over a 3 to 6 months period. Though replication in a larger sample is needed to test how well results generalize, a first proof-of-concept is provided that both sudden and gradual changes in SI severity may be detectable at an early stage using the dynamics of time-series data.

8.
World Psychiatry ; 22(2): 305-314, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37159350

RESUMO

Providing therapist-guided cognitive behaviour therapy via the Internet (ICBT) has advantages, but a central research question is to what extent similar clinical effects can be obtained as with gold-standard face-to-face cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). In a previous meta-analysis published in this journal, which was updated in 2018, we found evidence that the pooled effects for the two formats were equivalent in the treatment of psychiatric and somatic disorders, but the number of published randomized trials was relatively low (n=20). As this is a field that moves rapidly, the aim of the current study was to conduct an update of our systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical effects of ICBT vs. face-to-face CBT for psychiatric and somatic disorders in adults. We searched the PubMed database for relevant studies published from 2016 to 2022. The main inclusion criteria were that studies had to compare ICBT to face-to-face CBT using a randomized controlled design and targeting adult populations. Quality assessment was made using the Cochrane risk of bias criteria (Version 1), and the main outcome estimate was the pooled standardized effect size (Hedges' g) using a random effects model. We screened 5,601 records and included 11 new randomized trials, adding them to the 20 previously identified ones (total n=31). Sixteen different clinical conditions were targeted in the included studies. Half of the trials were in the fields of depression/depressive symptoms or some form of anxiety disorder. The pooled effect size across all disorders was g=0.02 (95% CI: -0.09 to 0.14) and the quality of the included studies was acceptable. This meta-analysis further supports the notion that therapist-supported ICBT yields similar effects as face-to-face CBT.

9.
BMJ Ment Health ; 26(1)2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37197797

RESUMO

Digital innovations in mental health offer great potential, but present unique challenges. Using a consensus development panel approach, an expert, international, cross-disciplinary panel met to provide a framework to conceptualise digital mental health innovations, research into mechanisms and effectiveness and approaches for clinical implementation. Key questions and outputs from the group were agreed by consensus, and are presented and discussed in the text and supported by case examples in an accompanying appendix. A number of key themes emerged. (1) Digital approaches may work best across traditional diagnostic systems: we do not have effective ontologies of mental illness and transdiagnostic/symptom-based approaches may be more fruitful. (2) Approaches in clinical implementation of digital tools/interventions need to be creative and require organisational change: not only do clinicians and patients need training and education to be more confident and skilled in using digital technologies to support shared care decision-making, but traditional roles need to be extended, with clinicians working alongside digital navigators and non-clinicians who are delivering protocolised treatments. (3) Designing appropriate studies to measure the effectiveness of implementation is also key: including digital data raises unique ethical issues, and measurement of potential harms is only just beginning. (4) Accessibility and codesign are needed to ensure innovations are long lasting. (5) Standardised guidelines for reporting would ensure effective synthesis of the evidence to inform clinical implementation. COVID-19 and the transition to virtual consultations have shown us the potential for digital innovations to improve access and quality of care in mental health: now is the ideal time to act.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Saúde Mental , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico
10.
Int J Dev Disabil ; 69(2): 350-358, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37025338

RESUMO

Background. Due to the restrictive measures introduced to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic, therapists working with people with mild intellectual disabilities have had to use video conferencing to continue to conduct their psychological assessments and therapy sessions. This qualitative study explored therapists' experiences of using video conferencing during the initial lockdown period in the Netherlands. Method. In total, seven therapists working at a service organisation supporting people with intellectual disabilities participated in this qualitative study (M = 34.4 years; SD = 6.0, range: 26-42). The therapists documented their experiences via audio recordings, which were subsequently analysed using thematic analysis. Results. Five themes emerged: 1) An immediate transition to virtual working; 2) Developing virtual ways to support service users in both coping with COVID-19 related stress and with continuing therapy; 3) Lacking the appropriate equipment; 4) Limitations in virtually attuning to people with mild intellectual disabilities; and 5) Unforeseen opportunities for distance-based psychological assessments and therapy. Conclusions. This study provides valuable insights into the experiences of therapists using video conferencing to support people with mild intellectual disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. These insights can help inform clinical practice with respect to the use of video conferencing for psychological assessment and therapy with people with mild intellectual disabilities.

