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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 124, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326786

RESUMO

The PRIME-NP (Professional-Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator/Evaluation-Nurse Practitioner) Model is adapted from the RIME (Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator) model used in medical education to guide medical student and resident education. The Delphi technique was used to validate the PRIME-NP Model. After two rounds of review by a group of experts in NP curriculum, the model was determined to be valid based on expert consensus. Agreement percent increase from the first round to the second round in all categories. Interrater reliability (IRR) was assessed using interclass correlation after instrument validation was completed for each of the five levels of the PRIME-NP model. Overall, the IRR of the instrument was found to be acceptable with some notable exceptions. No variance was noted in professional behaviors at any level. Variance was increased in management and educator/evaluator behaviors in higher/later course levels. The PRIME-NP Model and PRIME-NP OSCE Rubric is a valid and reliable instrument to assess NP student progression in objective structured clinical examinations. This instrument has the potential for adaptation for use in other types of health sciences education and settings.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Competência Clínica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Currículo , Profissionais de Enfermagem/educação
2.
Public Health Nurs ; 41(2): 328-337, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38265246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Screening for intimate partner violence in the home is often challenging due to the lack of privacy. The aim of this study was to compare two different screening methods (paper-pencil vs. tablet) for identifying intimate partner violence during perinatal home visits. DESIGN: Randomized control trial. SAMPLE: Pregnant women (N = 416) in perinatal home visiting programs were randomized to either paper-pencil or computer assisted, intimate partner violence screening. MEASUREMENTS: The Abuse Assessment Screen was used to screen for physical and sexual IPV and Women's Experiences with Battering for emotional intimate partner violence. RESULTS: No significant differences in prevalence were found between the screening methods. Intimate partner violence prevalence rates for the year before and/or during pregnancy using paper-pencil was 21.8% versus 24.5% using tablets (p = .507). There were significant differences in prevalence among the three race/ethnic groups (Caucasian, 36.9%; African American, 26.7%; Hispanics, 10.6%; p < .001) and significant differences in rates across three geographical areas: urban 16.0%; rural 27.6%, suburban women 32.3% (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that both methods are useful for identifying intimate partner violence during perinatal home visits.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Gestantes , Prevalência
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37956350

RESUMO

Rates of depression among the college-aged population are alarming, particularly in light of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. It is important for providers who care for this population to have proper screening and referral processes to meet growing student needs. The purpose of this literature review was to examine current best practices for depression screening among college students. Comprehensive searches of PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane databases were completed with the assistance of a medical librarian. A total of 775 studies were screened, and 17 articles were included in the review. Evidence supports universal-based depression screenings; use of screening methods to include brief and online screenings; use of validated screening tools, including the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) -2 and PHQ-9; and the importance of a proper referral process and adequate access to treatment measures. An appropriate depression screening and referral process within campus health centers is critical to meet the needs of college students. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.].

6.
J Acad Ophthalmol (2017) ; 15(2): e232-e236, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37795384

RESUMO

Purpose In this proof-of-concept pilot study, we aimed to increase nurse practitioner (NP) student knowledge of ophthalmology to prepare NPs for encounters in primary care settings. The Association of University Professors of Ophthalmology (AUPO) and the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) endorse core knowledge that medical students should achieve. We assess the effectiveness of an innovative ophthalmologist-led curriculum based on these competencies tailored to issues NPs encounter in primary care. Methods Johns Hopkins University NP students enrolled in a pre-post-cohort study and educational intervention. The didactic program was developed according to AUPO and AAO core ophthalmology content for medical students and was taught in-person by an ophthalmologist. Pre-post-assessments evaluated students' perceived readiness to encounter ophthalmic issues in the clinic and baseline knowledge of core competencies of ophthalmology. Results A total of 42 NP students were included in the analysis. NP students improved in core knowledge and readiness to encounter ophthalmology issues. After the educational event, there was a statistically significant improvement in students' ratings of preparedness to obtain a focused history, exam, perform initial management and decide the urgency of a referral for acute painless vision loss ( p < 0.001), chronic vision loss ( p < 0.001), or a patient with a red/painful eye ( p < 0.001). Students showed a statistically significant improvement in postdidactic event core ophthalmology knowledge assessment scores ( p = 0.002). Conclusion Primary care NPs are increasingly the initial point of contact for patients with ophthalmic complaints, and thus, high-quality and thorough education regarding ophthalmology triage and referral for NPs is necessary. NP student comfort with and knowledge of ophthalmic complaints and triage may be improved by a brief educational intervention taught by an ophthalmologist early in the NP curriculum.

