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1.
RSC Adv ; 14(23): 16284-16292, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774614

RESUMO

Using a first-principles approach, the adsorption characteristics of CO and HF on a CuCl monolayer (ML) are studied with Grimme-scheme DFT-D2 for accurate description of the long-range (van der Waals) interactions. According to our study, CO gas molecules undergo chemisorption and HF gas molecules show a physisorption phenomenon on the CuCl monolayer. The adsorption energy for CO is -1.80 eV, which is quite a large negative value compared to that on other previously studied substrates, like InN (-0.223 eV), phosphorene (0.325 eV), Janus Te2Se (-0.171 eV), graphene (P-graphene, -0.12 eV, B-graphene, -0.14 eV, N-graphene, -0.1 eV) and monolayer ZnS (-0.96 eV), as well as pristine hBN (0.21 eV) and Ti-doped hBN (1.66 eV). Meanwhile, for HF, the adsorption energy value is -0.31 eV (greater than that of Ti-doped hBN, 0.27 eV). For CO, the large value of the diffusion energy barrier (DEB = 1.26 eV) during its movement between two optimal sites indicates that clustering can be prevented if many molecules of CO are adsorbed on the CuCl ML. For HF, the value of the DEB (0.082 eV) implies that the adsorption phenomenon may happen quite easily upon the CuCl ML. The transfer of charge according to Bader charge analysis and the variation in the work function depend only on the properties of the elements involved, i.e., their nature, rather than the local binding environment. The work function and band-gap energy variation of the CuCl ML (before and after adsorption) show high sensitivity and selectivity of CO and HF binding with the CuCl monolayer. HF molecules give a more rapid recovery time of 1.09 × 10-7 s compared to that of CO molecules at a room temperature (RT) of 300 K, which indicates that the necessary adsorption and reusability of the CuCl ML for HF can be accomplished effectively at RT. Significant changes in the conductivity are observed due to the CO adsorption at various temperatures, as compared to adsorption of HF, which suggests the possibility of a modification in the conductivity of the CuCl ML.

2.
Front Neurol ; 15: 1373890, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694780

RESUMO

Background: Headache disorder is the second-highest cause of disability worldwide; however, data are scarce on headache among adolescents, especially in Africa. There has yet to be published data on headache among adolescents in Sudan, the third-largest country in Africa. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of primary headache disorders and associated factors among adolescents (10-19 years) in eastern Sudan. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Gadarif in eastern Sudan. Questionnaires were used to gather the adolescents' sociodemographic characteristics. Headache diagnostic questions were based on the beta version of the International Classification of Headache Disorders-III (ICHD-3). Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess the associated factors for primary headache disorders, and the results were expressed as risk ratios (RRs) and 95.0% confidence interval (CI). Results: Of the 401 enrolled adolescents, 186 (46.4%) and 215 (53.6%) were male and female, respectively. The median (IQR) age was 14.0 (12.1-16.2) years. Eighty-one (20.2%) of the 401 adolescents reported experiencing primary headache disorders, including migraine with aura in 16 (4.0%), migraine without aura in 33 (8.2%), tension-type in 14 (3.5%), and undifferentiated headache in 18 (4.5%) adolescents. The prevalence of primary headache disorders was significantly higher in females than in males [55/215 (67.9%) vs. 26/186 (32.1%), p = 0.004]. In the multivariate analysis, increased age (RR = 1.09, 95.0 CI = 1.02-1.16) and being female (RR = 1.75, 95.0 CI = 1.14-2.67) were associated with increased RR of primary headache disorders. Parents' education level and occupation, smoking/snuff use, and body mass index were not associated with primary headache disorders. Conclusion: One-fifth of the adolescents in eastern Sudan reported experiencing primary headache disorders, which was more common in females and with increased age.

