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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297043, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564578

RESUMO

The aberrant activation of HER2 has a pivotal role in bone metastasis implantation and progression in several tumor types, including prostate cancer (PC). Trastuzumab and other anti-HER2 therapies, such as lapatinib, have been used in human breast cancer HER2 positive. Although HER2 overexpression has been reported in PC, anti-HER2 therapy response has revealed conflicting results. We investigated the potential of lapatinib in inhibiting cell migration and inducing apoptosis in two human (LNCaP and PC3) and two canine PC cell lines (PC1 and PC2). Cell migration and apoptosis were evaluated by Annexin V/PI analysis after lapatinib treatment. The transcriptome analysis of all cell lines before and after treatment with lapatinib was also performed. We found increased apoptosis and migration inhibition in LNCaP cells (androgen-sensitive cell line), while PC1, PC2, and PC3 cells showed no alterations after the treatment. The transcriptome analysis of LNCaP and PC3 cell lines showed 158 dysregulated transcripts in common, while PC1 and PC2 cell lines presented 82. At the doses of lapatinib used, we observed transcriptional modifications in all cell lines. PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway were enriched in human PC cells, while canine PC cells showed enrichment of tyrosine kinase antitumor response and HER2-related pathways. In canine PC cells, the apoptosis failed after lapatinib treatment, possibly due to the downregulation of MAPK genes. Prostate cancer cells insensitive to androgens may be resistant to lapatinib through PI3K gene dysregulation. The association of lapatinib with PI3K inhibitors may provide a more effective antitumor response and clinical benefits to PC patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Lapatinib/farmacologia , Lapatinib/uso terapêutico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos
2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 16(5)2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HOXA1 is a prognostic marker and a potential predictive biomarker for radioresistance in head and neck tumors. Its overexpression has been associated with promoter methylation and a worse prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. However, opposite outcomes are also described. The effect of the methylation of this gene on different gene regions, other than the promoter, remains uncertain. We investigated the methylation profile at different genomic regions of HOXA1 in OSCC and correlated differentially methylated CpG sites with clinicopathological data. METHODS: The HOXA1 DNA methylation status was evaluated by analyzing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and three Gene Expression Omnibus datasets. Significant differentially methylated CpG sites were considered with a |∆ß| ≥ 0.10 and a Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.01. Differentially methylated CpGs were validated by pyrosequencing using two independent cohorts of 15 and 47 OSCC patients, respectively. RESULTS: Compared to normal tissues, we found significantly higher DNA methylation levels in the 3'UTR region of HOXA1 in OSCC. Higher methylation levels in tumor samples were positively correlated with smoking habits and patients' overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that HOXA1 gene body methylation is a promising prognostic biomarker for OSCC with potential clinical applications in patient monitoring.

3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 167: 115559, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37742611

RESUMO

Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a complex and dynamic disease characterized by clinicopathological and molecular heterogeneity. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of cell subpopulations has been associated with cancer progression and implicated in the prognosis and therapy response. Emerging evidence indicates that aberrant epigenetic profiles in OSCC may foster an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment by modulating the expression of immune-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). DNA methylation analysis was performed in 46 matched OSCC and normal adjacent tissue samples using a genome-wide platform (Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip). Reference-based computational deconvolution (MethylCIBERSORT) was applied to infer the immune cell composition of the bulk samples. The expression levels of genes encoding immune markers and differentially methylated lncRNAs were investigated using The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset. OSCC specimens presented distinct immune cell composition, including the enrichment of monocyte lineage cells, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, regulatory T-lymphocytes, and neutrophils. In contrast, B-lymphocytes, effector T-lymphocytes, and fibroblasts were diminished in tumor samples. The hypomethylation of three immune-associated lncRNAs (MEG3, MIR155HG, and WFDC21P) at individual CpG sites was confirmed by bisulfite-pyrosequencing. Also, the upregulation of a set of immune markers (FOXP3, GZMB, IL10, IL2RA, TGFB, IFNG, TDO2, IDO1, and HIF1A) was detected. The immune cell composition, immune markers alteration, and dysregulation of immune-associated lncRNAs reinforce the impact of the immune microenvironment in OSCC. These concurrent factors contribute to tumor heterogeneity, suggesting that epi-immunotherapy could be an efficient alternative to treat OSCC.