11.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e41532, 2023 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36735287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) services for common mental health disorders have been found to be effective. There is a need for strategies that improve implementation in routine practice. One-size-fits-all strategies are likely to be ineffective. Tailored implementation is considered as a promising approach. The self-guided integrated theory-based Framework for intervention tailoring strategies toolkit (ItFits-toolkit) supports local implementers in developing tailored implementation strategies. Tailoring involves identifying local barriers; matching selected barriers to implementation strategies; developing an actionable work plan; and applying, monitoring, and adapting where necessary. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of the ItFits-toolkit with implementation-as-usual (IAU) in implementing iCBT services in 12 routine mental health care organizations in 9 countries in Europe and Australia. METHODS: A stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial design with repeated measures was applied. The trial period lasted 30 months. The primary outcome was the normalization of iCBT delivery by service providers (therapists, referrers, IT developers, and administrators), which was measured with the Normalization Measure Development as a proxy for implementation success. A 3-level linear mixed-effects modeling was applied to estimate the effects. iCBT service uptake (referral and treatment completion rates) and implementation effort (hours) were used as secondary outcomes. The perceived satisfaction (Client Satisfaction Questionnaire), usability (System Usability Scale), and impact of the ItFits-toolkit by implementers were used to assess the acceptability of the ItFits-toolkit. RESULTS: In total, 456 mental health service providers were included in this study. Compared with IAU, the ItFits-toolkit had a small positive statistically significant effect on normalization levels in service providers (mean 0.09, SD 0.04; P=.02; Cohen d=0.12). The uptake of iCBT by patients was similar to that of IAU. Implementers did not spend more time on implementation work when using the ItFits-toolkit and generally regarded the ItFits-toolkit as usable and were satisfied with it. CONCLUSIONS: The ItFits-toolkit performed better than the usual implementation activities in implementing iCBT services in routine practice. There is practical utility in the ItFits-toolkit for supporting implementers in developing and applying effective tailored implementation strategies. However, the effect on normalization levels among mental health service providers was small. These findings warrant modesty regarding the effectiveness of self-guided tailored implementation of iCBT services in routine practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03652883; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03652883. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s13063-020-04686-4.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Internet , Inquéritos e Questionários , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 159: 116-129, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708636

RESUMO

There is an unmet need for effective early interventions that can relieve initial trauma symptoms and reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We evaluated the efficacy of cognitive interventions compared to control in reducing intrusion frequency and PTSD symptoms in healthy individuals using the trauma film paradigm, in which participants view a film with aversive content as an experimental analogue of trauma exposure. A systematic literature search identified 41 experiments of different cognitive interventions targeting intrusions. In the meta-analysis, the pooled effect size of 52 comparisons comparing cognitive interventions to no-intervention controls on intrusions was moderate (g = -0.46, 95% CI [-0.61 to -0.32], p < .001). The pooled effect size of 16 comparisons on PTSD symptoms was also moderate (g = -0.31, 95% CI [-0.46 to -0.17], p < .001). Both visuospatial interference and imagery rescripting tasks were associated with significantly fewer intrusions than controls, whereas verbal interference and meta-cognitive processing tasks showed nonsignificant effect sizes. Interventions administered after viewing the trauma film showed significantly fewer intrusions than controls, whereas interventions administered during film viewing did not. No experiments had low risk of bias (ROB), 37 experiments had some concerns of ROB, while the remaining four experiments had high ROB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis investigating the efficacy of cognitive interventions targeting intrusions in non-clinical samples. Results seem to be in favour of visuospatial interference tasks rather than verbal tasks. More research is needed to develop an evidence base on the efficacy of various cognitive interventions and test their clinical translation to reduce intrusive memories of real trauma.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Afeto , Cognição
13.
Int J Behav Med ; 30(4): 473-485, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based intervention for severe fatigue. Changes in patients' fatigue scores following CBT might reflect not only the intended relief in fatigue but also response shift, a change in the meaning of patients' self-evaluation. Objectives were to (1) identify the occurrence of response shift in patients undergoing CBT, (2) determine the impact of response shift on the intervention effect, and (3) investigate whether changes in fatigue-related cognitions and perceptions, targeted during CBT, are associated with response shift. METHODS: Data of three randomized controlled trials testing the efficacy of CBT in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, n = 222), cancer (n = 123), and diabetes (n = 107) were re-analyzed. Fatigue severity was measured with 8 items from the Checklist Individual Strength, a valid and widely used self-report questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was applied to assess lack of longitudinal measurement invariance, as indication of response shift. RESULTS: As expected, in all three trials, response shift was indicated in the CBT groups, not the control groups. Response shift through reprioritization was indicated for the items "Physically, I feel exhausted" (CFS) and "I tire easily" (cancer, diabetes), which became less vs. more important to the measurement of fatigue, respectively. However, this did not affect the intervention effects. Some changes in cognitions and perceptions were associated with the response shifts. CONCLUSIONS: CBT seems to induce response shift through reprioritization across patient groups, but its occurrence does not affect the intervention effect. Future research should corroborate these findings and investigate whether patients indeed change their understanding of fatigue.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica , Humanos , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/terapia , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Front Digit Health ; 4: 1016714, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36561923