7.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 35(11): 691-698, 2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37602876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is a substantial body of evidence regarding full practice authority's (FPA) effects on health care access and quality, very little research has examined how nurse practitioner (NP) licensure laws affect the status of NPs as clinicians, employees, and leaders in health care organizations. PURPOSE: This study examined whether states' implementation of FPA leads to higher pay, business ownership, assigned patient panel, and billing transparency for NPs' and whether NPs' gains from FPA increase over time in states where FPA has been in effect longer. METHODOLOGY: Data from a nationwide survey of licensed NPs ( N = 5,770) were used to compare NPs' employment conditions between FPA and non-FPA states. After balancing the FPA and non-FPA groups on demographic characteristics (e.g., urbanicity, education), adjusted mean differences in outcomes between the groups were estimated using weighted multivariable regression. RESULTS: Compared with NPs in non-FPA states, NPs in FPA states had higher mean earnings ( p < .05), were more likely to be practice owners or shareholders ( p < .01), and billed a greater percentage of their patient visits under their own National Provider Identifier ( p < .001). Having FPA in place for ≥10 years was associated with greater improvements in conditions of employment compared with having FPA <10 years. CONCLUSIONS: States' adoption of FPA for NPs is associated with improved conditions of employment among NPs. IMPLICATIONS: Untethering NPs from physicians establishes a cascade of modest gains in income and practice ownership that may indicate changes over time. Additional research is needed to determine the trajectory of these increases and if they are consistent.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem , Médicos , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Emprego , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
9.
Nurs Open ; 9(5): 2342-2347, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643961

RESUMO

AIMS: Chlamydia disproportionately affects individuals aged 15-24 years. A lack of chlamydia knowledge in this high-risk group likely contributes to decreased testing, but interventions to increase chlamydia knowledge in this population are not well-described in the literature. The purpose of this pilot project was to increase chlamydia knowledge in a sample of university students using nurse-developed web-based education. DESIGN: A pre- and post-test design was used to evaluate participant knowledge of chlamydia before and after completing a nurse-developed web-based education intervention designed for university students. METHODS: Forty-seven undergraduate students at one U.S. university participated. A focus group and scientific evidence informed the development of the web-based education. RESULTS: Participants had a significant increase in chlamydia knowledge after completing the online educational intervention (M = 8.0, SD = 0.000) compared to baseline (M = 6.5, SD = 1.5), t(33) = -5.821, p < .0001. Pilot results provide promising evidence that web-based nurse-developed education designed specifically for university students can increase chlamydia knowledge.


Assuntos
Chlamydia , Humanos , Internet , Projetos Piloto , Estudantes , Universidades
10.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 42(6): E74-E76, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935241

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) programs are challenged to provide clinical learning experiences that prepare graduates with the full continuum of expected competencies. Preparing the APRN in academia, in terms of didactic and clinical application for novice entry, is often a vexing balance between board certification preparedness and the actualities of clinical practice. This article presents an innovative strategy to examine the perplexing reflective question often asked by educators: Does the current approach for simulation development prepare our APRN students sufficiently for entry into practice, and is it current to what is occurring in practice?


Assuntos
Prática Avançada de Enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Certificação , Docentes , Humanos , Aprendizagem
11.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43: e17, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize existing literature on the burden of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and viral hepatitis (VH) in indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in Latin America to provide a broad panorama of the quantitative data available and highlight problematic data gaps. METHODS: Published and grey literature were systematically reviewed to identify documents published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese with data collected between January 2000 and April 2016 on HIV, STI, and VH disease burden among indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in 17 Latin American countries. RESULTS: Sixty-two documents from 12 countries were found. HIV prevalence was generally low (< 1%) but pockets of high prevalence (> 5%) were noted in some indigenous communities in Venezuela (Warao) (9.6%), Peru (Chayahuita) (7.5%), and Colombia (Wayuu females) (7.0%). High active syphilis prevalence (> 5%) was seen in some indigenous communities in Paraguay (11.6% and 9.7%) and Peru (Chayahuita) (6.3%). High endemicity (> 8%) of hepatitis B was found in some indigenous peoples in Mexico (Huichol) (9.4%) and Venezuela (Yanomami: 14.3%; Japreira: 29.5%) and among Afro-descendant quilombola populations in Brazil (Frechal: 12.5%; Furnas do Dionísio: 8.4% in 2008, 9.2% in 2003). CONCLUSIONS: The gaps in existing data on the burden of HIV, STIs, and VH in indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in Latin America highlight the need to 1) improve national surveillance, by systematically collecting and analyzing ethnicity variables, and implementing integrated biobehavioral studies using robust methodologies and culturally sensitive strategies; 2) develop a region-wide response policy that considers the needs of indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants; and 3) implement an intercultural approach to health and service delivery to eliminate health access barriers and improve health outcomes for these populations.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49727

