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1.
Pathogens ; 13(4)2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38668250

RESUMO

This study investigated the dietary immunomodulatory effects of Terminalia arjuna bark powder (TABP) in Labeo rohita, a freshwater fish model. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets containing graded levels of TABP (0, 1, 10, and 15 g/kg were fed to fish for 90 days, followed by a 10 day challenge with pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda. An integrated biomarker response (IBR) approach assessed the impact of TABP on hematological, adaptive, and humoral immune parameters, along with liver histomorphology. Dietary TABP at 10 g/kg significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) hematological indices (hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit), specific immune parameters (lysosomal enzyme activity, phagocytosis, respiratory burst), and non-specific immune parameters (serum lysozyme, alternative complement activity), and exhibited improvements in liver architecture consistent with the enhanced immune response. Broken line regression analysis showed 11.5 g/kg to be an optimum dose. However, at 15 g/kg, a compromised trend was observed in some parameters. These findings suggest an optimal dosage range for TABP's immunomodulatory effects. The study highlights the potential of TABP as a natural immunomodulator in fish aquaculture. The improved immune response and concomitant liver health observed in Labeo rohita opens avenues for further research on TABP's applicability in animal health, using fish as a model organism. Additionally, the IBR approach proved effective in evaluating TABP's immunomodulatory properties, paving the way for similar studies on other natural products in aquaculture.

2.
Microorganisms ; 12(4)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38674667

RESUMO

The global rise of zoonotic bacteria resistant to multiple antimicrobial classes and the growing occurrence of infections caused by Aeromonas spp. resistant to ß-lactam antibiotics pose a severe threat to animal and human health. However, the contribution of natural environments, particularly aquatic ecosystems, as ideal settings for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a key concern. Investigating the phenotypic antibiotic resistance and detection of ß-lactamase producing Aeromonas spp. in Lamellidens marginalis, which inhabit all freshwater ecosystems of the Indian subcontinent, is essential for implications in monitoring food safety and drug resistance. In the present investigation, 92 isolates of Aeromonas spp. were recovered from 105 bivalves and screened for their antimicrobial resistance patterns. In vitro antibiotic resistance profiling showed a higher Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index of 0.8 with the highest resistance against ampicillin/sulbactam (82%), while 58, 44, 39 and 38% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin, erythromycin, cefoxitin and imipenem, respectively. PCR results revealed that these isolates carried the blaTEM gene (94%), which was followed by the blaCTX-M gene (51%) and the blaSHV gene (45%). A combination of blaSHV, blaCTX-M, and blaTEM genes was found in 17% of the isolates, indicating the presence of all three resistance genes. This is the first investigation which highlights the importance of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas spp. in L. marginalis. The identification of extended-spectrum-ß-lactamases (ESBLs) genes demand the necessity of continuous surveillance and systematic monitoring, considering its potential health risks for both animals and human beings.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 52(42): 15549-15561, 2023 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37753593

RESUMO

A series of coinage metal complexes bearing rarely explored ortho-silylated phosphine is reported. The treatment of diphenyl(2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl)phosphine (1) with CuCl and [Cu(CH3CN)4]BF4 furnished the corresponding neutral [(1)CuCl]2 (2) and mono-cationic [(1)2Cu(CH3CN)]BF4 (3) complexes, respectively. The reactions of 1 with AgX (X = BF4-, NO3-) in 2 : 1 ratio furnished the corresponding mono cationic dicoordinate silver(I) complexes of the type [(1)2Ag]X (X = BF4- (4a), NO3- (4b)). The ortho-silylated phosphine ligand (1) was conveniently converted into the corresponding sulfide (5a) and selenide (5b) species, and their reactions with [Cu(CH3CN)4]BF4 yielded mono-cationic, homoleptic tris(silylphosphinochalcogenide)copper(I) complexes of the type [(5a/5b)3Cu]BF4 (6a/6b). The molecular structures of 2-4 and 6 were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The copper complexes 2, 3, and 6a were employed as catalysts in azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions. Among these complexes, 3 was extensively used in the preparation of various mono- and bis-triazoles consisting of tolyl, benzyl, carbazolyl, and propargylic ether groups. Three sets of substituted triazole derivatives were achieved under mild conditions by employing copper(I) catalytic systems. The mechanistic studies indicated the formation of a heteroleptic copper(I) triazolide intermediate which was detected by high-resolution mass spectral analysis.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 52(44): 16151-16158, 2023 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37603440