RESUMO

Background: Young adults' drinking habits often exceed low-risk drinking guidelines. As young adults show increased access, use, and interest in personalized content related to physical and mental well-being, mobile applications might be a suitable tool to reach this target group. This study investigates the effectiveness of "Boozebuster", a self-guided mobile application incorporating various therapeutic principles to reduce young adults' alcohol consumption to not exceeding low-risk drinking guideline levels, compared to an educational website condition. Method: Young adults aged 18-30 wanting to reduce their alcohol consumption entered a two-arm, parallel-group RCT. There were no minimum drinking severity inclusion criteria. Primary outcomes included alcohol consumption quantity and frequency. Secondary outcomes included binge drinking frequency and alcohol-related problem severity. Baseline, 6-week postbaseline, and 3-month post-baseline assessments were analyzed using linear mixed model analyses. Sex, treatment adherence, experienced engagement and motivation to change alcohol use behavior were investigated as moderators. Sub-group analyses contained problem drinkers and binge drinkers. Results: 503 participants were randomized to the intervention or control condition. Results showed no intervention effects on primary or secondary outcomes compared to the control group. Both groups showed within-group reductions on all outcomes. Sub-group analyses in problem drinkers or binge drinkers showed similar results. Motivation to change drinking behavior and experienced engagement with the application significantly moderated the intervention effect regarding the quantity or frequency of alcohol consumption, respectively. Exploratory analyses showed that participants who indicated they wanted to change their drinking patterns during the initial PNF/MI module showed a significantly greater reduction in drinking quantity compared to those who indicated not wanting to change their drinking patterns. Conclusion: The intervention group did not show a greater reduction in alcohol-related outcomes compared to the control group, but both groups showed a similar decrease. Potential explanations include similar effectiveness of both condition due to using a minimal active control in participants predominantly in the action stage of motivation to change. Future research should further explore the effectiveness of using mobile application to reduce young adults' drinking behavior to not exceed low-risk drinking guideline levels and identify factors that motivate participants to engage with such an intervention.

16.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(12): e40892, 2022 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are common mental health conditions in college and university student populations. Offering transdiagnostic, web-based prevention programs such as ICare Prevent to those with subclinical complaints has the potential to reduce some barriers to receiving help (eg, availability of services, privacy considerations, and students' desire for autonomy). However, uptake of these interventions is often low, and accounts of recruitment challenges are needed to complement available effectiveness research in student populations. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to describe recruitment challenges together with effective recruitment strategies for ICare Prevent and provide basic information on the intervention's effectiveness. METHODS: A 3-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted in a student sample with subclinical symptoms of depression and anxiety on the effectiveness of an individually guided (human support and feedback on exercises provided after each session, tailored to each participant) and automatically guided (computer-generated messages provided after each session, geared toward motivation) version of ICare Prevent, a web-based intervention with transdiagnostic components for the indicated prevention of depression and anxiety. The intervention was compared with care as usual. Descriptive statistics were used to outline recruitment challenges and effective web-based and offline strategies as well as students' use of the intervention. A basic analysis of intervention effects was conducted using a Bayesian linear mixed model, with Bayes factors reported as the effect size. RESULTS: Direct recruitment through students' email addresses via the central student administration was the most effective strategy. Data from 35 participants were analyzed (individually guided: n=14, 40%; automatically guided: n=8, 23%; care as usual: n=13, 37%). Use of the intervention was low, with an average of 3 out of 7 sessions (SD 2.9) completed. The analyses did not suggest any intervention effects other than anecdotal evidence (all Bayes factors10≤2.7). CONCLUSIONS: This report adds to the existing literature on recruitment challenges specific to the student population. Testing the feasibility of recruitment measures and the greater involvement of the target population in their design, as well as shifting from direct to indirect prevention, can potentially help future studies in the field. In addition, this report demonstrates an alternative basic analytical strategy for underpowered randomized controlled trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Clinical Trials Registry Platform NTR6562; https://tinyurl.com/4rbexzrk. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s13063-018-2477-y.