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify and summarize existing literature on the burden of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and viral hepatitis (VH) in indigenous peoples and Afrodescendants in Latin America to provide a broad panorama of the quantitative data available and highlight problematic data gaps. Methods. Published and grey literature were systematically reviewed to identify documents published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese with data collected between January 2000 and April 2016 on HIV, STI, and VH disease burden among indigenous peoples and Afrodescendants in 17 Latin American countries. Results. Sixty-two documents from 12 countries were found. HIV prevalence was generally low (< 1%) but pockets of high prevalence (> 5%) were noted in some indigenous communities in Venezuela (Warao) (9.6%), Peru (Chayahuita) (7.5%), and Colombia (Wayuu females) (7.0%). High active syphilis prevalence (> 5%) was seen in some indigenous communities in Paraguay (11.6% and 9.7%) and Peru (Chayahuita) (6.3%). High endemicity (> 8%) of hepatitis B was found in some indigenous peoples in Mexico (Huichol) (9.4%) and Venezuela (Yanomami: 14.3%; Japreira: 29.5%) and among Afro-descendant quilombola populations in Brazil (Frechal: 12.5%; Furnas do Dionísio: 8.4% in 2008, 9.2% in 2003). Conclusions. The gaps in existing data on the burden of HIV, STIs, and VH in indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in Latin America highlight the need to 1) improve national surveillance, by systematically collecting and analyzing ethnicity variables, and implementing integrated biobehavioral studies using robust methodologies and culturally sensitive strategies; 2) develop a region-wide response policy that considers the needs of indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants; and 3) implement an intercultural approach to health and service delivery to eliminate health access barriers and improve health outcomes for these populations.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Identificar y resumir la bibliografía existente sobre la carga de la infección por el VIH, las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) y las hepatitis virales en las poblaciones indígenas y afrodescendientes en América Latina para proporcionar un panorama amplio de los datos cuantitativos disponibles y poner de relieve las brechas problemáticas que pudiera haber en los datos. Métodos. Se hizo un examen sistemático de la bibliografía publicada y la bibliografía gris para encontrar documentos publicados en inglés, español o portugués con datos recogidos entre enero del 2000 y abril del 2016 sobre la carga de la infección por el VIH, las ITS y las hepatitis virales en las poblaciones indígenas y afrodescendientes en 17 países latinoamericanos. Resultados. Se encontraron 62 documentos de 12 países. La prevalencia de la infección por el VIH fue generalmente baja (< 1%), pero se observaron focos de prevalencia alta (> 5%) en algunas comunidades indígenas en Venezuela (Warao) (9,6%), Perú (Chayahuita) (7,5%) y Colombia (las mujeres Wayuus) (7,0%). Se observó prevalencia alta de sífilis activa (> 5%) en algunas comunidades indígenas en Paraguay (11,6% y 9,7%) y Perú (Chayahuita) (6,3%). Se encontró endemicidad alta (> 8%) de la hepatitis B en algunos pueblos indígenas en México (Huichol) (9,4%) y Venezuela (Yanomami: 14,3%; Japreira: 29,5%) y en las poblaciones quilombola de afrodescendientes en Brasil (Frechal: 12,5%; Furnas do Dionísio: 8,4% en el 2008, 9,2% en el 2003). Conclusiones. Las brechas en los datos existentes sobre la carga de la infección por el VIH, las ITS y las hepatitis virales en las poblaciones indígenas y afrodescendientes en América Latina destacan la necesidad de: 1) mejorar la vigilancia nacional mediante la recolección y el análisis sistemáticos de las variables de etnicidad y la ejecución de estudios bioconductuales integrados que utilicen metodologías sólidas y estrategias sensibles a diferencias entre las culturas; 2) elaborar una política de respuesta de alcance regional que considere las necesidades de las poblaciones indígenas y de afrodescendientes; y 3) aplicar un enfoque intercultural de la salud y de la prestación de servicios conexos para eliminar las barreras de acceso a la salud y mejorar los resultados en materia de salud para estas poblaciones.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar e sintetizar a literatura existente sobre a carga de HIV, infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) e hepatite viral nos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes da América Latina para traçar um amplo panorama dos dados quantitativos disponíveis e destacar as lacunas problemáticas nos dados. Métodos. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura publicada e da literatura cinzenta para identificar documentos publicados em inglês, espanhol ou português com dados coletados entre janeiro de 2000 e abril de 2016 sobre a carga de HIV, IST e hepatite viral nos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes em 17 países latino-americanos. Resultados. Sessenta e dois documentos de 12 países foram encontrados. A prevalência de HIV observada foi em geral baixa (<1%), com focos de alta prevalência (>5%) observados em comunidades indígenas da Venezuela (warao) (9,6%), Peru (chayahuita) (7,5%) e Colômbia (mulheres wayúu) (7,0%). Foi verificada uma alta prevalência de sífilis ativa (> 5%) em comunidades indígenas no Paraguai (11,6% e 9,7%) e Peru (chayahuita) (6,3%). A alta endemicidade (>8%) de hepatite B foi observada em povos indígenas no México (huichol) (9,4%) e Venezuela (ianomâmi 14,3%; japrería 29,5%) e em comunidades negras quilombolas no Brasil (Frechal 12,5%; Furnas do Dionísio 8,4% em 2008 e 9,2% em 2003). Conclusões. As lacunas nos dados existentes sobre a carga de HIV, IST e hepatite viral nos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes na América Latina destacam a necessidade de: melhorar a vigilância nacional com coleta sistemática e análise de variáveis de etnicidade e realizar estudos integrados de análise biocomportamental com o uso de metodologias robustas e estratégias sensíveis à diversidade cultural; desenvolver uma política de resposta regional que considere as necessidades dos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes; e implementar um enfoque intercultural à saúde e prestação de serviços para derrubar as barreiras de acesso à saúde e melhorar os resultados de saúde nestas populações.