RESUMO

Two novel dicationic binuclear Cu(I) complexes of the type [{(BPPP)E2}Cu]2[BF4]2 (E = S (3a); Se (3b)) bearing (BPPP)E2 (BPPP = bis(diphenylphosphino)pyridine) pincer systems were isolated, and structurally characterized. The solid-state structures of 3a/3b display the presence of intermolecular cuprophilic (Cu⋯Cu) interactions between the two monocationic species, and consist of weak Cu⋯S bonding between the two cations. Besides, complex 3a was introduced as a molecular copper(I) catalyst in cyclization reactions, and new protocols were developed for the synthesis of a series of new oxazole and triazole derivatives bearing alkyne-phenyl propargylic ether substituents. 3a was also found to be active in achieving these two classes of heterocyclic compounds by the mechanical grinding method. One of the key intermediate copper-azide species was detected by the high-resolution mass spectrometry technique, which supports the proposed catalytic pathway. All the reported transformations were accomplished sustainably by employing a well-defined, earth-abundant, and cheap copper(I) catalytic system.

6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(7): 902, 2023 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37380813

RESUMO

The main tributary of the Yamuna, the Tons River, exhibits altitudinal changes in its macroinvertebrate community's diversity, abundance, and composition. Between May 2019 and April 2021, the study was conducted in the upper section of the river. A total of 48 numbers of taxa from 34 families and ten orders were recorded during the investigation. At this elevation of 1150 to 1287 m, the two most predominant orders are Ephemeroptera (32.9%) and Trichoptera (29.5%). During the premonsoon season, they had the lowest macroinvertebrate density (250-290 individuals/m2), and the post-monsoon season had the highest density (600-640 individuals/m2). During the post-monsoon season, the maximum larval forms (60%) of various insect orders were predominant. The findings indicated that lower altitudes (1150-1232 m) have higher macroinvertebrate abundance than higher ones. The diversity of dominance is shallow at site-I (0.0738) and strong at the site-IV during the premonsoon season (0.03837). Taxa richness, as measured by the Margalef index (D), peaked in the spring season (January to March) at 6.9 and reached its lowest point (5.74) in the premonsoon season (April to May). Only 16 taxa were discovered in site-I and site-II, but 39 taxa were discovered at low altitudes (site-IV, 1100 m) (1277-1287 m). The Tons River contains a total of 12 and 13 genera, respectively, that belong to the orders Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, according to qualitative study of the macroinvertebrates. The current study supports the use of macroinvertebrates as bioindicator species for monitoring biodiversity and assessing the health of ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Ephemeroptera , Humanos , Animais , Rios , Estações do Ano , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(50): 75431-75440, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655015

