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1.
J Emerg Nurs ; 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597852

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The national pediatric mental and behavioral health crisis dramatically increased emergency department mental and behavioral health visits and changed emergency nursing practice. Acuity assessment determines patient severity level and supports appropriate resources and interventions. There are no established nursing tools that assess pediatric mental or behavioral health acuity in the emergency department setting. Our goal was to develop and implement the novel pediatric emergency nurse Emergency Behavioral Health Acuity Assessment Tool. METHODS: This quality-improvement project used the plan, do, study, act model to design/refine the Emergency Behavioral Health Acuity Assessment Tool and a non-experimental descriptive design to assess outcomes. The setting was a 47-bed urban level 1 pediatric trauma center with more than 60,000 annual visits. The team designed the tool using published evidence, emergency nurse feedback, and expert opinion. The tool objectively captured patient acuity and suggested acuity-specific nursing interventions. Project outcomes included acuity, length-of-stay, restraint use, and patient/staff injuries. Analyses included descriptive statistics and correlations. RESULTS: With over 3000 annual mental/behavioral-related visits, the emergency department had an average daily census of 23 mental and behavioral health patients. Implementation occurred in August 2021. The Emergency Behavioral Health Acuity Assessment Tool dashboard provided the number of patients, patient location, and acuity. Length-of-stay did not change; however, patient restraint use and patient/staff injuries declined. Number of restraints positively correlated with moderate acuity levels (r = 0.472, P = 0.036). DISCUSSION: For emergency nurses, the Emergency Behavioral Health Acuity Assessment Tool provided an objective measure of patient acuity. Targeted interventions can improve the care of this population.

2.
Sleep Biol Rhythms ; 22(2): 259-267, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38524158

RESUMO

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movements of sleep (PLMS) have been variably implicated in risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but there is lack of consensus on these relationships. We sought to assess subclinical CVD measures and RLS/PLMS in a large cohort to further evaluate these associations. The Emory Center for Health Discovery and Well Being cohort is composed of employed adults, with subclinical CVD measures including endothelial function (flow-mediated vasodilation), microvascular function (reactive hyperemia index, RHI), arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index), and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Participants were grouped based on presence (N = 50) or absence (N = 376) of RLS and subclinical CVD measures compared between groups. A subset of participants (n = 40) underwent ambulatory monitoring for PLMS and obstructive sleep apnea. PLMS association with subclinical CVD measures was assessed. RLS status was significantly associated with flow-mediated dilation in univariate analyses but not after controlling for potential confounders; RLS was not associated with other subclinical CVD measures. PLMS were significantly correlated with the RHI, augmentation index, and cIMT in univariate analyses; only the association between PLMS and cIMT remained significant (p = 0.04) after controlling for RLS status, age, apnea-hypopnea index, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. The observed association between higher PLMS and greater cIMT suggests that PLMS may be a marker of subclinical CVD. Further work is needed to determine the relationship between PLMS and CVD risk. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s41105-023-00497-7.

3.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 34(3): e14592, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition where musculoskeletal structures compress the popliteal artery (POPA) leading to vascular compromise. This study investigates the effect of dynamic plantar- and dorsi-flexion loading on POPA hemodynamic parameters to develop a robust diagnostic ultrasound-based protocol for diagnosing functional PAES. METHODS: Healthy individuals (n = 20), recreational athletes (n = 20), and symptomatic (n = 20) PAES patients were consented. Triplex ultrasound imaging of lower limb arteries was performed (n = 120 limbs). Proximal and distal POPA's in dorsi-/plantar-flexion, in prone and erect positions, were imaged at rest and flexion. Peak systolic velocities (cm/s) and vessel diameter (antero-posterior, cm) was measured. RESULTS: Distal vessel occlusion was noted across all three groups whilst prone during plantar-flexion (62.7%). POPA occlusion was only noted in the proximal vessel within the patient group (15.8%). When prone, 50% of control (n = 40 limbs), 70% of athletes (n = 40 limbs), and 65% of patients (n = 40 limbs) had distal POPA occlusion in plantar-flexion. When prone, recreational athletes (5%), and patients (12.5%) had distal POPA compression under dorsi-flexion. POPA occlusions with the patient in erect position were only noted in the symptomatic patient group under both dorsi-flexion (15.8%) and plantar-flexion (23.7%). CONCLUSION: Compression of the POPA on ultrasound should not be the sole diagnostic criteria for PAES. POPA compression exists in asymptomatic individuals, primarily under prone plantar-flexion. To reduce false positives, ultrasound-based protocols should focus on scanning patients in the erect position only to diagnose PAES, rather than asymptomatic POPA compression. A distinction should be made between the two.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas , Doença Arterial Periférica , Síndrome do Aprisionamento da Artéria Poplítea , Humanos , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemodinâmica , Ultrassonografia
5.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e083488, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367965