4.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(8)2023 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37628631

RESUMO

Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease associated with a high risk of developing breast, ovarian, and other malignancies. Lynch syndrome is caused by mutations in mismatch repair genes predisposing to colorectal and endometrial cancers, among others. A rare phenotype overlapping hereditary colorectal and breast cancer syndromes is poorly characterized. Three breast and colorectal cancer unrelated patients fulfilling clinical criteria for HBOC were tested by whole exome sequencing. A family history of colorectal cancer was reported in two patients (cases 2 and 3). Several variants and copy number variations were identified, which potentially contribute to the cancer risk or prognosis. All patients presented copy number imbalances encompassing PMS2 (two deletions and one duplication), a known gene involved in the DNA mismatch repair pathway. Two patients showed gains covering the POLE2 (cases 1 and 3), which is associated with DNA replication. Germline potentially damaging variants were found in PTCH1 (patient 3), MAT1A, and WRN (patient 2). Overall, concurrent genomic alterations were described that may increase the risk of cancer appearance in HBOC patients with breast and colorectal cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário , Humanos , Feminino , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Genômica , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Células Germinativas
5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(14)2023 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37509297

RESUMO

Penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is a rare malignancy in most parts of the world and the underlying mechanisms of this disease have not been fully investigated. About 30-50% of cases are associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which may have prognostic value. When PSCC becomes resistant to upfront therapies there are limited options, thus further research is needed in this venue. The extracellular domain-facing protein profile on the cell surface (i.e., the surfaceome) is a key area for biomarker and drug target discovery. This research employs computational methods combined with cell line translatomic (n = 5) and RNA-seq transcriptomic data from patient-derived tumors (n = 18) to characterize the PSCC surfaceome, evaluate the composition dependency on HPV infection, and explore the prognostic impact of identified surfaceome candidates. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to validate the localization of select surfaceome markers. This analysis characterized a diverse surfaceome within patient tumors with 25% and 18% of the surfaceome represented by the functional classes of receptors and transporters, respectively. Significant differences in protein classes were noted by HPV status, with the most change being seen in transporter proteins (25%). IHC confirmed the robust surface expression of select surfaceome targets in the top 85% of expression and a superfamily immunoglobulin protein called BSG/CD147 was prognostic of survival. This study provides the first description of the PSCC surfaceome and its relation to HPV infection and sets a foundation for novel biomarker and drug target discovery in this rare cancer.

6.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 42(1): 115, 2023 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37143108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with colorectal metastatic disease have a poor prognosis, limited therapeutic options, and frequent development of resistance. Strategies based on tumor-derived organoids are a powerful tool to assess drug sensitivity at an individual level and to suggest new treatment options or re-challenge. Here, we evaluated the method's feasibility and clinical outcome as applied to patients with no satisfactory treatment options. METHODS: In this phase 2, single-center, open-label, non-comparative study (ClinicalTrials.gov, register NCT03251612), we enrolled 90 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer following progression on or after standard therapy. Participants were 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, adequate organ function, and metastasis available for biopsy. Biopsies from the metastatic site were cultured using organoids model. Sensitivity testing was performed with a panel of drugs with proven activity in phase II or III trials. At the discretion of the investigator considering toxicity, the drug with the highest relative activity was offered. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients alive without disease progression at two months per local assessment. RESULTS: Biopsies available from 82 to 90 patients were processed for cell culture, of which 44 successfully generated organoids with at least one treatment suggested. The precision cohort of 34 patients started treatment and the primary endpoint, progression-free survival (PFS) at two months was met in 17 patients (50%, 95% CI 32-68), exceeding the pre-defined level (14 of 45; 31%). The median PFS was 67 days (95% CI 51-108), and the median overall survival was 189 days (95% CI 103-277). CONCLUSIONS: Patient-derived organoids and in-vitro sensitivity testing were feasible in a cohort of metastatic colorectal cancer. The primary endpoint was met, as half of the patients were without progression at two months. Cancer patients may benefit from functional testing using tumor-derived organoids. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, register NCT03251612.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Medicina de Precisão , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico
7.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 89(2): 279-284, March-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439728