3.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 579, 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vinyl polyether silicone (VPES) is a novel impression biomaterial made of a combination of vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) and polyether (PE). Thus, it is significant to assess its properties and behaviour under varied disinfectant test conditions. This study aimed to assess the dimensional stability of novel VPES impression material after immersion in standard disinfectants for different time intervals. METHODS: Elastomeric impression material used -medium body regular set (Monophase) [Exa'lence GC America]. A total of 84 Specimens were fabricated using stainless steel die and ring (ADA specification 19). These samples were distributed into a control group (n=12) and a test group (n=72). The test group was divided into 3 groups, based on the type of disinfectant used - Group-A- 2% Glutaraldehyde, Group-B- 0. 5% Sodium hypochlorite and Group-C- 2% Chlorhexidine each test group was further divided into 2 subgroups (n=12/subgroup) based on time intervals for which each sample was immersed in the disinfectants - subgroup-1- 10 mins and Subgroup 2- 30 mins. After the impression material was set, it was removed from the ring and then it was washed in water for 15 seconds. Control group measurements were made immediately on a stereomicroscope and other samples were immersed in the three disinfection solutions for 10 mins and 30 mins to check the dimensional stability by measuring the distance between the lines generated by the stainless steel die on the samples using a stereomicroscope at x40 magnification. RESULTS: The distance measured in the control group was 4397.2078 µm and 4396.1571 µm; for the test group Group-A- 2% Glutaraldehyde was 4396.4075 µm and 4394.5992 µm; Group-B- 0. 5% Sodium hypochlorite was 4394.5453 µm and 4389.4711 µm Group-C- 2% Chlorhexidine was 4395.2953 µm and 4387.1703 µm respectively for 10 mins and 30 mins. Percentage dimensional change was in the range of 0.02 - 0.25 for all the groups for 10 mins and 30 mins. CONCLUSIONS: 2 % Glutaraldehyde is the most suitable disinfectant for VPES elastomeric impression material in terms of dimensional stability and shows minimum dimensional changes as compared to that of 2% Chlorhexidine and 0.5% Sodium hypochlorite.


Assuntos
Materiais para Moldagem Odontológica , Glutaral , Teste de Materiais , Polivinil , Siloxanas , Materiais para Moldagem Odontológica/química , Polivinil/química , Siloxanas/química , Fatores de Tempo , Glutaral/química , Desinfetantes de Equipamento Odontológico/química , Hipoclorito de Sódio/química , Desinfetantes/química , Clorexidina/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Humanos
4.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 11(1)2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Singing for lung health (SLH) is an arts-based breathing control and movement intervention for people with long-term respiratory conditions, intended to improve symptoms and quality of life. Online, remotely delivered programmes might improve accessibility; however, no previous studies have assessed the effectiveness of this approach. METHODS: We conducted an assessor-blind randomised controlled trial comparing the impact of 12 weeks of once-weekly online SLH sessions against usual care on health-related quality of life, assessed using the RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) Mental Health Composite (MHC) and Physical Health Composite (PHC) scores. RESULTS: We enrolled 115 people with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), median (IQR) age 69 (62-74), 56.5% females, 80% prior pulmonary rehabilitation, Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale 4 (3-4), forced expiratory volume in 1 s % predicted 49 (35-63). 50 participants in each arm completed the study. The intervention arm experienced improvements in physical but not mental health components of RAND SF-36; PHC (regression coefficient (95% CI): 1.77 (95% CI 0.11 to 3.44); p=0.037), but not MHC (0.86 (95% CI -1.68 to 3.40); p=0.504). A prespecified responder analysis based on achieving a 10% improvement from baseline demonstrated a response rate for PHC of 32% in the SLH arm and 12.7% for usual care (p=0.024). A between-group difference in responder rate was not found in relation to the MHC (19.3% vs 25.9%; p=0.403). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: A 12-week online SLH programme can improve the physical component of quality of life for people with COPD, but the overall effect is relatively modest compared with the impact seen in research using face-to-face group sessions. Further work on the content, duration and dose of online interventions may be useful. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04034212.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Canto , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Resultado do Tratamento , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Método Simples-Cego
5.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 13(2): 417-424, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605788

