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1.
Photoacoustics ; 28: 100407, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36263352

RESUMO

Generation of ultra high frequency acoustic waves in water is key to nano resolution sensing, acoustic imaging and theranostics. In this context water immersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may act as an ideal optoacoustic source, due to their nanometric radial dimensions, peculiar thermal properties and broad band optical absorption. The generation mechanism of acoustic waves in water, upon excitation of both a single-wall (SW) and a multi-wall (MW) CNT with laser pulses of temporal width ranging from 5 ns down to ps, is theoretically investigated via a multiscale approach. We show that, depending on the combination of CNT size and laser pulse duration, the CNT can act as a thermophone or a mechanophone. As a thermophone, the CNT acts as a nanoheater for the surrounding water, which, upon thermal expansion, launches the pressure wave. As a mechanophone, the CNT acts as a nanopiston, its thermal expansion directly triggering the pressure wave in water. Activation of the mechanophone effect is sought to trigger few nanometers wavelength sound waves in water, matching the CNT acoustic frequencies. This is at variance with respect to the commonly addressed case of water-immersed single metallic nano-objects excited with ns laser pulses, where only the thermophone effect significantly contributes. The present findings might be of impact in fields ranging from nanoscale non-destructive testing to water dynamics at the meso to nanoscale.

2.
ACS Nano ; 16(1): 1291-1300, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939407

RESUMO

We demonstrate a graphene-MoS2 architecture integrating multiple field-effect transistors (FETs), and we independently probe and correlate the conducting properties of van der Waals coupled graphene-MoS2 contacts with those of the MoS2 channels. Devices are fabricated starting from high-quality single-crystal monolayers grown by chemical vapor deposition. The heterojunction was investigated by scanning Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Moreover, transconductance curves of MoS2 are compared with the current-voltage characteristics of graphene contact stripes, revealing a significant suppression of transport on the n-side of the transconductance curve. On the basis of ab initio modeling, the effect is understood in terms of trapping by sulfur vacancies, which counterintuitively depends on the field effect, even though the graphene contact layer is positioned between the backgate and the MoS2 channel.

3.
Nano Lett ; 21(24): 10309-10314, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851117

RESUMO

Recent experiments have shown the possibility of tuning the transport properties of metallic nanosized superconductors through a gate voltage. These results renewed the longstanding debate on the interaction between electrostatic fields and superconductivity. Indeed, different works suggested competing mechanisms as the cause of the effect: an unconventional electric field-effect or quasiparticle injection. Here, we provide conclusive evidence for the electrostatic-field-driven control of the supercurrent in metallic nanosized superconductors, by realizing ionic-gated superconducting field-effect nanotransistors (ISFETs) where electron injection is impossible. Our Nb ISFETs show giant suppression of the superconducting critical current of up to ∼45%. Moreover, the bipolar supercurrent suppression observed in different ISFETs, together with invariant critical temperature and normal-state resistance, also excludes conventional charge accumulation/depletion. Therefore, the microscopic explanation of this effect calls upon a novel theory able to describe the nontrivial interaction of static electric fields with conventional superconductivity.

4.
Nanotechnology ; 31(32): 324004, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325444

RESUMO

We analyze the benefits and shortcomings of a thermal control in nanoscale electronic conductors by means of the contact heating scheme. Ideally, this straightforward approach allows one to apply a known thermal bias across nanostructures directly through metallic leads, avoiding conventional substrate intermediation. We show, by using the average noise thermometry and local noise sensing technique in InAs nanowire-based devices, that a nanoscale metallic constriction on a SiO2 substrate acts like a diffusive conductor with negligible electron-phonon relaxation and non-ideal leads. The non-universal impact of the leads on the achieved thermal bias-which depends on their dimensions, shape and material composition-is hard to minimize, but is possible to accurately calibrate in a properly designed nano-device. Our results allow to reduce the issue of the thermal bias calibration to the knowledge of the heater resistance and pave the way for accurate thermoelectric or similar measurements at the nanoscale.