Assuntos
Depressão , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Humanos , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/psicologia , Teorema de Bayes , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades
17.
J Behav Addict ; 11(3): 620-642, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495471

RESUMO

Background and aims: Behavioral addictions are a public health problem that causes harm to both individuals and society. Internet-based interventions offer potential benefits over face-to-face therapy for the treatment of behavioral addictions, including their accessibility, perceived anonymity, and low costs. We systematically reviewed the characteristics and effectiveness of these interventions. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in: PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. A standardized methodological quality assessment was performed on all identified studies via the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment Tool. Results: Twenty-nine studies were assessed in this systematic review. Between them, considerable heterogeneity was noted in various study characteristics, including screening tools, inclusion criteria, and outcome measures. Attrition rates also ranged widely (9-89%), as did study quality, with three of the 29 studies rated strong, 12 moderate, and 14 weak methodologically. Twenty-two studies focused on gambling disorder, most revealing significant within-group effects for the assessed intervention on gambling-related symptoms and four of these studies identified significant between-group effects. Behavioral addictions studied in the remaining studies included gaming disorder, internet use disorder, hoarding disorder, and pornography use disorder, revealing generally-promising, albeit limited results. Conclusions: Internet-based interventions seem promising at reducing gambling problems, but too few studies have been published, to date, for conclusions to be drawn for other behavioral addictions. Internet-based interventions targeting other behavioral addictions - like gaming disorder, internet use disorder, hoarding disorder, and pornography use disorder - remain under-examined, warranting considerable additional research to assess their effectiveness.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta , Jogo de Azar , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Humanos , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Comportamento Aditivo/etiologia , Jogo de Azar/terapia , Literatura Erótica
18.
Front Digit Health ; 4: 978749, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36386044

RESUMO

In 2015, Apple launched an open-source software framework called ResearchKit. ResearchKit provides an infrastructure for conducting remote, smartphone-based research trials through the means of Apple's App Store. Such trials may have several advantages over conventional trial methods including the removal of geographic barriers, frequent assessments of participants in real-life settings, and increased inclusion of seldom-heard communities. The aim of the current study was to explore the feasibility of participant recruitment and the potential for data collection in the non-clinical population in a smartphone-based trial using ResearchKit. As a case example, an app called eMovit, a behavioural activation (BA) app with the aim of helping users to build healthy habits was used. The study was conducted over a 9-month period. Any iPhone user with access to the App Stores of The Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany could download the app and participate in the study. During the study period, the eMovit app was disseminated amongst potential users via social media posts (Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn), paid social media advertisements (Facebook), digital newsletters and newspaper articles, blogposts and other websites. In total, 1,788 individuals visited the eMovit landing page. A total of 144 visitors subsequently entered Apple's App Store through that landing page. The eMovit product page was viewed 10,327 times on the App Store. With 79 installs, eMovit showed a conversion rate of 0.76% from product view to install of the app. Of those 79 installs, 53 users indicated that they were interested to participate in the research study and 36 subsequently consented and completed the demographics and the participants quiz. Fifteen participants completed the first PHQ-8 assessment and one participant completed the second PHQ-8 assessment. We conclude that from a technological point of view, the means provided by ResearchKit are well suited to be integrated into the app process and thus facilitate conducting smartphone-based studies. However, this study shows that although participant recruitment is technically straightforward, only low recruitment rates were achieved with the dissemination strategies applied. We argue that smartphone-based trials (using ResearchKit) require a well-designed app dissemination process to attain a sufficient sample size. Guidelines for smartphone-based trial designs and recommendations on how to work with challenges of mHealth research will ensure the quality of these trials, facilitate researchers to do more testing of mental health apps and with that enlarge the evidence-base for mHealth.

