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1.
Nature ; 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867041

RESUMO

The ancient city of Chichén Itzá in Yucatán, Mexico, was one of the largest and most influential Maya settlements during the Late and Terminal Classic periods (AD 600-1000) and it remains one of the most intensively studied archaeological sites in Mesoamerica1-4. However, many questions about the social and cultural use of its ceremonial spaces, as well as its population's genetic ties to other Mesoamerican groups, remain unanswered2. Here we present genome-wide data obtained from 64 subadult individuals dating to around AD 500-900 that were found in a subterranean mass burial near the Sacred Cenote (sinkhole) in the ceremonial centre of Chichén Itzá. Genetic analyses showed that all analysed individuals were male and several individuals were closely related, including two pairs of monozygotic twins. Twins feature prominently in Mayan and broader Mesoamerican mythology, where they embody qualities of duality among deities and heroes5, but until now they had not been identified in ancient Mayan mortuary contexts. Genetic comparison to present-day people in the region shows genetic continuity with the ancient inhabitants of Chichén Itzá, except at certain genetic loci related to human immunity, including the human leukocyte antigen complex, suggesting signals of adaptation due to infectious diseases introduced to the region during the colonial period.

3.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302334, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748638

RESUMO

Susceptibility to morbidity and mortality is increased in early life, yet proactive measures, such as breastfeeding and weaning practices, can be taken through specific investments from parents and wider society. The extent to which such biosocialcultural investment was achieved within 1st millennium BCE Etruscan society, of whom little written sources are available, is unkown. This research investigates life histories in non-adults and adults from Pontecagnano (southern Italy, 730-580 BCE) in order to track cross-sectional and longitudinal breastfeeding and weaning patterns and to characterize the diet more broadly. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of incrementally-sampled deciduous and permanent dentine (n = 15), bulk bone collagen (n = 38), and tooth enamel bioapatite (n = 21) reveal the diet was largely based on C3 staple crops with marginal contributions of animal protein. Millet was found to play a role for maternal diet and trajectories of breastfeeding and feeding for some infants and children at the site. The combination of multiple isotope systems and tissues demonstrates exclusive breastfeeding was pursued until 0.6 years, followed by progressive introduction of proteanocius supplementary foods during weaning that lasted between approximately 0.7 and 2.6 years. The combination of biochemical data with macroscopic skeletal lesions of infantile metabolic diseases and physiological stress markers showed high δ15Ndentine in the months prior to death consistent with the isotopic pattern of opposing covariance.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Isótopos de Carbono , Dieta , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Humanos , Itália , Lactente , Dieta/história , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , História Antiga , Osso e Ossos/química , Feminino , Paleopatologia , Adulto , Desmame , Aleitamento Materno/história , Estresse Fisiológico , Dentina/química , Dentina/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Colágeno/análise , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Criança
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11074, 2024 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745048

RESUMO

Medieval Iberia witnessed the complex negotiation of religious, social, and economic identities, including the formation of religious orders that played a major role in border disputes and conflicts. While archival records provide insights into the compositions of these orders, there have been few direct dietary or osteoarchaeological studies to date. Here, we analysed 25 individuals discovered at the Zorita de los Canes Castle church cemetery, Guadalajara, Spain, where members of one of the first religious orders, the Order of Calatrava knights, were buried between the 12th to 15th centuries CE. Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analyses of bone collagen reveal dietary patterns typical of the Medieval social elite, with the Bayesian R model, 'Simmr' suggesting a diet rich in poultry and marine fish in this inland population. Social comparisons and statistical analyses further support the idea that the order predominantly comprised the lower nobility and urban elite in agreement with historical sources. Our study suggests that while the cemetery primarily served the order's elite, the presence of individuals with diverse dietary patterns may indicate complexities of temporal use or wider social interaction of the medieval military order.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Humanos , Espanha , História Medieval , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Osso e Ossos/química , Arqueologia , Militares/história , Dieta/história , Masculino , Feminino , Classe Social/história , Cemitérios/história , Colágeno/análise , Teorema de Bayes
5.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 568, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745082