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Reinke's Edema (RE) is a laryngeal lesion related to excessive tobacco smoking, voice overuse, and laryngopharyngeal reflux. Although the risk of malignancy has been considered low in literature, RE is classified among precancerous lesions. Objectives: We investigated DNA Copy Number Alterations (CNAs) in specimens of RE and its potential association with malignant progression. Methods: We used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH, Agilent 4 × 180 K platform) to study eight RE cases. All patients were heavy tobacco users for at least 30 years, and none of them progressed to cancer in the follow-up (>8 years). Two RE presented mild dysplasia, one moderate dysplasia, and no histological alterations were found in the remaining five cases. CNAs were compared with the Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) and genes mapped on altered regions had their functions annotated. Results: Six of eight patients showed different rare copy number alterations on chromosomes 2q37.3, 4q13.1, 4q13.3, 7q11.22, 10p14, and 13q34. A gain of the whole chromosome 8 were detected in one case. Of interest, four of eight RE cases showed copy number imbalances involving genes previously described in several tumor types (RASA3, COL6A3, LINC00707, LINP1, SMR3A, and SMR3B). Conclusion: The genomic imbalances herein found in RE have the potential to contribute to the phenotype but with limited or no risk of cancer. A long-term follow-up in a large series of patients could clarify the mechanisms involved in the malignant progression of RE. Level of evidence: 4.

8.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol ; 89(2): 279-284, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243603

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reinke's Edema (RE) is a laryngeal lesion related to excessive tobacco smoking, voice overuse, and laryngopharyngeal reflux. Although the risk of malignancy has been considered low in literature, RE is classified among precancerous lesions. OBJECTIVES: We investigated DNA Copy Number Alterations (CNAs) in specimens of RE and its potential association with malignant progression. METHODS: We used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH, Agilent 4 × 180 K platform) to study eight RE cases. All patients were heavy tobacco users for at least 30 years, and none of them progressed to cancer in the follow-up (>8 years). Two RE presented mild dysplasia, one moderate dysplasia, and no histological alterations were found in the remaining five cases. CNAs were compared with the Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) and genes mapped on altered regions had their functions annotated. RESULTS: Six of eight patients showed different rare copy number alterations on chromosomes 2q37.3, 4q13.1, 4q13.3, 7q11.22, 10p14, and 13q34. A gain of the whole chromosome 8 were detected in one case. Of interest, four of eight RE cases showed copy number imbalances involving genes previously described in several tumor types (RASA3, COL6A3, LINC00707, LINP1, SMR3A, and SMR3B). CONCLUSION: The genomic imbalances herein found in RE have the potential to contribute to the phenotype but with limited or no risk of cancer. A long-term follow-up in a large series of patients could clarify the mechanisms involved in the malignant progression of RE.


Assuntos
Edema Laríngeo , Neoplasias , Humanos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Edema Laríngeo/complicações , Edema Laríngeo/patologia , Edema/complicações , DNA , Neoplasias/complicações
9.
Biomedicines ; 10(12)2022 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36552033

RESUMO

Inherited cancer predisposition genes are described as risk factors in head and neck cancer (HNC) families. To explore the clinical and epidemiological data and their association with a family history of cancer, we recruited 74 patients and 164 relatives affected by cancer. The germline copy number alterations were evaluated in 18 patients using array comparative genomic hybridization. Two or more first-degree relatives with HNC, tobacco-associated tumor sites (lung, esophagus, and pancreas), or other related tumors (breast, colon, kidney, bladder, cervix, stomach carcinomas, and melanoma) were reported in 74 families. Ten index patients had no exposure to any known risk factors. Family members presented tumors of 19 topographies (30 head and neck, 26 breast, 21 colon). In first-degree relatives, siblings were frequently affected by cancer (n = 58, 13 had HNC). Breast cancer (n = 21), HNC (n = 19), and uterine carcinoma (n = 15) were commonly found in first-degree relatives and HNC in second-degree relatives (n = 11). Nineteen germline genomic imbalances were detected in 13 patients; three presented gains of WRD genes. The number of HNC patients, the degree of kinship, and the tumor types detected in each relative support the role of heredity in these families. Germline alterations may potentially contribute to cancer development.