Assuntos
HIV , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Hepatite Viral Humana , Saúde de Populações Indígenas , América Latina , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Hepatite Viral Humana , América Latina , Hepatite Viral Humana , HIV , Saúde de Populações Indígenas , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Saúde de Populações Indígenas
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(4): 1157-1165.e6, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mast cell diseases such as mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndrome involve abnormal proliferation and/or activation of these cells, leading to many clinically relevant symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and experiences of people known or suspected to have a mast cell disorder, The Mastocytosis Society, a US-based patient advocacy, research, and education organization, conducted a survey of patients. METHODS: This Web-based survey was publicized through specialty clinics and the society's newsletter, Web site, and online blogs. Both online and paper copies of the questionnaire were provided together with required statements of consent. RESULTS: The first set of results from this survey of 420 respondents has been previously published; the second set is presented in this article. These results include source(s) of diagnosis, clinical and laboratory tests reported, comorbidities, dietary practices, possible familial occurrence of mast cell disorders, and perceptions concerning mast cell disorder-related medical care needs in the United States. CONCLUSIONS: These patient survey results are provided to assist medical professionals in learning patients' perceptions of their experiences and to give patients with mast cell disorders and caregivers the opportunity to compare experiences with those of other affected individuals.


Assuntos
Dieta , Família , Mastocitose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Mastocitose Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alergistas , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/terapia , Densidade Óssea , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Dermatologistas , Dietoterapia , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mastocitose/diagnóstico , Mastocitose/epidemiologia , Mastocitose/terapia , Mastocitose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Mastocitose Cutânea/terapia , Mastocitose Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Mastocitose Sistêmica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Oncologistas , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 43: e17, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-978884