19.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 971046, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36238944

RESUMO

Mental health smartphone apps could increase the safety and self-management of patients at risk of suicide, but it is still unclear whether it is feasible to integrate such apps into routine mental healthcare. This study reports on the feasibility of using a safety planning app (BackUp) and a self-monitoring app (mEMA) as components of the routine treatment of depressed outpatients with suicidal ideation. Clinicians were trained in working with both of the apps, and they invited their eligible patients with suicidal ideation for study participation. Patients used the apps for 3 months and discussed these with their clinician during treatment. Patients completed assessments at baseline (T0), 4 weeks (T1) and post-test (T2, 12 weeks after baseline). Both patients and clinicians also participated in telephone interviews. Feasibility was assessed in terms of usability (score > 70 on System Usability Scale, SUS), acceptability (score > 20 on Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8, CSQ-8), and uptake (sufficient rates of component completion and app usage in treatment). The sample included 17 adult outpatients (52.9% male, age range 20-50 years) diagnosed with a depressive disorder and suicidal ideation at baseline. BackUp was rated by patients at above the cut-off scores for usability (SUS mean score at T1 75.63 and at T2 77.71) and acceptability (CSQ-8 mean score at T1 23.42 and at T2 23.50). mEMA was similarly rated (SUS mean score at T1 75.83 and at T2 76.25; CSQ-8 mean score at T1 23.92 and at T2 22.75). Telephone interviews with patients and clinicians confirmed the usability and acceptability. The uptake criteria were not met. Our findings suggest that mobile safety planning and mobile self-monitoring can be considered acceptable and usable as treatment components for depressed suicidal outpatients, but the integration of apps into routine treatment needs to be further explored.

20.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(10): e41445, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internet-based interventions can be effective in the treatment of depression. However, internet-based interventions for older adults with depression are scarce, and little is known about their feasibility and effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To present the design of 2 studies aiming to assess the feasibility of internet-based cognitive behavioral treatment for older adults with depression. We will assess the feasibility of an online, guided version of the Moodbuster platform among depressed older adults from the general population as well as the feasibility of a blended format (combining integrated face-to-face sessions and internet-based modules) in a specialized mental health care outpatient clinic. METHODS: A single-group, pretest-posttest design will be applied in both settings. The primary outcome of the studies will be feasibility in terms of (1) acceptance and satisfaction (measured with the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8), (2) usability (measured with the System Usability Scale), and (3) engagement (measured with the Twente Engagement with eHealth Technologies Scale). Secondary outcomes include (1) the severity of depressive symptoms (measured with the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale), (2) participant and therapist experience with the digital technology (measured with qualitative interviews), (3) the working alliance between patients and practitioners (from both perspectives; measured with the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Revised questionnaire), (4) the technical alliance between patients and the platform (measured with the Working Alliance Inventory for Online Interventions-Short Form questionnaire), and (5) uptake, in terms of attempted and completed modules. A total of 30 older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale 15 score between 5 and 11) will be recruited from the general population. A total of 15 older adults with moderate to severe depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale 15 score between 8 and 15) will be recruited from a specialized mental health care outpatient clinic. A mixed methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative analyses will be adopted. Both the primary and secondary outcomes will be further explored with individual semistructured interviews and synthesized descriptively. Descriptive statistics (reported as means and SDs) will be used to examine the primary and secondary outcome measures. Within-group depression severity will be analyzed using a 2-tailed, paired-sample t test to investigate differences between time points. The interviews will be recorded and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The studies were funded in October 2019. Recruitment started in September 2022. CONCLUSIONS: The results of these pilot studies will show whether this platform is feasible for use by the older adult population in a blended, guided format in the 2 settings and will represent the first exploration of the size of the effect of Moodbuster in terms of decreased depressive symptoms. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/41445.

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