10.
Cell Commun Signal ; 20(1): 176, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serous ovarian carcinoma is the most frequent histological subgroup of ovarian cancer and the leading cause of death among gynecologic tumors. The tumor microenvironment and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have a critical role in the origin and progression of cancer. We comprehensively characterized the crosstalk between CAFs and ovarian cancer cells from malignant fluids to identify specific ligands and receptors mediating intercellular communications and disrupted pathways related to prognosis and therapy response. METHODS: Malignant fluids of serous ovarian cancer, including tumor-derived organoids, CAFs-enriched (eCAFs), and malignant effusion cells (no cultured) paired with normal ovarian tissues, were explored by RNA-sequencing. These data were integrated with single-cell RNA-sequencing data of ascites from ovarian cancer patients. The most relevant ligand and receptor interactions were used to identify differentially expressed genes with prognostic values in ovarian cancer. RESULTS: CAF ligands and epithelial cancer cell receptors were enriched for PI3K-AKT, focal adhesion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition signaling pathways. Collagens, MIF, MDK, APP, and laminin were detected as the most significant signaling, and the top ligand-receptor interactions THBS2/THBS3 (CAFs)-CD47 (cancer cells), MDK (CAFs)-NCL/SDC2/SDC4 (cancer cells) as potential therapeutic targets. Interestingly, 34 genes encoding receptors and ligands of the PI3K pathway were associated with the outcome, response to treatment, and overall survival in ovarian cancer. Up-regulated genes from this list consistently predicted a worse overall survival (hazard ratio > 1.0 and log-rank P < 0.05) in two independent validation cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes critical signaling pathways, ligands, and receptors involved in the communication between CAFs and cancer cells that have prognostic and therapeutic significance in ovarian cancer. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Humanos , Feminino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Ligantes , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , RNA/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
11.
Head Neck ; 44(12): 2925-2937, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114663

RESUMO

This study aimed to map systemic alterations predisposing to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) onset. This review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Five databases were used to access (1) reports of OSCC co-occurring in patients with systemic conditions, (2) prevalence of OSCC among these patients, and (3) clinicopathological profiles. Data from more than 1 million patients worldwide showed that Fanconi's anemia, xeroderma pigmentosum, dyskeratosis congenital, chronic fatigue syndrome, and patients post bone marrow transplantation (BMT) present increased risk for OSCC development. The overall prevalence of OSCC in syndromic patients and post-BMT were 0.65% (95% CI = 0.13-3.11, p < 0.01) and 5.83% (95% CI = 0.00-30.90, p < 0.01), respectively. The certainty of the evidence was moderate. This study demonstrated that some systemic conditions predispose to OSCC. These results present an impact on the screening of OSCC in systemically compromised patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Anemia de Fanconi , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia
12.
Front Oncol ; 12: 935093, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928876

RESUMO

Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and inflammation have been reported in penile carcinomas (PeCa). However, the cell types and cellular crosstalk involved in PeCa are unexplored. We aimed to characterize the complexity of cells and pathways involved in the tumor microenvironment (TME) in PeCa and propose target molecules associated with the TME. We first investigated the prognostic impact of cell types with a secretory profile to identify drug targets that modulate TME-enriched cells. The secretome analysis using the PeCa transcriptome revealed the enrichment of inflammation and extracellular matrix pathways. Twenty-three secreted factors were upregulated, mainly collagens and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The deregulation of collagens and MMPs was confirmed by Quantitative reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Further, the deconvolution method (digital cytometry) of the bulk samples revealed a high proportion of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. Increased DCs and B cells were associated with better survival. A high proportion of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) was observed in low-survival patients. Patients with increased CAFs had decreased immune cell proportions. The treatment with the MMP inhibitor GM6001 in CAF cells derived from PeCa resulted in altered cell viability. We reported a crosstalk between immune cells and CAFs, and the proportion of these cell populations was associated with prognosis. We demonstrate that a drug targeting MMPs modulates CAFs, expanding the therapeutic options of PeCa.