RESUMO

Interpretations of Late Pleistocene hominin adaptative capacities by archaeologists have focused heavily on their exploitation of certain prey and documented contemporary behaviours for these species. However, we cannot assume that animal prey-taxa ecology and ethology were the same in the past as in the present, or were constant over archaeological timescales. Sequential isotope analysis of herbivore teeth has emerged as a particularly powerful method of directly reconstructing diet, ecology and mobility patterns on sub-annual scales. Here, we apply 87Sr/86Sr isotope analysis, in combination with δ18O and δ13C isotope analysis, to sequentially sampled tooth enamel of prevalent herbivore species that populated Europe during the Last Glacial Period, including Rangifer tarandus, Equus sp. and Mammuthus primigenius. Our samples come from two open-air archaeological sites in Central Germany, Königsaue and Breitenbach, associated with Middle Palaeolithic and early Upper Palaeolithic cultures, respectively. We identify potential inter- and intra-species differences in range size and movement through time, contextualised through insights into diet and the wider environment. However, homogeneous bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr across large parts of the study region prevented the identification of specific migration routes. Finally, we discuss the possible influence of large-herbivore behaviour on hominin hunting decisions at the two sites.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono , Herbivoria , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Fósseis , Hominidae/fisiologia , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise , Arqueologia , Europa (Continente) , Migração Animal , Esmalte Dentário/química , Dieta , Alemanha , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9528, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664411

RESUMO

The newly excavated rockshelter of Yeghegis-1 in Armenia reflects an occupation of five centuries, as attested by radiocarbon dates from ∼ 4100 to 4000 cal BCE in the lowest layer to ∼ 3600-3500 cal BCE at the top. It is a partially collapsed cave in which pastoralists, we hypothesize, wintered with their herds. The stone tool assemblage is predominantly obsidian (92.1%), despite the shelter being > 60 km on foot from the nearest sources. We use obsidian sourcing to investigate two purported trends in the Southern Caucasus during the Chalcolithic Period: (1) occupation of more varied high-altitude environments and (2) more expansive social networks. Our data show both trends were dynamic phenomena. There was a greater balance in use of the nearest pasturelands over time, perhaps linked to risk management and/or resource sustainability. During later occupations, artifacts from distant sources reveal more extensive connections. This increase in connectivity likely played a central role in the shifts in societal complexity that gave rise to widely shared material culture throughout the Armenian Highlands around the start of the Early Bronze Age. In such a model, greater social connectivity becomes a key mechanism for, rather than a product of, the spread of cultural and/or technological innovations.

7.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 92: 111-117, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The strength of tendon repair is dependent on the quality of the core suture. Organic and synthetic materials have been used to simulate tendon repair for training; however, no model has undergone construct validation. OBJECTIVES: To determine the construct validity of a novel synthetic tendon repair model. METHODS: Synthetic silicone tendon models were used to simulate adult Achilles tendon (AT) and digital flexor tendon (FT). Participants were categorised into novice, intermediate, and advanced groups based on prior surgical experience. Participants repaired tendons using the modified Kessler technique. A validated motion analysis system was used to measure the duration, path length, and movement count during the simulated task. A global rating score was also used to assess the performance. RESULTS: All participants in the novice (n = 12), intermediate (n = 8) and advanced (n = 11) groups completed the tasks. The results (mean±standard deviation) were duration (872 ± 335, 492 ± 257 and 357 ± 40 s), path length (9493 ± 3173, 6668 ± 1740 and 4672 ± 1228 cm), movement count (4974 ± 673, 4228 ± 259 and 3962 ± 69) and global rating (39 ± 13, 61 ± 14, 81 ± 5), respectively. The Kruskal-Wallis test was significant for all outcome measures (p < 0.01). Significant differences in duration and movement count were identified post-hoc in the AT model for each experience group (p < 0.05), and between novice and intermediate participants for FT repair (p < 0.04). Global rating was significantly different between all groups and was highly correlated with motion metrics (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The results support construct validity of this novel simulated tendon repair model. The global rating scores may allow wide utility of this simulation. This model provides a valid and safe environment for surgical trainees to practice tendon repair with several cost, ethical and logistical benefits over animal tendon use. 248/250.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Competência Clínica , Técnicas de Sutura , Humanos , Técnicas de Sutura/educação , Tendão do Calcâneo/cirurgia , Tendão do Calcâneo/lesões , Traumatismos dos Tendões/cirurgia , Adulto , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Modelos Anatômicos
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4382, 2024 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388679