5.
Nano Lett ; 20(3): 1693-1699, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048854

RESUMO

We report results on the control of barrier transparency in InAs/InP nanowire quantum dots via the electrostatic control of the device electron states. Recent works demonstrated that barrier transparency in this class of devices displays a general trend just depending on the total orbital energy of the trapped electrons. We show that a qualitatively different regime is observed at relatively low filling numbers, where tunneling rates are rather controlled by the axial configuration of the electron orbital. Transmission rates versus filling are further modified by acting on the radial configuration of the orbitals by means of electrostatic gating, and the barrier transparency for the various orbitals is found to evolve as expected from numerical simulations. The possibility to exploit this mechanism to achieve a controlled continuous tuning of the tunneling rate of an individual Coulomb blockade resonance is discussed.

6.
Small ; 15(50): e1904906, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668009

RESUMO

The adoption of graphene in electronics, optoelectronics, and photonics is hindered by the difficulty in obtaining high-quality material on technologically relevant substrates, over wafer-scale sizes, and with metal contamination levels compatible with industrial requirements. To date, the direct growth of graphene on insulating substrates has proved to be challenging, usually requiring metal-catalysts or yielding defective graphene. In this work, a metal-free approach implemented in commercially available reactors to obtain high-quality monolayer graphene on c-plane sapphire substrates via chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. Low energy electron diffraction, low energy electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements identify the Al-rich reconstruction 31 × 31 R ± 9 ° of sapphire to be crucial for obtaining epitaxial graphene. Raman spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements reveal high-quality graphene with mobilities consistently above 2000 cm2 V-1 s-1 . The process is scaled up to 4 and 6 in. wafers sizes and metal contamination levels are retrieved to be within the limits for back-end-of-line integration. The growth process introduced here establishes a method for the synthesis of wafer-scale graphene films on a technologically viable basis.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(13)2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284650

RESUMO

In this work, we isolate individual wurtzite InAs nanowires and fabricate electrical contacts at both ends, exploiting the single nanostructures as building blocks to realize two different architectures of conductometric sensors: (a) the nanowire is drop-casted onto-supported by-a SiO2/Si substrate, and (b) the nanowire is suspended at approximately 250 nm from the substrate. We test the source-drain current upon changes in the concentration of humidity, ethanol, and NO2, using synthetic air as a gas carrier, moving a step forward towards mimicking operational environmental conditions. The supported architecture shows higher response in the mid humidity range (50% relative humidity), with shorter response and recovery times and lower detection limit with respect to the suspended nanowire. These experimental pieces of evidence indicate a minor role of the InAs/SiO2 contact area; hence, there is no need for suspended nanostructures to improve the sensing performance. Moreover, the sensing capability of single InAs nanowires for detection of NO2 and ethanol in the ambient atmosphere is reported and discussed.

8.
Nano Lett ; 19(5): 3033-3039, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935206

RESUMO

We demonstrate high-temperature thermoelectric conversion in InAs/InP nanowire quantum dots by taking advantage of their strong electronic confinement. The electrical conductance G and the thermopower S are obtained from charge transport measurements and accurately reproduced with a theoretical model accounting for the multilevel structure of the quantum dot. Notably, our analysis does not rely on the estimate of cotunnelling contributions, since electronic thermal transport is dominated by multilevel heat transport. By taking into account two spin-degenerate energy levels we are able to evaluate the electronic thermal conductance K and investigate the evolution of the electronic figure of merit ZT as a function of the quantum dot configuration and demonstrate ZT ≈ 35 at 30 K, corresponding to an electronic efficiency at maximum power close to the Curzon-Ahlborn limit.

9.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 7(11)2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160860

RESUMO

Subwavelength nanostructured surfaces are realized with self-assembled vertically-aligned InAs nanowires, and their functionalities as optical reflectors are investigated. In our system, polarization-resolved specular reflectance displays strong modulations as a function of incident photon energy and angle. An effective-medium model allows one to rationalize the experimental findings in the long wavelength regime, whereas numerical simulations fully reproduce the experimental outcomes in the entire frequency range. The impact of the refractive index of the medium surrounding the nanostructure assembly on the reflectance was estimated. In view of the present results, sensing schemes compatible with microfluidic technologies and routes to innovative nanowire-based optical elements are discussed.