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Increasing people's knowledge and then changing their attitude and practice with the aim of taking care of their eye health are very important. Considering the importance of the mentioned topic, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice about eye diseases in the general population of the world in the form of a systematic literature review. Materials and Methods: This study was a systematic literature review study, and to do it, a systematic search was conducted in internationally available databases including Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar in the time range of 1998 to 2023. Finally, considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, the results of 18 articles were extracted. Results: The findings showed that in general, people's level of knowledge about glaucoma was lower compared to other eye diseases, and the level of knowledge of men and women about eye diseases was different. In addition, the results showed that there was significant relationship between age and knowledge of various eye diseases. The results of all evaluated studies showed that people with higher education have more knowledge about eye diseases. Conclusion: Based on this, it can be concluded that as glaucoma is one of the most important causes of blindness worldwide, it is necessary to plan to increase the level of public knowledge to recognize the symptoms and complications of this disease. In addition to that, it is necessary to increase people's advertisement by ophthalmology centers and eye specialists about the use of glasses and also to encourage people to visit the eye physician regularly.

6.
Cureus ; 16(4): e57704, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38586231

RESUMO

Introduction Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has become integral across medical specialties globally, addressing clinical queries, guiding procedures, and bridging the gap between physical examination and advanced imaging. Early ultrasound training for medical students enhances clinical decision-making and reduces diagnostic errors. Aims To evaluate the knowledge and attitude of senior medical students towards POCUS and to assess knowledge gaps and difficulties encountered by senior medical students to assist in the development of future curricula. Methodology This is an observational, cross-sectional approach to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practice of POCUS among senior medical students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from January to September 2023. An electronic questionnaire was distributed through online platforms utilizing medical school databases across various regions. The survey encompassed sociodemographics, training methods, diagnostic indications, and participants' self-reported proficiency and attitudes toward POCUS. The data was chiefly collected using the Likert scale. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the quantitative and categorical variables. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine correlations. Results A total of 359 senior medical students completed the survey. Most responders were females (57.9%) with the predominating age group being ≤ 24 years (83.6%). The students predominantly were from the Central region of Saudi Arabia (75.5%). Ultrasound training varied among responders; 31.5% received formal courses (median duration: two hours) and 23.4% informal courses (median duration: four hours). Around 17.3% practiced POCUS self-teaching (median duration: four hours). A total of 3.6% had formal POCUS accreditation. A gargantuan 82.2% never used POCUS in their attached hospital for a variety of reasons. Multivariable logistic binary regression analysis showed a positive correlation between students' self-teaching of POCUS and their perceived difficulty performing an ultrasound examination for patients in daily practice. Discussion A comparable study was done at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS) in 2022 surveying 229 senior medical students by Rajendram et al. In their study, 21.4% completed formal courses and 12.7% took informal courses. While many students in our study were not exposed to POCUS (82.2%), KSAU-HS reported a higher percentage reaching 94.8%. A study by Russel et al. demonstrated more than half of 154 surveyed medical schools in the United States have implemented POCUS into their students' curriculum. Conclusion POCUS stands as a valuable skill that can enhance the educational journey of undergraduate medical students. Considering that a significant number of participants haven't yet taken formal medical school courses suggests a lack of awareness about its significance in the medical field. Offering additional courses with practical components could enhance the proficiency, confidence, and outlook of medical students toward POCUS.

7.
Indian J Clin Biochem ; 39(2): 226-232, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577133

RESUMO

Serum microRNAs (miRs) have recently been proposed as potential cancer biomarkers for early detection. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in human health, and their alterations are linked to a range of diseases, such as breast cancer. The relationship between NF-κß, TNF-α, and non-coding RNAs is an urgent need for clinical trials. This study aimed to investigate serum expression folds of miR-155 and miR-375 and their correlations with NF-κß and TNF-α in breast cancer patients. The current study was conducted on 183 unrelated female participants. Serum levels of free T3 and T4, as well as expression folds of miR-155 and miR-375, were significantly higher in patients with fibroadenoma and breast cancer, despite TSH being significantly lower. Additionally, the signaling of TNF-alpha and NF-κß were found to be significantly upregulated in the serum of patients with breast cancer. Up-regulation of miR-155 and miR-375 expression may be diagnostic biomarkers of breast cancer, pointing to the role of NF-κß and TNF-α expression in miR-155 and miR-375 expression as therapeutic targets of breast cancer in the future.