RESUMO

The rapid degradation, overexploitation, and encroachment of floodplain wetlands have led to considerable decline in fish diversity and production from these invaluable aquatic resources threatening livelihood of the dependent fishers. The climate change evident in the fast few decades has further aggravated the problem of eutrophication causing water stress and sedimentation leading to rampant macrophyte proliferation affecting ecological and economic functioning of these ecosystems. Macrophyte control and management needs serious attention for sustaining ecosystem services provided by these resources. In this direction, pen culture of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella as a biocontrol for macrophytes along with Indian major carps was implemented in a co-management mode in Beledanga, a typical floodplain wetland, a gradually shrinking, macrophyte dominated floodplain wetland in lower Ganga basin. Indian major carps Labeo catla (6.28±0.23g), Labeo rohita (5.1±0.12g), Cirrhinus mrigala (3.5±0.08g) were stocked in the ratio 4:3:3 at the rate of 20 Nos.m-2 in pens (0.1ha each) in triplicate. Grass carp (7.1±0.42g) was stocked in pen at the rate of 20Nos.m-2 in duplicate. The fishes were fed with pelleted feed twice a day at the rate of 2-3% of body weight. The seed was overwintered in pens for a period of 90 days from November 2019 to January 2020. Average weight recorded at the end of culture period was 25.13±1.70g, 18.11±0.63g, 14.53±0.87g, and 39.20±1.90g in L. catla, L. rohita, C. mrigala, and C. idella, respectively. The survival of fish ranged from 70 to 81%. Growth performance and feed utilization efficiency of grass carp were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to other carp species. The pen culture was found to be economically viable with a benefit cost ratio of 1.53. The fishes produced were released back into the open wetland as an additional input for culture-based fisheries. The intervention along with niche-based enhanced stocking led to 24% increase in the fish production from the wetland with grass carp contributing 20-22% of the total catch with 32% increase in revenue generated by the sale of fish within a short span of 1 year. The study successfully demonstrated technological suitability and economic feasibility of pen culture in this wetland and role of grass carp as a potential biocontrol species for macrophyte management. Grass carp stocked in open wetland grew to 0.8 to 1kg within 6 months and 2-2.3kg within a year and could utilize 40-45% of the submerged and emergent macrophytes. Integration and optimization of grass carp will not only aid in habitat management of macrophyte-choked wetlands but will also boost their small-scale fisheries by converting standing macrophyte biomass into protein-rich fish biomass. The enhanced production will also cater to nutritional and livelihood security of the dependent fishers.


Assuntos
Carpas , Pesqueiros , Animais , Aquicultura , Ecossistema , Áreas Alagadas
8.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(1)2022 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36611649

RESUMO

Utilizing agro-industrial waste and herbal products to create a circular bioeconomy is becoming increasingly popular. Terminalia arjuna is a significant ethnomedicinal plant that has not yet been exploited in animal feed. In the present study, nutritional Terminalia arjuna bark powder-based fish feed was created and supplied to a candidate fish species Labeo rohita at varied levels: 0% (0 g/kg), 0.5% (5 g/kg), 1% (10 g/kg), and 1.5% (15 g/kg). These treatment groups are denoted as CT, T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Utilizing a contemporary comprehensive biomarker response strategy, the study clarified the genomic influence of dietary herb inclusion. In response to bacterial infection, the immunogenic genes, STAT 1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1), ISG 15 (interferon stimulating gene), and Mx "myxovirus resistance gene", were shown to be elevated. The results of densitometry demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in STAT 1 and ISG 15, with Mx exhibiting maximal values at 1 g/kg TABP (Terminalia arjuna bark powder-based feed). This is the first study to identify TABP as an immunomodulator in fish and established the IBR (Integrated Bio-marker Response) as a reliable marker in evaluating the impact of multiple drivers in a holistic manner. Thus, the present study cleared the path for TABP to be utilized as an effective feed additive which enhances the specific adaptive immune system of the fish for the production of the Green fish product for a sustainable circular bioeconomy.

9.
Mitochondrial DNA ; 26(3): 334-6, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25909754

RESUMO

A 307 bp segment of Cytochrome b gene of mtDNA was sequenced and analyzed for 90 individuals of Cirrhinus mrigala collected across the three rivers, namely Ganges, Narmada and Brahmaputra. Analyses revealed the presence of 14 haplotypes with haplotype diversity (h) ranging from 0.304 to 0.692, and nucleotide diversity (π) 0.002-0.043. The majority of variation was found within the population (96.21%), and the FST value (0.035) as well as the value of exact test of population differentiation (0.893) were found to be insignificant (p<0.05). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) also indicated insignificant differentiation among sub-populations. Generally, low genetic differences were observed even though those populations were from different geographic locations. The present study suggests a single panmictic population of C. mrigala across the three rivers of India.


Assuntos
Carpas/genética , Citocromos b/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Variação Genética , Análise de Variância , Animais , Composição de Bases , Citocromos b/química , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Deriva Genética , Haplótipos , Índia , Polimorfismo Genético , Rios , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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