10.
Nanotechnology ; 28(10): 105709, 2017 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177936

RESUMO

We investigate nanoscale local anodic oxidation (LAO) on hydrogen-intercalated graphene grown by controlled sublimation of silicon carbide (SiC). Scanning probe microscopy was used as a lithographic and characterization tool in order to investigate the local properties of the nanofabricated structures. The anomalous thickness observed after the graphene oxidation process is linked to the impact of LAO on the substrate. Micro-Raman (µ-Raman) spectroscopy was employed to demonstrate the presence of two oxidation regimes depending on the applied bias. We show that partial and total etching of monolayer graphene can be achieved by tuning the bias voltage during LAO. Finally, a complete compositional characterization was achieved by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

11.
Nano Lett ; 16(9): 5521-7, 2016 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27532324

RESUMO

We investigate light emission from nanoscale point-sources obtained in hybrid metal-GaAs nanowires embedding two sharp axial Schottky barriers. Devices are obtained via the formation of Ni-rich metallic alloy regions in the nanostructure body thanks to a technique of controlled thermal annealing of Ni/Au electrodes. In agreement with recent findings, visible-light electroluminescence can be observed upon suitable voltage biasing of the junctions. We investigate the time-resolved emission properties of our devices and demonstrate an electrical modulation of light generation up to 1 GHz. We explore different drive configurations and discuss the intrinsic bottlenecks of the present device architecture. Our results demonstrate a novel technique for the realization of fast subwavelength light sources with possible applications in sensing and microscopy beyond the diffraction limit.

12.
Nano Lett ; 16(9): 5688-93, 2016 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479039

RESUMO

We demonstrate localization and field-effect spatial control of the plasmon resonance in semiconductor nanostructures, using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy in the mid-infrared region. We adopt InAs nanowires embedding a graded doping profile to modulate the free carrier density along the axial direction. Our near-field measurements have a spatial resolution of 20 nm and demonstrate the presence of a local resonant feature whose position can be controlled by a back-gate bias voltage. In the present implementation, field-effect induces a modulation of the free carrier density profile yielding a spatial shift of the plasmon resonance of the order of 100 nm. We discuss the relevance of our electrically tunable nanoplasmonic architectures in view of innovative optoelectronic devices concepts.

13.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 9(12): 997-1001, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25383514

RESUMO

The control of orbitals and spin states of single electrons is a key ingredient for quantum information processing and novel detection schemes and is, more generally, of great relevance for spintronics. Coulomb and spin blockade in double quantum dots enable advanced single-spin operations that would be available even for room-temperature applications with sufficiently small devices. To date, however, spin operations in double quantum dots have typically been observed at sub-kelvin temperatures, a key reason being that it is very challenging to scale a double quantum dot system while retaining independent field-effect control of individual dots. Here, we show that the quantum-confined Stark effect allows two dots only 5 nm apart to be independently addressed without the requirement for aligned nanometre-sized local gating. We thus demonstrate a scalable method to fully control a double quantum dot device, regardless of its physical size. In the present implementation we present InAs/InP nanowire double quantum dots that display an experimentally detectable spin blockade up to 10 K. We also report and discuss an unexpected re-entrant spin blockade lifting as a function of the magnetic field intensity.

14.
Nano Lett ; 13(8): 3638-42, 2013 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23869467

RESUMO

Millivolt range thermovoltage is demonstrated in single InAs nanowire based field effect transistors. Thanks to a buried heating scheme, we drive both a large thermal bias ΔT > 10 K and a strong field-effect modulation of electric conductance on the nanostructures. This allows the precise mapping of the evolution of the Seebeck coefficient S as a function of the gate-controlled conductivity σ between room temperature and 100 K. Based on these experimental data a novel estimate of the electron mobility is given. This value is compared with the result of standard field-effect based mobility estimates and discussed in relation to the effect of charge traps in the devices.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(24): 246801, 2012 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23004306

RESUMO

Transport experiments provide conflicting evidence on the possible existence of fractional order within integer quantum Hall systems. In fact, integer edge states sometimes behave as monolithic objects with no inner structure, while other experiments clearly highlight the role of fractional substructures. Recently developed low-temperature scanning probe techniques offer today an opportunity for a deeper-than-ever investigation of spatial features of such edge systems. Here we use scanning-gate microscopy and demonstrate that fractional features were unambiguously observed in every integer quantum Hall constriction studied. We present also an experimental estimate of the width of the fractional incompressible stripes corresponding to filling factors 1/3, 2/5, 3/5, and 2/3. Our results compare well with predictions of the edge-reconstruction theory.