RESUMO

The Bronze Age of Central Europe was a period of major social, economic, political and ideological change. The arrival of millet is often seen as part of wider Bronze Age connectivity, yet understanding of the subsistence regimes underpinning this dynamic period remains poor for this region, in large part due to a dominance of cremation funerary rites, which hinder biomolecular studies. Here, we apply stable isotope analysis, radiocarbon dating and archaeobotanical analysis to two Late Bronze Age (LBA) sites, Esperstedt and Kuckenburg, in central Germany, where human remains were inhumed rather than cremated. We find that people buried at these sites did not consume millet before the Middle Bronze Age (MBA) (ca. 1600 BCE). However, by the early LBA (ca. 1300-1050 BCE) people consumed millet, often in substantial quantities. This consumption appears to have subsequently diminished or ceased around 1050-800 BCE, despite charred millet grains still being found in the archaeological deposits from this period. The arrival of millet in this region, followed by a surge in consumption spanning two centuries, indicates a complex interplay of cultural and economic factors, as well as a potential use of millet to buffer changes in aridity in a region increasingly prone to crop failure in the face of climate change today.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Milhetes , Humanos , Europa (Continente) , Alemanha , Isótopos de Carbono/análise
9.
Nature ; 625(7995): 535-539, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38200315

RESUMO

The largest ever primate and one of the largest of the southeast Asian megafauna, Gigantopithecus blacki1, persisted in China from about 2.0 million years until the late middle Pleistocene when it became extinct2-4. Its demise is enigmatic considering that it was one of the few Asian great apes to go extinct in the last 2.6 million years, whereas others, including orangutan, survived until the present5. The cause of the disappearance of G. blacki remains unresolved but could shed light on primate resilience and the fate of megafauna in this region6. Here we applied three multidisciplinary analyses-timing, past environments and behaviour-to 22 caves in southern China. We used 157 radiometric ages from six dating techniques to establish a timeline for the demise of G. blacki. We show that from 2.3 million years ago the environment was a mosaic of forests and grasses, providing ideal conditions for thriving G. blacki populations. However, just before and during the extinction window between 295,000 and 215,000 years ago there was enhanced environmental variability from increased seasonality, which caused changes in plant communities and an increase in open forest environments. Although its close relative Pongo weidenreichi managed to adapt its dietary preferences and behaviour to this variability, G. blacki showed signs of chronic stress and dwindling populations. Ultimately its struggle to adapt led to the extinction of the greatest primate to ever inhabit the Earth.


Assuntos
Extinção Biológica , Fósseis , Hominidae , Animais , Cavernas , China , Dieta/veterinária , Florestas , Hominidae/classificação , Plantas , Pongo , Datação Radiométrica , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 282, 2024 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38168501

RESUMO

The insular region of Wallacea has become a focal point for studying Pleistocene human ecological and cultural adaptations in island environments, however, little is understood about early burial traditions during the Pleistocene. Here we investigate maritime interactions and burial practices at Ratu Mali 2, an elevated coastal cave site on the small island of Kisar in the Lesser Sunda Islands of eastern Indonesia dated to 15,500-3700 cal. BP. This multidisciplinary study demonstrates extreme marine dietary adaptations, engagement with an extensive exchange network across open seas, and early mortuary practices. A flexed male and a female, interred in a single grave with abundant shellfish and obsidian at Ratu Mali 2 by 14.7 ka are the oldest known human burials in Wallacea with established funerary rites. These findings highlight the impressive flexibility of our species in marginal environments and provide insight into the earliest known ritualised treatment of the dead in Wallacea.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Sepultamento , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Indonésia , Cavernas , Práticas Mortuárias
11.
Cancer Discov ; 14(3): 446-467, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38047585