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endovenous therapy is the first choice management for symptomatic varicose veins in NICE guidelines, with 56-70 000 procedures performed annually in the UK. Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a known complication of endovenous therapy, occurring at a rate of up to 3.4%. Despite 73% of UK practitioners administering pharmacological thromboprophylaxis to reduce VTE, no high-quality evidence supporting this practice exists. Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis may have clinical and cost benefit in preventing VTE; however, further evidence is needed. This study aims to establish whether when endovenous therapy is undertaken: a single dose or course of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis alters the risk of VTE; pharmacological thromboprophylaxis is associated with an increased rate of bleeding events; pharmacological prophylaxis is cost effective. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multi-centre, assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial (RCT) will recruit 6660 participants from 40 NHS and private sites across the UK. Participants will be randomised to intervention (single dose or extended course of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis plus compression) or control (compression alone). Participants will undergo a lower limb venous duplex ultrasound scan at 21-28 days post-procedure to identify asymptomatic DVT. The duplex scan will be conducted locally by blinded assessors. Participants will be contacted remotely for follow-up at 7 days and 90 days post-procedure. The primary outcome is imaging-confirmed lower limb DVT with or without symptoms or PE with symptoms within 90 days of treatment. The main analysis will be according to the intention-to-treat principle and will compare the rates of VTE at 90 days, using a repeated measures analysis of variance, adjusting for any pre-specified strongly prognostic baseline covariates using a mixed effects logistic regression. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was granted by Brent Research Ethics Committee (22/LO/0261). Results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN18501431.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Estatal , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Reino Unido
6.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 98: 317-324, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37355020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carotid plaque volume (CPV) can be measured by 3D ultrasound and may be a better predictor of stroke than stenosis, but analysis time limits clinical utility. This study tested the accuracy, reproducibility, and time saved of using an artificial intelligence (AI) derived semiautomatic software to measure CPV ("auto-CPV"). METHODS: Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound images for 121 individuals were analyzed by 2 blinded operators to measure auto-CPV. Corresponding endarterectomy specimen volumes were calculated by the validated saline suspension technique. Inter-rater and intrarater agreement plus accuracy compared with the volume of the endarterectomized plaque were calculated. Measurement times were compared with previous manual CPV measurement. RESULTS: The mean difference between auto-CPV and surgical volume was small at (±s.d.) [95% confidence interval [CI]] 0.06 (0.24) [-0.41 to 0.54] cm3. The intraclass correlation (ICC) was strong at 0.91; 95% CI 0.86-0.94. Interobserver and intraobserver error was low with mean difference (±s.d.) [95%CI] 0.01 (0.26) [-0.5 to 0.5] cm3 and 0.03 (0.19) [-0.35 to 0.40] cm3 respectively. Both showed excellent ICC with narrow confidence intervals, ICC = 0.90; 95% CI (0.85-0.94) and ICC = 0.95; 95% CI (0.92-0.96). Auto-CPV measurement took 43% the time of manual planimetry; median (IQR) 05:39 (01:58) minutes compared to 13:05 (04:15) minutes, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, P < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Auto-CPV assessment is accurate, reproducible, and significantly faster than manual planimetry. Improved feasibility means that the utility of CPV can be assessed in large population studies to stratify risk in asymptomatic carotid disease or assess response to medical treatment.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Placa Aterosclerótica , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Variações Dependentes do Observador
7.
Inj Epidemiol ; 10(1): 66, 2023 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38093383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injuries, the leading cause of death in children 1-17 years old, are often preventable. Injury patterns are impacted by changes in the child's environment, shifts in supervision, and caregiver stressors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and proportion of injuries, mechanisms, and severity seen in Pediatric Emergency Departments (PEDs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This multicenter, cross-sectional study from January 2019 through December 2020 examined visits to 40 PEDs for children < 18 years old. Injury was defined by at least one International Classification of Disease-10th revision (ICD-10) code for bodily injury (S00-T78). The main study outcomes were total and proportion of PED injury-related visits compared to all visits in March through December 2020 and to the same months in 2019. Weekly injury visits as a percentage of total PED visits were calculated for all weeks between January 2019 and December 2020. RESULTS: The study included 741,418 PED visits for injuries pre-COVID-19 pandemic (2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020). Overall PED visits from all causes decreased 27.4% in March to December 2020 compared to the same time frame in 2019; however, the proportion of injury-related PED visits in 2020 increased by 37.7%. In 2020, injured children were younger (median age 6.31 years vs 7.31 in 2019), more commonly White (54% vs 50%, p < 0.001), non-Hispanic (72% vs 69%, p < 0.001) and had private insurance (35% vs 32%, p < 0.001). Injury hospitalizations increased 2.2% (p < 0.001) and deaths increased 0.03% (p < 0.001) in 2020 compared to 2019. Mean injury severity score increased (2.2 to 2.4, p < 0.001) between 2019 and 2020. Injuries declined for struck by/against (- 4.9%) and overexertion (- 1.2%) mechanisms. Injuries proportionally increased for pedal cycles (2.8%), cut/pierce (1.5%), motor vehicle occupant (0.9%), other transportation (0.6%), fire/burn (0.5%) and firearms (0.3%) compared to all injuries in 2020 versus 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of PED injury-related visits in March through December 2020 increased compared to the same months in 2019. Racial and payor differences were noted. Mechanisms of injury seen in the PED during 2020 changed compared to 2019, and this can inform injury prevention initiatives.