16.
Nano Lett ; 12(9): 4490-4, 2012 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22849393

RESUMO

Very robust voltage-controlled spin transitions in few-electron quantum dots are demonstrated. Two lateral-gate electrodes patterned on opposite sides of an InAs/InP nanowire are used to apply a transverse electric field and tune orbital energy separation down to level-pair degeneracy. Transport measurements in this regime allow us to demonstrate the breakdown of the standard alternate up/down spin filling scheme and unambiguously show singlet-triplet spin transitions. The strong confinement of the present devices leads to a large energy gain for the observed anomalous spin configurations that exceeds 4 meV. As a consequence, this behavior is well visible even at temperatures exceeding T = 20 K.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/química , Cristalização/métodos , Galvanoplastia/métodos , Índio/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Fosfinas/química , Pontos Quânticos , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(23): 236804, 2011 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22182116

RESUMO

We introduce and experimentally demonstrate a new method that allows us to controllably couple copropagating spin-resolved edge states of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the integer quantum Hall regime. The scheme exploits a spatially periodic in-plane magnetic field that is created by an array of Cobalt nanomagnets placed at the boundary of the 2DEG. A maximum charge or spin transfer of 28±1% is achieved at 250 mK.

18.
Nano Lett ; 11(4): 1695-9, 2011 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21446718

RESUMO

We present a novel technique for the manipulation of the energy spectrum of hard-wall InAs/InP nanowire quantum dots. By using two local gate electrodes, we induce a strong transverse electric field in the dot and demonstrate the controlled modification of its electronic orbitals. Our approach allows us to dramatically enhance the single-particle energy spacing between the first two quantum levels in the dot and thus to increment the working temperature of our InAs/InP single-electron transistors. Our devices display a very robust modulation of the conductance even at liquid nitrogen temperature, while allowing an ultimate control of the electron filling down to the last free carrier. Potential further applications of the technique to time-resolved spin manipulation are also discussed.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/química , Índio/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Fosfinas/química , Pontos Quânticos , Arsenicais/efeitos da radiação , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Elétrons , Índio/efeitos da radiação , Teste de Materiais , Nanoestruturas/efeitos da radiação , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfinas/efeitos da radiação
19.
ACS Nano ; 5(3): 2191-9, 2011 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21322642

RESUMO

We report a novel method for probing the gate-voltage dependence of the surface potential of individual semiconductor nanowires. The statistics of electronic occupation of a single defect on the surface of the nanowire, determined from a random telegraph signal, is used as a measure for the local potential. The method is demonstrated for the case of one or two switching defects in indium arsenide (InAs) nanowire field effect transistors at temperatures T=25-77 K. Comparison with a self-consistent model shows that surface potential variation is retarded in the conducting regime due to screening by surface states with density Dss≈10(12) cm(-2) eV(-1). Temperature-dependent dynamics of electron capture and emission producing the random telegraph signals are also analyzed, and multiphonon emission is identified as the process responsible for capture and emission of electrons from the surface traps. Two defects studied in detail had capture activation energies of EB≈50 meV and EB≈110 meV and cross sections of σ∞≈3×10(-19) cm2 and σ∞≈2×10(-17) cm2, respectively. A lattice relaxation energy of Sℏω=187±15 meV was found for the first defect.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/química , Índio/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Semicondutores , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador/instrumentação , Arsenicais/efeitos da radiação , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Índio/efeitos da radiação , Teste de Materiais , Nanoestruturas/efeitos da radiação , Tamanho da Partícula
20.
Nanotechnology ; 20(50): 505605, 2009 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19907063

RESUMO

We report the Au-assisted chemical beam epitaxy growth of defect-free zincblende InSb nanowires. The grown InSb segments are the upper sections of InAs/InSb heterostructures on InAs(111)B substrates. We show, through HRTEM analysis, that zincblende InSb can be grown without any crystal defects such as stacking faults or twinning planes. Strain-map analysis demonstrates that the InSb segment is nearly relaxed within a few nanometers from the interface. By post-growth studies we have found that the catalyst particle composition is AuIn(2), and it can be varied to a AuIn alloy by cooling down the samples under TDMASb flux.

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