8.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 17: 1401-1411, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560487

RESUMO

Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is an essential non-invasive oxygen therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. Despite its wide use, research assessing the knowledge, practice, and barriers to using HFNC among respiratory therapists (RT) is lacking. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire was conducted among RTs in Saudi Arabia between December 19, 2022, and July 15, 2023. Data were analyzed as means and standard deviation or frequency and percentages. A Chi-square test was used to compare the differences between groups. Results: A total of 1001 RTs completed the online survey. Two-thirds of the respondents 659 (65.8%) had received training in using HFNC and 785 (78.4%) had used HFNC in clinical settings. The top conditions for HFNC indication were COVID-19 (78%), post-extubation (65%), and do-not-intubate patients (64%). Participants strongly agreed that helping maintain conversation and eating abilities (32.95%) and improving shortness of breath (34.1%) were advantages of HFNC. Surprisingly, 568 (57%) of RT staff did not follow a protocol for HFNC with ARDS patients. When starting HFNC, 40.2% of the participants started with FiO2 of 61% to 80%. Additionally, high percentages of RT staff started with a flow rate between 30 L/minute and 40 L/minute (40.6%) and a temperature of 37°C (57.7%). When weaning ARDS patients, 482 (48.1%) recommended first reducing gas flow by 5-10 L/minute every two to four hours. Moreover, 549 (54.8%) believed that ARDS patients could be disconnected from HFNC if they achieved a flow rate of <20 L/minute and FiO2 of <35%. Lack of knowledge was the most common challenge concerning HFNC implementation. Conclusion: The findings revealed nuanced applications marked by significant endorsement in certain clinical scenarios and a lack of protocol adherence, underscoring the need for uniform, evidence-based guidelines and enhanced training for RTs. Addressing these challenges is pivotal to optimizing the benefits of HFNC across varied clinical contexts.

9.
Kidney Int Suppl (2011) ; 13(1): 57-70, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618498

RESUMO

The highest financial and symptom burdens and the lowest health-related quality-of-life scores are seen in people with kidney failure. A total of 11 countries in the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) Middle East region responded to the ISN-Global Kidney Health Atlas. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the region ranged from 4.9% in Yemen to 12.2% in Lebanon, whereas prevalence of kidney failure treated with dialysis or transplantation ranged from 152 per million population (pmp) in the United Arab Emirates to 869 pmp in Kuwait. Overall, the incidence of kidney transplantation was highest in Saudi Arabia (20.2 pmp) and was lowest in Oman (2.2 pmp). Chronic hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) services were available in all countries, whereas kidney transplantation was available in most countries of the region. Public government funding that makes acute dialysis, chronic HD, chronic PD, and kidney transplantation medications free at the point of delivery was available in 54.5%, 72.7%, 54.5%, and 54.5% of countries, respectively. Conservative kidney management was available in 45% of countries. Only Oman had a CKD registry; 7 countries (64%) had dialysis registries, and 8 (73%) had kidney transplantation registries. The ISN Middle East region has a high burden of kidney disease and multiple challenges to overcome. Prevention and detection of kidney disease can be improved by the design of tailored guidelines, allocation of additional resources, improvement of early detection at all levels of care, and implementation of sustainable health information systems.

10.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 84, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448807

RESUMO

Ramadan fasting (RF) involves abstaining from food and drink during daylight hours; it is obligatory for all healthy Muslims from the age of puberty. Although sick individuals are exempt from fasting, many will fast anyway. This article explores the impact of RF on individuals with kidney diseases through a comprehensive review of existing literature and consensus recommendations. This study was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel of experts.The recommendations aim to provide a structured approach to assess and manage fasting during Ramadan for patients with kidney diseases, empowering both healthcare providers and patients to make informed decisions while considering their unique circumstances.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Humanos , Consenso , Pacientes , Pessoal de Saúde , Jejum
11.
PeerJ Comput Sci ; 10: e1872, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435567