8.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; : 15385744231216031, 2023 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37956988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A novel carotid quick scan (CQS) protocol was developed to rapidly screen for carotid atherosclerosis greater than 50% stenosis in a vascular outpatient setting. This study assessed accuracy and time saved. MATERIAL & METHODS: The CQS was developed by consensus agreement between vascular surgeons and accredited clinical vascular scientists through a modified Delphi technique. The protocol comprised a rapid B-mode then colour flow transverse sweep of the common and internal carotid arteries, with internal carotid artery velocity assessment. One hundred outpatients attending with peripheral artery disease or abdominal aortic aneurysm were recruited. CQS sensitivity, specificity and accuracy was assessed against a conventional full carotid duplex study, performed to UK and ESVS guidelines. RESULTS: Twenty four percent of patients (n = 100) had >50% carotid NASCET stenosis. CQS achieved an excellent accuracy of 96.5% in detecting >50% stenosis when compared to full duplex; Cohen's ƙ = .88, (95%CI .79-.97; P < .001), sensitivity 91.4%, specificity 97.6%, positive predictive value (PPV) 88.9% and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.2%. Median (IQR) time to complete the CQS was 13 sec (±12) per side, compared to 151 sec (±78) per side for the full carotid duplex. In the presence of >50% carotid disease, median CQS time was 25 sec (±31) per side compared to 214 (±104) by full scan. CONCLUSION: CQS as a carotid screening tool is rapid, accurate and acceptable to the population and workforce. It would be simple to roll out in all vascular laboratories to reduce the time and cost burden of excluding significant carotid disease in any group.

9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 15175, 2023 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37704699

RESUMO

Quantification of peripheral nerve regeneration after injury relies upon subjective outcome measures or electrophysiology assessments requiring fully regenerated neurons. Nerve surgeons and researchers lack objective, quantifiable information on the site of surgical repair and regenerative front. To address this need, we developed a quantifiable, visual, clinically available measure of early peripheral nerve regeneration using high-frequency, three-dimensional, tomographic ultrasound (HFtUS). We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study of adult patients with ulnar and/or median nerve injury of the arm undergoing direct epineurial repair within 5 days of injury. Assessment of morphology, volumetric and 3D grey-scale quantification of cross-sectional views were made at baseline up to 15 months post-surgery. Sensory and motor clinical outcome measures and patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) were recorded. Five participants were recruited to the study. Our data demonstrated grey-scale values (an indication of axonal density) increased in distal stumps within 2-4 months after repair, returning to normal as regeneration completed (4-6 months) with concomitant reduction in intraneural volume as surgical oedema resolved. Two patients with abnormal regeneration were characterized by increased intraneural volume and minimal grey-scale change. HFtUS may quantify early peripheral nerve regeneration offering a window of opportunity for surgical intervention where early abnormal regeneration is detected.