RESUMO

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is thought to play an important role in driving proliferation of certain cancers, including those harboring CCNE1 amplification and breast cancers that have acquired resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i). The precise impact of pharmacologic inhibition of CDK2 is not known due to the lack of selective CDK2 inhibitors. Here we describe INX-315, a novel and potent CDK2 inhibitor with high selectivity over other CDK family members. Using cell-based assays, patient-derived xenografts (PDX), and transgenic mouse models, we show that INX-315 (i) promotes retinoblastoma protein hypophosphorylation and therapy-induced senescence (TIS) in CCNE1-amplified tumors, leading to durable control of tumor growth; (ii) overcomes breast cancer resistance to CDK4/6i, restoring cell cycle control while reinstating the chromatin architecture of CDK4/6i-induced TIS; and (iii) delays the onset of CDK4/6i resistance in breast cancer by driving deeper suppression of E2F targets. Our results support the clinical development of selective CDK2 inhibitors. SIGNIFICANCE: INX-315 is a novel, selective inhibitor of CDK2. Our preclinical studies demonstrate activity for INX-315 in both CCNE1-amplified cancers and CDK4/6i-resistant breast cancer. In each case, CDK2 inhibition induces cell cycle arrest and a phenotype resembling cellular senescence. Our data support the development of selective CDK2 inhibitors in clinical trials. See related commentary by Watts and Spencer, p. 386. This article is featured in Selected Articles from This Issue, p. 384.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Feminino , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Senescência Celular , Cromatina , Proteínas Inibidoras de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina , Camundongos Transgênicos
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(1): e2311280120, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38147645

RESUMO

The dominant paradigm is that large tracts of Southeast Asia's lowland rainforests were replaced with a "savanna corridor" during the cooler, more seasonal climates of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (23,000 to 19,000 y ago). This interpretation has implications for understanding the resilience of Asia's tropical forests to projected climate change, implying a vulnerability to "savannization". A savanna corridor is also an important foundation for archaeological interpretations of how humans moved through and settled insular Southeast Asia and Australia. Yet an up-to-date, multiproxy, and empirical examination of the palaeoecological evidence for this corridor is lacking. We conducted qualitative and statistical analyses of 59 palaeoecological records across Southeast Asia to test the evidence for LGM savannization and clarify the relationships between methods, biogeography, and ecological change in the region from the start of Late Glacial Period (119,000 y ago) to the present. The pollen records typically show montane forest persistence during the LGM, while δ13C biomarker proxies indicate the expansion of C4-rich grasslands. We reconcile this discrepancy by hypothesizing the expansion of montane forest in the uplands and replacement of rainforest with seasonally dry tropical forest in the lowlands. We also find that smooth forest transitions between 34,000 and 2,000 y ago point to the capacity of Southeast Asia's ecosystems both to resist and recover from climate stressors, suggesting resilience to savannization. Finally, the timing of ecological change observed in our combined datasets indicates an 'early' onset of the LGM in Southeast Asia from ~30,000 y ago.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos , Floresta Úmida , Mudança Climática , Sudeste Asiático
13.
Sci Adv ; 9(49): eadk5201, 2023 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38064558

RESUMO

The introduction of domestic horses transformed Indigenous societies across the grasslands of Argentina, leading to the emergence of specialized horse cultures across the Southern Cone. However, the dynamics of this introduction are poorly chronicled by historic records. Here, we apply archaeozoological and biomolecular techniques to horse remains from the site of Chorrillo Grande 1 in southern Argentina. Osteological and taphonomic analyses suggest that horses were pastorally managed and used for food by Aónikenk/Tehuelche hunter-gatherers before the onset of permanent European settlement, as early as the mid-17th century. DNA-based sex identifications suggest consumption of both male and female horses, while ceramic residue also shows use of guanaco products. Sequential isotope analyses on horse dentition reveal an origin in southern Patagonia and movement of these animals between the Río Coig and Río Gallegos basins. These results reinforce emerging evidence for rapid Indigenous-mediated dispersal of horses in the Americas and demonstrate that horses catalyzed rapid economic and social transformations.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Animais , Cavalos , Masculino , Feminino , Argentina
14.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 17913, 2023 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37864037