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To identify and summarize existing literature on the burden of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and viral hepatitis (VH) in indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in Latin America to provide a broad panorama of the quantitative data available and highlight problematic data gaps. Methods Published and grey literature were systematically reviewed to identify documents published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese with data collected between January 2000 and April 2016 on HIV, STI, and VH disease burden among indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in 17 Latin American countries. Results Sixty-two documents from 12 countries were found. HIV prevalence was generally low (< 1%) but pockets of high prevalence (> 5%) were noted in some indigenous communities in Venezuela (Warao) (9.6%), Peru (Chayahuita) (7.5%), and Colombia (Wayuu females) (7.0%). High active syphilis prevalence (> 5%) was seen in some indigenous communities in Paraguay (11.6% and 9.7%) and Peru (Chayahuita) (6.3%). High endemicity (> 8%) of hepatitis B was found in some indigenous peoples in Mexico (Huichol) (9.4%) and Venezuela (Yanomami: 14.3%; Japreira: 29.5%) and among Afro-descendant quilombola populations in Brazil (Frechal: 12.5%; Furnas do Dionísio: 8.4% in 2008, 9.2% in 2003). Conclusions The gaps in existing data on the burden of HIV, STIs, and VH in indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in Latin America highlight the need to 1) improve national surveillance, by systematically collecting and analyzing ethnicity variables, and implementing integrated biobehavioral studies using robust methodologies and culturally sensitive strategies; 2) develop a region-wide response policy that considers the needs of indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants; and 3) implement an intercultural approach to health and service delivery to eliminate health access barriers and improve health outcomes for these populations.


RESUMEN Objetivo Identificar y resumir la bibliografía existente sobre la carga de la infección por el VIH, las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) y las hepatitis virales en las poblaciones indígenas y afrodescendientes en América Latina para proporcionar un panorama amplio de los datos cuantitativos disponibles y poner de relieve las brechas problemáticas que pudiera haber en los datos. Métodos Se hizo un examen sistemático de la bibliografía publicada y la bibliografía gris para encontrar documentos publicados en inglés, español o portugués con datos recogidos entre enero del 2000 y abril del 2016 sobre la carga de la infección por el VIH, las ITS y las hepatitis virales en las poblaciones indígenas y afrodescendientes en 17 países latinoamericanos. Resultados Se encontraron 62 documentos de 12 países. La prevalencia de la infección por el VIH fue generalmente baja (< 1%), pero se observaron focos de prevalencia alta (> 5%) en algunas comunidades indígenas en Venezuela (Warao) (9,6%), Perú (Chayahuita) (7,5%) y Colombia (las mujeres Wayuus) (7,0%). Se observó prevalencia alta de sífilis activa (> 5%) en algunas comunidades indígenas en Paraguay (11,6% y 9,7%) y Perú (Chayahuita) (6,3%). Se encontró endemicidad alta (> 8%) de la hepatitis B en algunos pueblos indígenas en México (Huichol) (9,4%) y Venezuela (Yanomami: 14,3%; Japreira: 29,5%) y en las poblaciones quilombola de afrodescendientes en Brasil (Frechal: 12,5%; Furnas do Dionísio: 8,4% en el 2008, 9,2% en el 2003). Conclusiones Las brechas en los datos existentes sobre la carga de la infección por el VIH, las ITS y las hepatitis virales en las poblaciones indígenas y afrodescendientes en América Latina destacan la necesidad de: 1) mejorar la vigilancia nacional mediante la recolección y el análisis sistemáticos de las variables de etnicidad y la ejecución de estudios bioconductuales integrados que utilicen metodologías sólidas y estrategias sensibles a diferencias entre las culturas; 2) elaborar una política de respuesta de alcance regional que considere las necesidades de las poblaciones indígenas y de afrodescendientes; y 3) aplicar un enfoque intercultural de la salud y de la prestación de servicios conexos para eliminar las barreras de acceso a la salud y mejorar los resultados en materia de salud para estas poblaciones.


RESUMO Objetivo Identificar e sintetizar a literatura existente sobre a carga de HIV, infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) e hepatite viral nos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes da América Latina para traçar um amplo panorama dos dados quantitativos disponíveis e destacar as lacunas problemáticas nos dados. Métodos Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura publicada e da literatura cinzenta para identificar documentos publicados em inglês, espanhol ou português com dados coletados entre janeiro de 2000 e abril de 2016 sobre a carga de HIV, IST e hepatite viral nos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes em 17 países latino-americanos. Resultados Sessenta e dois documentos de 12 países foram encontrados. A prevalência de HIV observada foi em geral baixa (<1%), com focos de alta prevalência (>5%) observados em comunidades indígenas da Venezuela (warao) (9,6%), Peru (chayahuita) (7,5%) e Colômbia (mulheres wayúu) (7,0%). Foi verificada uma alta prevalência de sífilis ativa (> 5%) em comunidades indígenas no Paraguai (11,6% e 9,7%) e Peru (chayahuita) (6,3%). A alta endemicidade (>8%) de hepatite B foi observada em povos indígenas no México (huichol) (9,4%) e Venezuela (ianomâmi 14,3%; japrería 29,5%) e em comunidades negras quilombolas no Brasil (Frechal 12,5%; Furnas do Dionísio 8,4% em 2008 e 9,2% em 2003). Conclusões As lacunas nos dados existentes sobre a carga de HIV, IST e hepatite viral nos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes na América Latina destacam a necessidade de: melhorar a vigilância nacional com coleta sistemática e análise de variáveis de etnicidade e realizar estudos integrados de análise biocomportamental com o uso de metodologias robustas e estratégias sensíveis à diversidade cultural; desenvolver uma política de resposta regional que considere as necessidades dos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes; e implementar um enfoque intercultural à saúde e prestação de serviços para derrubar as barreiras de acesso à saúde e melhorar os resultados de saúde nestas populações.