RESUMO

Electricity theft presents a substantial threat to distributed power networks, leading to non-technical losses (NTLs) that can significantly disrupt grid functionality. As power grids supply centralized electricity to connected consumers, any unauthorized consumption can harm the grids and jeopardize overall power supply quality. Detecting such fraudulent behavior becomes challenging when dealing with extensive data volumes. Smart grids provide a solution by enabling two-way electricity flow, thereby facilitating the detection, analysis, and implementation of new measures to address data flow issues. The key objective is to provide a deep learning-based amalgamated model to detect electricity theft and secure the smart grid. This research introduces an innovative approach to overcome the limitations of current electricity theft detection systems, which predominantly rely on analyzing one-dimensional (1-D) electric data. These approaches often exhibit insufficient accuracy when identifying instances of theft. To address this challenge, the article proposes an ensemble model known as the RNN-BiLSTM-CRF model. This model amalgamates the strengths of recurrent neural network (RNN) and bidirectional long short-term memory (BiLSTM) architectures. Notably, the proposed model harnesses both one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) electricity consumption data, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of the theft detection process. The experimental results showcase an impressive accuracy rate of 93.05% in detecting electricity theft, surpassing the performance of existing models in this domain.

12.
Front Oncol ; 14: 1295847, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450193

RESUMO

Background: Lung cancer is currently the most fatal form of cancer worldwide, ranking as the fourth most prevalent type in Saudi Arabia, particularly among males. This trend is expected to increase with growing population, lifestyle changes, and aging population. Understanding the awareness of the Saudi population regarding the risk factors and symptoms of lung cancer is necessary to attenuate the predicted increase in cases. Method: A cross-sectional, population-based survey was performed using a previously validated questionnaire (Lung CAM). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess variables associated with deficiency in knowledge and awareness of risk factors and symptoms of lung cancer. Results: Majority of the 15,099 respondents were male (65%), aged between 18 and 30 years (53%), 50% of which were educated up to a bachelor's degree level. Overall awareness of lung cancer signs and symptoms was 53%, with painful cough and coughing up blood being the best-known symptoms. Conversely, persistent shoulder pain (44%) and clubbing fingers (47%) were the least known lung cancer symptoms. Also, 60% of the respondents showed low confidence in identifying the signs and symptoms of lung cancer. The overall awareness of the risk factors for lung cancer development was 74%, with first-hand (74%) and second-hand (68%) smoking being the most known risk factors. However, only ≤ 62% know the other non-smoking risk factors. Awareness of the risk factors and symptoms of lung cancer depended on age, gender, education, marital and employment status (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Public awareness of the risk factors and symptoms of lung cancer in Saudi Arabia is inadequate and heavily dependent on education and socio-economic status. Awareness can be improved through campaigns to raise awareness about other lesser-known lung cancer risk factors and symptoms.

13.
Med Sci Monit ; 30: e943401, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38444156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Several auxiliary features have been proposed to achieve sustainable retention for short-prepared dental crowns; however, achieving retention is challenging. This study aimed to assess the impact of increased total occlusal convergence and auxiliary preparation factors like box and groove on the retention form of short tooth preparations. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty resin machine-milled dies with a height of 3 mm and a deep chamfer margin of 1 mm were prepared to mimic the short-prepared molar. Initially, 2 teeth were prepared following the guidelines, and the total occlusal convergence was kept at 10° and 20°, respectively. Auxiliary features such as the proximal box and buccal groove were prepared on separate 20° dies. Eighty dies were prepared with 10 samples each for 10°, 20°, 20° with proximal box and 20° with buccal groove for zirconia (n=40) and metal crowns (n=40). Cementation was done with glass ionomer luting cement, and a pull-off test was conducted. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc fisher least significant difference test (P<0.05). RESULTS The highest mean was observed in the proximal box group with the metal crown (14.59), and the lowest in the group with 20° zirconia crowns (9.12). Within groups, the highest retentive values were found for the 20° taper with proximal box preparation; the lowest was for the 20° taper group. CONCLUSIONS Within the study limitations, it could be concluded that incorporating a proximal box or buccal groove in short tooth preparations with an increased total occlusal convergence improved retentive values.