14.
Biomolecules ; 12(5)2022 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35625568

RESUMO

TP53 gene mutation is the most common genetic alteration in human malignant tumors and is mainly responsible for Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Among the several cancers related to this syndrome, breast cancer (BC) is the most common. The TP53 p.R337H germline pathogenic variant is highly prevalent in Brazil's South and Southeast regions, accounting for 0.3% of the general population. We investigated the prevalence of TP53 germline pathogenic variants in a cohort of 83 BC patients from the Midwest Brazilian region. All patients met the clinical criteria for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) and were negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Moreover, 40 index patients fulfilled HBOC and the Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) syndromes criteria. The samples were tested using next generation sequencing for TP53. Three patients harbored TP53 missense pathogenic variants (p.Arg248Gln, p.Arg337His, and p.Arg337Cys), confirmed by Sanger sequencing. One (1.2%) patient showed a large TP53 deletion (exons 2-11), which was also confirmed. The p.R337H variant was detected in only one patient. In conclusion, four (4.8%) early-onset breast cancer patients fulfilling the HBOC and LFL syndromes presented TP53 pathogenic variants, confirming the relevance of genetic tests in this group of patients. In contrast to other Brazilian regions, TP53 p.R337H variant appeared with low prevalence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Síndrome , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(7)2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406435

RESUMO

Genetic and epigenetic changes contribute to intratumor heterogeneity and chemotherapy resistance in several tumor types. LncRNAs have been implicated, directly or indirectly, in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We investigated lncRNAs that potentially mediate carboplatin-resistance of cell subpopulations, influencing the progression of ovarian cancer (OC). Four carboplatin-sensitive OC cell lines (IGROV1, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, and OVCAR5), their derivative resistant cells, and two inherently carboplatin-resistant cell lines (OVCAR8 and Ovc316) were subjected to RNA sequencing and global DNA methylation analysis. Integrative and cross-validation analyses were performed using external (The Cancer Genome Atlas, TCGA dataset, n = 111 OC samples) and internal datasets (n = 39 OC samples) to identify lncRNA candidates. A total of 4255 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 14529 differentially methylated CpG positions (DMPs) were identified comparing sensitive and resistant OC cell lines. The comparison of DEGs between OC cell lines and TCGA-OC dataset revealed 570 genes, including 50 lncRNAs, associated with carboplatin resistance. Eleven lncRNAs showed DMPs, including the SNHG12. Knockdown of SNHG12 in Ovc316 and OVCAR8 cells increased their sensitivity to carboplatin. The results suggest that the lncRNA SNHG12 contributes to carboplatin resistance in OC and is a potential therapeutic target. We demonstrated that SNHG12 is functionally related to epigenetic mechanisms.

16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 760830, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35402315

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, exhibits extensive inter- and intrastrain genetic diversity. As we have previously described, there are some genetic differences between the parental G strain and its clone D11, which was isolated by the limiting dilution method and infection of cultured mammalian cells. Electrophoretic karyotyping and Southern blot hybridization of chromosomal bands with specific markers revealed chromosome length polymorphisms of small size with additional chromosomal bands in clone D11 and the maintenance of large syntenic groups. Both G strain and clone D11 belong to the T. cruzi lineage TcI. Here, we designed intraspecific array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify chromosomal regions harboring copy-number variations between clone D11 and the G strain. DNA losses were more extensive than DNA gains in clone D11. Most alterations were flanked by repeated sequences from multigene families that could be involved in the duplication and deletion events. Several rearrangements were detected by chromoblot hybridization and confirmed by aCGH. We have integrated the information of genomic sequence data obtained by aCGH to the electrophoretic karyotype, allowing the reconstruction of possible recombination events that could have generated the karyotype of clone D11. These rearrangements may be explained by unequal crossing over between sister or homologous chromatids mediated by flanking repeated sequences and unequal homologous recombination via break-induced replication. The genomic changes detected by aCGH suggest the presence of a dynamic genome that responds to environmental stress by varying the number of gene copies and generating segmental aneuploidy.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Células Clonais , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , DNA , Genoma de Protozoário , Mamíferos/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
18.
Transl Androl Urol ; 10(10): 4085-4098, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804850