RESUMO

Lidar (light-detection and ranging) has revolutionized archaeology. We are now able to produce high-resolution maps of archaeological surface features over vast areas, allowing us to see ancient land-use and anthropogenic landscape modification at previously un-imagined scales. In the tropics, this has enabled documentation of previously archaeologically unrecorded cities in various tropical regions, igniting scientific and popular interest in ancient tropical urbanism. An emerging challenge, however, is to add temporal depth to this torrent of new spatial data because traditional archaeological investigations are time consuming and inherently destructive. So far, we are aware of only one attempt to apply statistics and machine learning to remotely-sensed data in order to add time-depth to spatial data. Using temples at the well-known massive urban complex of Angkor in Cambodia as a case study, a predictive model was developed combining standard regression with novel machine learning methods to estimate temple foundation dates for undated Angkorian temples identified with remote sensing, including lidar. The model's predictions were used to produce an historical population curve for Angkor and study urban expansion at this important ancient tropical urban centre. The approach, however, has certain limitations. Importantly, its handling of uncertainties leaves room for improvement, and like many machine learning approaches it is opaque regarding which predictor variables are most relevant. Here we describe a new study in which we investigated an alternative Bayesian regression approach applied to the same case study. We compare the two models in terms of their inner workings, results, and interpretive utility. We also use an updated database of Angkorian temples as the training dataset, allowing us to produce the most current estimate for temple foundations and historic spatiotemporal urban growth patterns at Angkor. Our results demonstrate that, in principle, predictive statistical and machine learning methods could be used to rapidly add chronological information to large lidar datasets and a Bayesian paradigm makes it possible to incorporate important uncertainties-especially chronological-into modelled temporal estimates.

15.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 16360, 2023 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37773428

RESUMO

As one of the key, long-term occupied sites in the Southern Levant, Jericho was one of the most important early Neolithic centres to witness social and economic changes associated with the domestication of plants and animals. This study applies strontium (87Sr/86Sr), oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope analyses to the enamel of 52 human teeth from Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) layers of Jericho to directly study human diet and mobility and investigate the degree of consolidation and the flexibility of social organization of Jericho society in the PPN period. The results indicate only two non-local individuals out of the 44 sampled inhabitants identified by strontium isotope analysis and are consistent with the presence of a largely sedentary community at PPN Jericho with no evidence for large-scale migration. We also construct strontium spatial baselines (87Sr/86Sr map) with local 87Sr/86Sr signatures for the sites across the Southern Levant based on systematic compilation and analysis of available data. In addition, we apply proteomic analysis of sex-specific amelogenin peptides in tooth enamel for sex estimation of the sampled individuals (n = 44), the results of which showed a sex-biased ratio (more male than female detected in this sample pool) in Jericho society during the PPN period, which may be due to the limited sample size or selective ritual practices like particular burial zones used for specific groups. We also pretreated a batch of human bone samples recovered from PPNB Jericho for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses for dietary investigations. However, the extracted collagen showed poor preservation and no valid δ13C or δ15N data were obtained.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Dente , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Dente/química , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise , Sepultamento , Carbono
16.
Biol Theory ; 18(2): 134-151, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37214192

RESUMO

Extinct megafaunal mammals in the Americas are often linked to seed-dispersal mutualisms with large-fruiting tree species, but large-fruiting species in Europe and Asia have received far less attention. Several species of arboreal Maloideae (apples and pears) and Prunoideae (plums and peaches) evolved large fruits starting around nine million years ago, primarily in Eurasia. As evolutionary adaptations for seed dispersal by animals, the size, high sugar content, and bright colorful visual displays of ripeness suggest that mutualism with megafaunal mammals facilitated the evolutionary change. There has been little discussion as to which animals were likely candidate(s) on the late Miocene landscape of Eurasia. We argue that several possible dispersers could have consumed the large fruits, with endozoochoric dispersal usually relying on guilds of species. During the Pleistocene and Holocene, the dispersal guild likely included ursids, equids, and elephantids. During the late Miocene, large primates were likely also among the members of this guild, and the potential of a long-held mutualism between the ape and apple clades merits further discussion. If primates were a driving factor in the evolution of this large-fruit seed-dispersal system, it would represent an example of seed-dispersal-based mutualism with hominids millions of years prior to crop domestication or the development of cultural practices, such as farming.