Assuntos
Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro , Boca , Zircônio , Membrana Celular , Coroas
14.
Int J Gen Med ; 17: 1007-1015, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505144

RESUMO

Background: Nearly half of the Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients develop lung involvement. The study assessed the extent of pulmonary involvement among SLE patients and to identify the associated factors in the population. Methodology: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at Aseer Hospital and Khamis Myshat Hospital in the Southern region of Saudi Arabia. The study spanned from January 1, 2016, to June 3, 2023. Patient inclusion criteria encompassed individuals who received a definitive diagnosis and classification as per American College of Rheumatology criteria, while patients under 18 years of age and those with mixed connective tissue diseases were exclude. Results: A total of 247 participants were included. 41.7% (n=103) aged 41 years and older, 95.1% (n = 235) were females. Around 10.10% had diabetes mellitus and 17.00% had hypertension and hypothyroidism. Lupus Nephritis was in 15.40%. Chest involvement was reported in 21.9%, in the form of pleuritis (6.10%), pleural effusion (4.00%), and lupus pneumonitis (4.00%), interstitial lung disease (4.00%), pulmonary embolism (3.60%) of individuals, and pulmonary hemorrhage (2.80%). The respiratory symptoms reported by SLE were; dyspnea, cough, and chest pain each having a prevalence of around 18.0%. Palpitations have a relatively high occurrence at 13.80%. Meanwhile, hemoptysis (blood coughing) has a lower prevalence of 1.20%, and fever is reported at 2.80%. Having chronic kidney disease and hypertension were significantly associated with having pulmonary involvement; (χ2=3.308, p=0.027) and (χ2=7.782, Fisher's p=0.002) respectively. The seropositivity for antiphospholipid Abs, anti-CCP, and antids-DNA were significantly associated with pulmonary involvement (χ2=3.239, =p=0.049), (χ2=4.621, Fisher's p=0.023), and (χ2=8.248, p=0.010) respectively. Conclusion: The study found that 21.9% of SLE patients experience chest involvement, with varying degrees of pulmonary symptoms. Factors such as chronic kidney disease, hypertension, antiphospholipid antibodies, Anti-CCP positivity, and seropositivity for Anti-dsDNA were found to be significant associations with lung involvement, contributing to our understanding of SLE.

15.
Surgeon ; 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT), followed by surgery after an interval of 6-8 weeks, represents standard of care for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Increasing this interval may improve rates of complete pathological response (pCR) and tumour downstaging. We performed a meta-analysis comparing standard (SI, within 8 weeks) versus longer (LI, after 8 weeks) interval from NCRT to surgery. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched up to 31 August 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SI with LI after NCRT for LARC were included. The primary endpoint was pCR rate. Secondary endpoints included rates of R0 resection, circumferential resection margin positivity (+CRM), TME completeness, lymph node yield (LNY), operative duration, tumour downstaging (TD), sphincter preservation, mortality, postoperative complications, surgical site infection (SSI) and anastomotic leak (AL). Random effects models were used to calculate pooled effect size estimates. RESULTS: Four RCTs encompassing 867 patients were included. There were 539 males (62.1%). LI was associated with a higher pCR rate (OR 0.61, 95%CI â€‹= â€‹0.39-0.95, p â€‹= â€‹0.03), and more TD (OR 0.60, 95%CI â€‹= â€‹0.37-0.97, p â€‹= â€‹0.04) compared to SI. However, there was no difference in rates of R0 resection (p â€‹= â€‹0.87), +CRM (p â€‹= â€‹0.66), sphincter preservation (p â€‹= â€‹0.26), incomplete TME (p â€‹= â€‹0.49), LNY (p â€‹= â€‹0.55), SSI (p â€‹= â€‹0.33), AL (p â€‹= â€‹0.20), operative duration (p â€‹= â€‹0.07), mortality (p â€‹= â€‹0.89) or any surgical complication (p â€‹= â€‹0.91). CONCLUSIONS: A LI to surgery after NCRT for LARC increases pCR and TD rates. Local recurrence or survival were not assessed due to unavailable data. We recommend deferring TME until after an interval of 8 weeks following completion of NCRT.