Assuntos
Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , HIV , Saúde de Populações Indígenas , América Latina/epidemiologia
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 2(1): 70-6, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24565772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mast cell diseases include mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndromes, some of which have been shown to involve clonal defects in mast cells that result in abnormal cellular proliferation or activation. Numerous clinical studies of mastocytosis have been published, but no population-based comprehensive surveys of patients in the United States have been identified. Few mast cell disease specialty centers exist in the United States, and awareness of these mast cell disorders is limited among nonspecialists. Accordingly, information concerning the experiences of the overall estimated population of these patients has been lacking. OBJECTIVE: To identify the experiences and perceptions of patients with mastocytosis, mast cell activation syndromes, and related disorders, The Mastocytosis Society (TMS), a US based patient advocacy, research, and education organization, conducted a survey of its members and other people known or suspected to be part of this patient population. METHODS: A Web-based survey was publicized through clinics that treat these patients and through TMS's newsletter, Web site, and online blogs. Both online and paper copies of the questionnaire were provided, together with required statements of consent. RESULTS: The first results are presented for 420 patients. These results include demographics, diagnoses, symptoms, allergies, provoking factors of mast cell symptoms, and disease impact. CONCLUSION: Patients with mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndromes have provided clinical specialists, collaborators, and other patients with information to enable them to explore and deepen their understanding of the experiences and perceptions of people coping with these disorders.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mastocitose/psicologia , Pacientes/psicologia , Percepção , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Internet , Masculino , Mastocitose/diagnóstico , Mastocitose/epidemiologia , Mastocitose/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Sociedades Médicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Horm Behav ; 62(1): 58-66, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22565216

RESUMO

In the medial preoptic area (MPO) and medial amygdala (MEA), estradiol (E(2)) aromatized from testosterone (T) may act via either estrogen receptor (ER) α or ERß to mediate mating in male rats. We tested the hypothesis that, in the MPO, ERα exclusively mediates sexual responses to E(2) by monitoring mating in four groups of castrated male rats administered dihydrotestosterone (DHT) subcutaneously and MPO implants delivering either: cholesterol, E(2), propyl pyrazole triol (PPT, ERα-agonist) or diarylpropionitrile (DPN, ER ß-agonist); a fifth group of intact males served as DPN toxicity control, receiving DPN MPO implants. In a follow-up study, either 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP, ERα-antagonist) or blank MPO cannulae were implanted in castrated male rats receiving T subcutaneously, whereas intact MPP toxicity controls received MPP MEA implants. PPT or E(2) MPO implants maintained mating, but cholesterol or DPN MPO implants did not. Moreover, MPP MPO implants interfered with T reinstatement of mating suggesting that, in the MPO, ERα is necessary and sufficient for mating in androgen-maintained male rats and ERß is not sufficient. Because it is unknown which ER subtype(s) mediate sexual responses of the MEA to E(2), we examined mating following MEA implants of cholesterol, E(2), PPT or DPN in four groups of castrated male rats administered DHT subcutaneously. E(2) MEA implants maintained mounting but mating was significantly decreased in groups receiving PPT, DPN or cholesterol MEA implants suggesting that, unlike the MPO where ERα alone is essential, sexual responses of the MEA to E(2) require simultaneous interactions among multiple ER subtypes.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Copulação/fisiologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/fisiologia , Área Pré-Óptica/fisiologia , 1-Metil-4-fenilpiridínio , Tonsila do Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Androgênios/farmacologia , Animais , Colesterol/farmacologia , Copulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Di-Hidrotestosterona/farmacologia , Estradiol/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Orquiectomia , Fenóis , Área Pré-Óptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionatos/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Testosterona/farmacologia
17.
J Altern Complement Med ; 14(2): 209-14, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18315504