RESUMO

Despite contemporary research efforts, the prognosis of penile squamous cell carcinoma (PeSCC) has not significantly improved over the past decade. Despite frequently encountered patient-related delayed medical consultations impairing outcomes, several other aspects contribute to the lack of advancement in the treatment of this condition. One essential reason is that translational research, a prerequisite for the clinically successful disease management, is still at an early stage in PeSCC as compared to many other malignancies. Preclinical experimental models are indispensable for the evaluation of tumor biology and identification of genomic alterations. However, since neither commercial PeSCC cell lines are available nor xenograft models sustainably established, such analyses are challenging in this field of research. In addition, systemic therapies are less effective and toxic without decisive breakthroughs over recent years. Current systemic management of PeSCC is based on protocols that have been investigated in small series of only up to 30 patients. Thus, there is an unmet medical need for new approaches necessitating research efforts to develop more efficacious systemic strategies. This review aims to highlight the current state of knowledge in the molecular alterations involved in the etiology and ensuing steps for cancer progression, existing preclinical models of translational research, clinically relevant systemic protocols, and ongoing clinical trials.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771654

RESUMO

Rectal cancer is a common disease with high mortality rates and limited therapeutic options. Here we combined the gene expression signatures of rectal cancer patients with the reverse drug-induced gene-expression profiles to identify drug repositioning candidates for cancer therapy. Among the predicted repurposable drugs, topoisomerase II inhibitors (doxorubicin, teniposide, idarubicin, mitoxantrone, and epirubicin) presented a high potential to reverse rectal cancer gene expression signatures. We showed that these drugs effectively reduced the growth of colorectal cancer cell lines closely representing rectal cancer signatures. We also found a clear correlation between topoisomerase 2A (TOP2A) gene copy number or expression levels with the sensitivity to topoisomerase II inhibitors. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9 and shRNA screenings confirmed that loss-of-function of the TOP2A has the highest efficacy in reducing cellular proliferation. Finally, we observed significant TOP2A copy number gains and increased expression in independent cohorts of rectal cancer patients. These findings can be translated into clinical practice to evaluate TOP2A status for targeted and personalized therapies based on topoisomerase II inhibitors in rectal cancer patients.

20.
Oral Oncol ; 122: 105545, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598035

RESUMO

The genetic predisposition to head and neck carcinomas (HNSCC) and how the known risk factors (papillomavirus infection, alcohol, and tobacco consumption) contribute to the early-onset disease are barely explored. Although HNSCC at early onset is rare, its frequency is increasing in recent years. Germline and somatic variants were assessed to build a comprehensive genetic influence pattern in HNSCC predisposition and patient outcome. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 45 oral and oropharynx carcinomas paired with normal samples of young adults (≤49 years). We found FANCG, CDKN2A, and TPP germline variants previously associated with HNSCC risk. At least one germline variant in DNA repair pathway genes was detected in 67% of cases. Germline and somatic variants (including copy number variations) in FAT1 gene were identified in 9 patients (20%) and 12 tumors (30%), respectively. Somatic variants were found in HNSCC associated genes, such as TP53, CDKN2A, and PIK3CA. To date, 55 of 521 cases from the large cohort of TCGA presented < 49 years old. A comparison between the somatic alterations of TCGA-HNSCC at early onset and our dataset revealed strong similarities. Protein-protein interaction analysis between somatic and germline altered genes revealed a central role of TP53. Altogether, germline alterations in DNA repair genes potentially contribute to an increased risk of developing HNSCC at early-onset, while FAT1 could impact the prognosis.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Reparo do DNA , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Adulto , Reparo do DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células Germinativas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética
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