16.
Int J Gen Med ; 17: 1047-1058, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532847

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to determine the rate of telemedicine (TM) use and the levels of awareness, knowledge, attitude, and skills of TM among primary healthcare (PHC) providers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 104 PHC providers were subjected to a validated AKAS scale via Survey Monkey. The tool consists of 4 parameters that users can respond to using a 4-point Likert scale to assess their awareness (12 statements), knowledge (11 statements), attitude (11 statements), and skills (13 statements) on TM. Total and percentage mean scores (PMS) were calculated for each parameter. Participants were categorized in each parameter into three categories: low (≤ 49% score), average (50-70% score), and high (≥ 71% score) levels. The association of AKAS levels with personal characteristics and TM use was investigated. The significance was set at p<0.05. Results: One-half of participants (51%) reported current use of TM, and two-thirds (63.5%) reported a high level of AKAS, with a PMS of 72.9±14.7, 95% CI: 70.1-75.7. There were significant associations between the following: years of experience and levels of knowledge (Χ2LT = 6.77, p= 0.009) and skills (Χ2LT = 4.85, p = 0.028), respectively; and total household income and levels of skills (Χ2LT = 6.91, p= 0.009). The rate of TM use was significantly associated with awareness levels (Χ2LT = 6.14, p = 0.013). Lack of training ranked as the first barrier (45.5%), followed by connection problems and tools' unavailability (35.1% each). The participants recommended providing TM training (41.1%) and stabilization of connection and networking signals (30.1%). Conclusion: Despite their high level of TM awareness, the rate of TM use by PHC providers is less than satisfactory. Establishing standardized TM training and supporting the network signals are recommended. A large-scale study on the impact of TM integration with PHC services is necessary.

17.
Med Sci Monit ; 30: e943706, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The advent of digital impressions using computer-aided design and manufacturing technology (CAD/CAM) has simplified and improved the fabrication of implant prostheses in dentistry. The conventional impression has several drawbacks, including tray selection, material type, impression technique, impression disinfection, and cast model storage. The inaccuracies caused by distortion and contraction of impression material can be minimized with digital impressions. This study aimed to compare digital dental impressions of 10 working casts made using the Pindex laser removable die system to fabricate parallel drill channels vs 10 working casts made using the Di-Lok plastic tray removable die system. MATERIAL AND METHODS An implant master die with 2 dental implant analogs was fabricated. Ten working casts using the Pindex laser removable die system with parallel drill channels and 10 working casts using the Di-Lok plastic tray removable die system were fabricated. The working casts were scanned using an extra-oral laboratory scanner and the implant master model was scanned with an intra-oral scanner. RESULTS The properties of the casts made using the 2 systems were evaluated and analyzed with ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test. The mean horizontal linear distances between A1B1 (P<0.021), A2B2 (P<0.018), C1D1 (P<0.026), C2D2 (P<0.03), B1C1 (P<0.01), and mean vertical distances between B1A2 (P<0.015), C1D2 (P<0.001), B1B2 (P<0.028), and C1C2 (P<0.001) were significantly different between the Pindex system and Di-Lok tray system as compared to intra-oral scans. CONCLUSIONS Complete digital workflow with intra-oral scans were more than the partial digital workflow with extra-oral scans for the Pindex system and Di-Lok tray systems.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Modelos Dentários , Fluxo de Trabalho , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Prótese Parcial Fixa , Projetos de Pesquisa
18.
Curr Res Food Sci ; 8: 100682, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38304001