Assuntos
Regeneração Nervosa , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Longitudinais , Ultrassonografia
10.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 2023 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37549307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Penicillin or amoxicillin are the recommended treatments for the most common pediatric bacterial illnesses. Allergies to penicillin are commonly reported among children but rarely true. We evaluated the impact of reported penicillin allergies on broad-spectrum antibiotic use overall and for the treatment of common respiratory infections among treat-and-release pediatric emergency department (ED) visits. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients receiving antibiotics during a treat-and-release visit at a large, pediatric ED in the northeast from 2014 to 2016. Study exposure was a reported allergy to penicillin in the electronic medical record. Study outcomes were the selection of broad-spectrum antibiotics and alternative (second-line) antibiotic therapy for the treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) and group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis. We used unadjusted and adjusted generalized estimating equation models to analyze the impact of reported penicillin allergies on the selection of broad-spectrum antibiotics. We used unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models to determine the probability of children with a documented penicillin allergy receiving alternative antibiotic treatments for AOM and GAS. RESULTS: Among 12,987 pediatric patients, 810 (6.2%) had a documented penicillin allergy. Penicillin allergies increased the odds of children receiving a broad spectrum versus narrow spectrum antibiotic (adjusted odds ratio, 13.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 11.34-16.18). In our adjusted logistic regression model, the probability of children with a documented penicillin allergy receiving alternative antibiotic treatment for AOM was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.94-0.99) and for GAS was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.92-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic stewardship efforts in pediatric EDs may consider the delabeling of penicillin allergies particularly among children receiving antibiotics for an acute respiratory infection as a target for intervention.

12.
Am J Cardiol ; 203: 315-324, 2023 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37517126

RESUMO

Despite guideline-based therapy, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are at widely variable risk for cardiovascular events. This variability demands a more individualized risk assessment. Herein, we evaluate the prognostic value of 6 biomarkers: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, heat shock protein-70, fibrin degradation products, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, high-sensitivity troponin I, and B-type natriuretic peptide. We then develop a multi-biomarker-based cardiovascular event prediction model for patients with stable CAD. In total, 3,115 subjects with stable CAD who underwent cardiac catheterization at Emory (mean age 62.8 years, 17% Black, 35% female, 57% obstructive CAD, 31% diabetes mellitus) were randomized into a training cohort to identify biomarker cutoff values and a validation cohort for prediction assessment. Main outcomes included (1) all-cause death and (2) a composite of cardiovascular death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) within 5 years. Elevation of each biomarker level was associated with higher event rates in the training cohort. A biomarker risk score was created using optimal cutoffs, ranging from 0 to 6 for each biomarker exceeding its cutoff. In the validation cohort, each unit increase in the biomarker risk score was independently associated with all-cause death (hazard ratio 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45 to 1.80) and cardiovascular death/MI (hazard ratio 1.52, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.71). A biomarker risk prediction model for cardiovascular death/MI improved the c-statistic (∆ 6.4%, 95% CI 3.9 to 8.8) and net reclassification index by 31.1% (95% CI 24 to 37), compared with clinical risk factors alone. Integrating multiple biomarkers with clinical variables refines cardiovascular risk assessment in patients with CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Infarto do Miocárdio , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Biomarcadores , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Medição de Risco , Prognóstico
13.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 211(9): 670-678, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37381146