RESUMO

The care of patients with cancer not only involves dealing with its symptoms but also with complicated information and uncertainty; isolation; and fear of disease progression, disease recurrence, and death. Patients whose treatments require them to go without human contact can find a lack of touch to be an especially distressing factor. Massage therapy is often used to address these patients' need for human contact, and findings support the positive value of massage in cancer care. Several reviews of the scientific literature have attributed numerous positive effects to massage, including improvements in the quality of patients' relaxation, sleep, and immune system responses and in the relief of their fatigue, pain, anxiety, and nausea. On the basis of these reviews, some large cancer centers in the United States have started to integrate massage therapy into conventional settings. In this paper, we recognize the importance of touch, review findings regarding massage for cancer patients, describe the massage therapy program in one of these centers, and outline future challenges and implications for the effective integration of massage therapy in large and small cancer centers.


Assuntos
Massagem/métodos , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Toque Terapêutico/métodos , Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Depressão/terapia , Fadiga/terapia , Humanos , Náusea/terapia , Manejo da Dor , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
J Soc Integr Oncol ; 5(3): 118-24, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17761131

RESUMO

Adequate amounts of nutrients such as folate, vitamin A, iron, selenium and calcium are essential for general health including prevention of cancer. Yet, excess amounts of vitamin A, folate, and iron may also promote cancer. This study sought to determine whether adults who had completed initial treatments for B-cell lymphoma from 1 to 3 years earlier were consuming recommended amounts of these key nutrients and their interests in nutritional education. We surveyed 141 patients undergoing follow-up in the Lymphoma/Myeloma Clinic at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center using a validated food frequency questionnaire and supplemental questionnaire regarding nutritional interest. Nutrient intakes were estimated based on national databases of average content in foods and compared with recommended guidelines. One hundred forty-one participants returned complete questionnaires, but errors limited some nutrient estimates to 134 participants. Participants' mean age was 50, 55% were male, and 80% were non-Hispanic whites. Most participants (94%) were consuming either inadequate or excessive amounts of one or more of these key nutrients. Half of the participants were interested in receiving nutritional education. These findings are of concern because of their potential impact upon recovery and maintenance of general health and possibly cancer-related pathways after treatment.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doença de Hodgkin/dietoterapia , Linfoma de Células B/dietoterapia , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Ferro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Vitamina A
19.
Nutr Cancer ; 57(2): 168-76, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17571950

RESUMO

To estimate the current prevalence of overweight and any associations with self-reported changes in dietary patterns, we surveyed 141 patients who had completed treatments for lymphoma at The M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. We hypothesized that those who perceived that they were currently eating more fruits, vegetables, or whole grains would be more likely to be in a normal weight as body mass index (BMI) category. Usual food choices during the past year were assessed through the previously validated Block Dietary Data Systems Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Perceived increases in fruits, vegetables, or whole grains after treatment were assessed through supplementary questions. Height, weight, and medications were recorded from a retrospective record review. A majority of subjects were overweight or obese before treatment, and this proportion had increased when assessed a median of 20 mo after treatment. Patients perceiving that they currently consumed more fruits, vegetables, or whole grains were not more likely to be in a normal BMI category even after controlling for medications associated with weight gain as indicated by pharmaceutical company information. However, a majority of subjects consumed 40% or more of energy from fat and ate less than the recommended minimum of 5-a-day fruits and vegetables.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/normas , Linfoma/terapia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Percepção , Adulto , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Grão Comestível , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
20.
J Soc Integr Oncol ; 5(1): 18-24, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17309810

RESUMO

When herbal or other biologic therapies are used with conventional treatments, adverse drug-herb interactions can occur. Of course, benefits can also be derived that decrease the side effects of conventional medicine and/or support general recovery, a sense of well-being, and health. Even though people with cancer typically use complementary medicines along with conventional treatment, many of them do so without informing anyone on their health care team. This lack of discussion is of grave concern, especially for ingestible substances. This article considers some of the barriers to open communication about complementary treatments and provides support for why it is the health care professional's responsibility to bring up the topic for both medical and legal reasons. Strategies for initiating and guiding an informed dialogue are described and important resources are provided.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares , Neoplasias/terapia , Terapias Complementares/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto
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