RESUMO

This study aimed to increase the physical stability of native sunflower oleosomes to expand their range of applications in food. The first objective was to increase the stability and functionality of oleosomes to lower pH since most food products require a pH of 5.5 or lower for microbial stability. Native sunflower oleosomes had a pI of 6.2. One particularly effective strategy for long-term stabilization, both physical and microbial, was the addition of 40% (w/w) glycerol to the oleosomes plus homogenization, which decreased the pI to 5.3 as well as decreasing oleosome size, narrowing the size distribution and increasing colloidal stability. Interfacial engineering of oleosomes by coating them with lecithin and the polysaccharides xanthan and gellan, effectively increased stability, and lowered their pI to 3.0 for lecithin and lower than 3.0 for xanthan. Coating oleosomes also caused a greater absolute value of the ζ-potential; for example, this amount was shifted to -20 mV at pH 4.0 for xanthan and to -28 mV at pH 4.0 for lecithin, which provides electrostatic stabilization. Polysaccharides also provide steric stabilization, which is superior. A significant increase in the diameter of coated oleosomes was observed with lecithin, xanthan and gellan. The oleosome sample with 40% glycerol showed high storage stability at 4 °C (over three months). The addition of glycerol also decreased the water activity of the oleosome suspension to 0.85, which could prevent microbial growth.

19.
Polymers (Basel) ; 16(3)2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337199

RESUMO

This paper investigates making an injection mouldable conductive plastic formulation that aims for conductivity into the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding range, with good mechanical properties (i.e., stiffness, strength, and impact resistance). While conductivity in the range (electrostatic charge dissipation) and EMI shielding have been attained by incorporating conductive fillers such as carbon black, metals powders, and new materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), this often occurs with a drop in tensile strength, elongation-to-break resistance, and impact resistance. It is most often the case that the incorporation of high modulus fillers leads to an increase in modulus but a drop in strength and impact resistance. In this work, we have used short carbon fibres as the conductive filler and selected a 50/50 PBT/rPET (recycled PET) for the plastic matrix. Carbon fibres are cheaper than CNTs and graphenes. The PBT/rPET has low melt viscosity and crystallises sufficiently fast during injection moulding. To improve impact resistance, a styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene (SEBS) rubber toughening agent was added to the plastic. The PBT/rPET had very low-impact resistance and the SEBS provided rubber toughening to it; however, the rubber caused a drop in the tensile modulus and strength. The short carbon fibre restored the modulus and strength, which reached higher value than the PBT/rPET while providing the conductivity. Scanning electron microscope pictures showed quite good bonding of the current filler (CF) to the PBT/rPET. An injection mouldable conductive plastic with high conductivity and raised modulus, strength, and impact resistance could be made.

20.
RSC Adv ; 14(7): 4844-4852, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323019

RESUMO

The structural, electronic and optical properties of silicene and its derivatives are investigated in the present work by employing density functional theory (DFT). The Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) is used as the exchange-correlation potential. Our results provide helpful insight for tailoring the band gap of silicene via functionalization of chlorine and fluorine. First, relaxation of all the materials is performed to obtain the appropriate structural parameters. Cl-Si showed the highest lattice parameter 4.31 Å value, while it also possesses the highest buckling of 0.73 Å among all the derivatives of silicene. We also study the electronic charge density, charge difference density and electrostatic potential, to check the bonding characteristics and charge transfer between Si-halides. The electronic properties, band structures and density of states (DOS) of all the materials are calculated using the PBE-GGA as well as the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) on PBE-GGA. Pristine silicene is found to have a negligibly small band gap but with the adsorption of chlorine and fluorine atoms, its band gap can be opened. The band gap of Cl-Si and F-Si is calculated to be 1.7 eV and 0.6 eV, respectively, while Cl-F-Si has a band gap of 1.1 eV. Moreover, the optical properties of silicene and its derivatives are explored, which includes dielectric constants ε1 and ε2, refractive indices n, extinction coefficients k, optical conductivity σ and absorption coefficients I. The calculated binding energies and phonon band structures confirm the stability of Cl-Si, Cl-F-Si, and F-Si. We also calculated the photocatalytic properties which show silicine has a good response to reduction, and the other materials to oxidation. A comparison of our current work to recent work in which graphene was functionalized with halides, is also presented and we observe that silicene is a much better alternative for graphene in terms of semiconductors and photovoltaics applications.

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