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Poor family functioning is associated with higher symptom severity in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and delayed help-seeking behavior in other forms of psychopathology. However, little is known about the impact of family functioning on help-seeking behavior and symptom severity in adults with OCD. The present study investigated the association between family functioning and both treatment delay and symptom severity in adults with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Participants were 194 adults who self-identified as having OCD and completed an internet survey, including measures assessing family functioning, obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, help-seeking behavior, and depression symptom severity. Poorer family functioning was associated with higher obsessive-compulsive and depression symptom severity, after controlling for significant demographic variables. With respect to domains of family functioning, poorer general functioning, problem solving, communication skills, role functioning, affective involvement, and affective responsiveness were associated with higher obsessive-compulsive and depression symptom severity, after controlling for demographics. Poorer problem solving and communication were not significantly associated with treatment delay after controlling for demographics. Findings highlight the need for family intervention within the treatment framework for adult OCD and suggest targets ( e.g. , communication) to be addressed.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comunicação
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 373: 7-16, 2023 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low quantities of circulating progenitor cells (CPCs), specifically CD34+ populations, reflect impairment of intrinsic regenerative capacity. This study investigates the relationship between subsets of CPCs and adverse outcomes. METHODS: 1366 individuals undergoing angiography for evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled into the Emory Cardiovascular Biobank. Flow cytometry identified CPCs as CD45med blood mononuclear cells expressing the CD34 epitope, with further enumeration of hematopoietic CPCs as CD133+/CXCR4+ cells and endothelial CPCs as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2+) cells. Adjusted Cox or Fine and Gray's sub-distribution hazard regression models analyzed the relationship between CPCs and 1) all-cause death and 2) a composite of cardiovascular death and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS: Over a median 3.1-year follow-up period (IQR 1.3-4.9), there were 221 (16.6%) all-cause deaths and 172 (12.9%) cardiovascular deaths/MIs. Hematopoietic CPCs were highly correlated, and the CD34+/CXCR4+ subset was the best independent predictor. Lower counts (≤median) of CD34+/CXCR4+ and CD34+/VEGFR2+ cells independently predicted all-cause mortality (HR 1.46 [95% CI 1.06-2.01], p = 0.02 and 1.59 [95% CI 1.15-2.18], p = 0.004) and cardiovascular death/MI (HR 1.50 [95% CI 1.04-2.17], p = 0.03 and 1.47 [95% CI 1.01-2.03], p = 0.04). A combination of low CD34+/CXCR4+ and CD34+/VEGFR2+ CPCs predicted all-cause death (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.0; p = 0.0002) and cardiovascular death/MI (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.2; p = 0.002) compared to those with both lineages above the cut-offs. CONCLUSIONS: Lower levels of hematopoietic and endothelial CPCs indicate diminished endogenous regenerative capacity and independently correlate with greater mortality and cardiovascular risk in patients with CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Infarto do Miocárdio , Humanos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Células-Tronco , Coração , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo
17.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 65(2): 244-254, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the survival of patients who attended surveillance after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with those who were non-compliant. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Embase were searched using the Ovid interface. REVIEW METHODS: A systematic review was conducted complying with the PRISMA guidelines. Eligible studies compared survival in EVAR surveillance compliant patients with non-compliant patients. Non-compliance was defined as failure to attend at least one post-EVAR follow up. The risk of bias was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, and the certainty of evidence using the GRADE framework. Primary outcomes were survival and aneurysm related death. Effect measures were the hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated using the inverse variance or Mantel-Haenszel statistical method and random effects models. RESULTS: Thirteen cohort studies with a total of 22 762 patients were included. Eight studies were deemed high risk of bias. The pooled proportion of patients who were non-compliant with EVAR surveillance was 43% (95% CI 36 - 51). No statistically significant difference was found in the hazard of all cause mortality (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.61 - 1.77), aneurysm related mortality (HR 1.80, 95% CI 0.85-3.80), or secondary intervention (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.31 - 1.41) between patients who had incomplete and complete follow up after EVAR. The odds of aneurysm rupture were lower in non-compliant patients (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.39 - 1.01). The certainty of evidence was very low for all outcomes. Subgroup analysis for patients who had no surveillance vs. those with complete surveillance showed no significant difference in all cause mortality (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.43 - 2.80). CONCLUSION: Patients who were non-compliant with EVAR surveillance had similar survival to those who were compliant. These findings question the value of intense surveillance in all patients post-EVAR and highlight the need for further research on individualised or risk adjusted surveillance.