17.
Sci Adv ; 9(15): eadf0345, 2023 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37043579

RESUMO

The extreme environments of the Tibetan Plateau offer considerable challenges to human survival, demanding novel adaptations. While the role of biological and agricultural adaptations in enabling early human colonization of the plateau has been widely discussed, the contribution of pastoralism is less well understood, especially the dairy pastoralism that has historically been central to Tibetan diets. Here, we analyze ancient proteins from the dental calculus (n = 40) of all human individuals with sufficient calculus preservation from the interior plateau. Our paleoproteomic results demonstrate that dairy pastoralism began on the highland plateau by ~3500 years ago. Patterns of milk protein recovery point to the importance of dairy for individuals who lived in agriculturally poor regions above 3700 m above sea level. Our study suggests that dairy was a critical cultural adaptation that supported expansion of early pastoralists into the region's vast, non-arable highlands, opening the Tibetan Plateau up to widespread, permanent human occupation.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Indústria de Laticínios , Humanos , Tibet , Aclimatação , Ocupações
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 4078, 2023 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36906701

RESUMO

Medieval southern Italy is typically viewed as a region where political, religious, and cultural systems coexisted and clashed. Written sources often focus on elites and give an image of a hierarchical feudal society supported by a farming economy. We undertook an interdisciplinary study combining historical and archaeological evidence with Bayesian modelling of multi-isotope data from human (n = 134) and faunal (n = 21) skeletal remains to inform on the socioeconomic organisation, cultural practices, and demographics of medieval communities in Capitanata (southern Italy). Isotopic results show significant dietary differences within local populations supportive of marked socioeconomic hierarchies. Bayesian dietary modelling suggested that cereal production, followed by animal management practices, was the economic basis of the region. However, minor consumption of marine fish, potentially associated with Christian practices, revealed intra-regional trade. At the site of Tertiveri, isotope-based clustering and Bayesian spatial modelling identified migrant individuals likely from the Alpine region plus one Muslim individual from the Mediterranean coastline. Our results align with the prevailing image of Medieval southern Italy but they also showcase how Bayesian methods and multi-isotope data can be used to directly inform on the history of local communities and of the legacy that these left.

19.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0283000, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36996257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of robot-assisted surgery is costly and requires whole system transformation, which makes the assessment of benefits (or drawbacks) complex. To date, there has been little agreement on which outcomes should be used in this regard. The aim of the RoboCOS study was to develop a core outcome set for the evaluation of robot-assisted surgery that would account for its impact on the whole system. METHODS: Identification of a long-list of potentially relevant outcomes through systematic review of trials and health technology assessments; interviews with individuals from a range of stakeholder groups (surgeons, service managers, policy makers and evaluators) and a focus group with patients and public; prioritisation of outcomes via a 2-round online international Delphi survey; consensus meeting. RESULTS: 721 outcomes were extracted from the systematic reviews, interviews and focus group which were conceptualised into 83 different outcome domains across four distinct levels (patient, surgeon, organisation and population) for inclusion in the international Delphi prioritisation survey (128 completed both rounds). The consensus meeting led to the agreement of a 10-item core outcome set including outcomes at: patient level (treatment effectiveness; overall quality of life; disease-specific quality of life; complications (including mortality); surgeon level (precision/accuracy; visualisation); organisation (equipment failure; standardisation of operative quality; cost-effectiveness); and population (equity of access). CONCLUSION: The RoboCOS core outcome set, which includes the outcomes of importance to all stakeholders, is recommended for use in all future evaluations of robot-assisted surgery to ensure relevant and comparable reporting of outcomes.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Técnica Delphi , Determinação de Ponto Final , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
iScience ; 26(3): 106153, 2023 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36843842

RESUMO

The Ihò Eléérú (or Iho Eleru) rock shelter, located in Southwest Nigeria, is the only site from which Pleistocene-age hominin fossils have been recovered in western Africa. Excavations at Iho Eleru revealed regular human occupations ranging from the Later Stone Age (LSA) to the present day. Here, we present chronometric, archaeobotanical, and paleoenvironmental findings, which include the taxonomic, taphonomic, and isotopic analyses of what is the only Pleistocene faunal assemblage documented in western Africa. Our results indicate that the local landscape surrounding Iho Eleru, although situated within a regional open-canopy biome, was forested throughout the past human occupation of the site. At a regional scale, a shift from forest- to savanna-dominated ecotonal environment occurred during a mid-Holocene warm event 6,000 years ago, with a subsequent modern reforestation of the landscape. Locally, no environmental shift was observable, placing Iho Eleru in a persistent forested "island" during the period of occupation.

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