18.
J Clin Med ; 13(1)2023 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38202058

RESUMO

(1) Background: This retrospective Romanian study aimed to calculate the rate of, and comparison between, amputation and revascularisation for patients with either cardiovascular or diabetic comorbidities. (2) Materials: In our hospital-based database, we analysed patient-level data from a series of 61 hospitals for 2019, which covers 44.9% of the amputation patients for that year. The national database is compiled by the national houses of insurance and was used to follow amputations and revascularisations between 2016 and 2021. (3) Results: During the six-year period, the mean number of amputations and revascularisations was 72.4 per 100,000 inhabitants per year for both groups. In this period, a decline in open-surgical revascularisation was observed from 58.3% to 47.5% in all interventions but was not statistically significant (r = -0.20, p = 0.70). The mean age of patients with amputation (hospital-based database) was 67 years. Of these patients, only 5.1% underwent revascularisation in the same hospital prior to amputation. The most common comorbidities in those undergoing amputations were peripheral arterial disease (76.8%), diabetes (60.8%), and arterial hypertension (53.5%). Most amputations were undertaken by general surgeons (73.0%) and only a small number of patients were treated by vascular surgeons (17.4%). (4) Conclusions: The signal from our data indicates that Romanian patients probably have a high risk of amputation > 5 years earlier than Western European countries, such as Denmark, Finland, and Germany. The prevalence of revascularisations in Romania is 64% lower than in the Western European countries.

19.
Nano Lett ; 22(23): 9500-9506, 2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459088

RESUMO

Despite recent rapid advances in improving quantum dot light-emitting diodes, many fundamental aspects of the device operating mechanism remain unresolved. Through transient electroluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements, the effects of offset voltage on charging and charge transport are examined. First, capacitive charging occurs with a time constant of ∼500 ns, followed by electron transport through quantum dots with a mobility of ∼10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1. Hole injection then initiates an electroluminescence rise that is independent of offset voltage. The photoluminescence lifetime is also unaffected by the offset voltage, indicating no injection of charges into the quantum dots or on their surfaces prior to the voltage pulse. A slower equilibration to steady-state electroluminescence is dependent on the offset voltage, indicative of another charging process. Elemental mapping shows that ZnO deposition from solution can lead to the diffusion of charged species into the quantum dot layer, which may cause the slower process.

20.
Sci Justice ; 62(6): 696-707, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400491

RESUMO

Online virtual learning resources have been available for learning and teaching in forensic science for some years now, but the recent global COVID-19 related periods of irregular lockdown have necessitated the rapid development of these for teaching, learning and CPD activities. However, these resources do need to be carefully constructed and grounded in pedagogic theory to be effective. This article details eXtended Reality (XR) learning and teaching environments to facilitate effective online teaching and learning for forensic geoscientists. The first two case studies discussed in this article make use of Thinglink software to produce virtual learning and teaching XR resources through an internet system, which was delivered to undergraduate students in 2021. Case one details a range of XR virtual laboratory-based equipment resources, providing a consistent, reliable and asynchronous learning and teaching experience, whilst the second case study presents an XR virtual learning applied geophysics resource developed for a 12-week CPD training programme. This programme involves recorded equipment video resources, accompanying datasets and worksheets for users to work through. Both case studies were positively received by learners, but there were issues encountered by learners with poor internet connections or computer skills, or who do not engage well with online learning. A third case study showcases an XR educational forensic geoscience eGame that was developed to take the user through a cold case search investigation, from desktop study through to field reconnaissance and multi-staged site investigations. Pedagogic research was undertaken with user questionnaires and interviews, providing evidence that the eGame was an effective learning and teaching tool. eGame users highly rated the eGame and reported that they raised awareness and understanding of the use of geophysics equipment and best practice of forensic geoscience search phased investigations. These types of XR virtual learning digital resources, whilst costly to produce in terms of development time and staff resource, provide a complementary virtual learning experience to in-situ practical sessions, and allow learners to asynchronously familiarise themselves with equipment, environments and techniques resulting in more efficient use of in situ time. The XR resources also allow learners to reinforce learning post in-situ sessions. Finally, XR resources can provide a more inclusive and authentic experience for learners who cannot attend or complete work synchronously.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Aprendizagem , Estudantes , Ciências Forenses
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