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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3480, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347058

RESUMO

The ability to parse sound mixtures into coherent auditory objects is fundamental to cognitive functions, such as speech comprehension and language acquisition. Yet, we still lack a clear understanding of how auditory objects are formed. To address this question, we studied a speech-specific case of perceptual multistability, called verbal transformations (VTs), in which a variety of verbal forms is induced by continuous repetition of a physically unchanging word. Here, we investigated the degree to which auditory memory through sensory adaptation influences VTs. Specifically, we hypothesized that when memory persistence is longer, participants are able to retain the current verbal form longer, resulting in sensory adaptation, which in turn, affects auditory perception. Participants performed VT and auditory memory tasks on different days. In the VT task, Japanese participants continuously reported their perception while listening to a Japanese word (2- or 3-mora in length) played repeatedly for 5 min. In the auditory memory task, a different sequence of three morae, e.g., /ka/, /hi/, and /su/, was presented to each ear simultaneously. After some period (0-4 s), participants were visually cued to recall one of the sequences, i.e., in the left or right ear. We found that delayed recall accuracy was negatively correlated with the number of VTs, particularly under 2-mora conditions. This suggests that memory persistence is important for formation and selection of perceptual objects.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Sinais (Psicologia) , Cognição , Fala , Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção Auditiva
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9210, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654875

RESUMO

Auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are basic neural responses used to probe the ability of auditory circuits to produce synchronous activity to repetitive external stimulation. Reduced ASSR has been observed in patients with schizophrenia, especially at 40 Hz. Although ASSR is a translatable biomarker with a potential both in animal models and patients with schizophrenia, little is known about the features of ASSR in monkeys. Herein, we recorded the ASSR from humans, rhesus monkeys, and marmosets using the same method to directly compare the characteristics of ASSRs among the species. We used auditory trains on a wide range of frequencies to investigate the suitable frequency for ASSRs induction, because monkeys usually use stimulus frequency ranges different from humans for vocalization. We found that monkeys and marmosets also show auditory event-related potentials and phase-locking activity in gamma-frequency trains, although the optimal frequency with the best synchronization differed among these species. These results suggest that the ASSR could be a useful translational, cross-species biomarker to examine the generation of gamma-band synchronization in nonhuman primate models of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Callithrix , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Couro Cabeludo
3.
Front Neuroanat ; 13: 74, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417370

RESUMO

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), surrounding the genu of the corpus callosum, plays important roles in emotional processing and is functionally divided into the dorsal, perigenual, and subgenual subregions (dACC, pgACC, and sgACC, respectively). Previous studies have suggested that the pgACC and sgACC have distinctive roles in the regulation of emotion. In order to elicit appropriate emotional responses, these ACC regions require sensory information from the environment. Anatomically, the ACC has rich connections with the temporal lobe, where the higher-order processing of sensory information takes place. To clarify the organization of sensory inputs into the ACC subregions, we injected neuronal tracers into the pgACC, sgACC, and dACC and compared the afferent connections. Previously, we analyzed the afferent projections from the amygdala and found a distinct pattern for the sgACC. In the present study, the patterns of the afferent projections were analyzed in the temporal cortex, especially the temporal pole (TP) and medial temporal areas. After tracers were injected into the sgACC, we observed labeled neurons in the TP and the subiculum of the hippocampal formation. The majority of the labeled cell bodies were found in the superficial layers of the TP ("feedforward" type projections). The pgACC received afferent projections from the TP, the entorhinal cortex (EC), and the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), but not from the hippocampus. In each area, the labeled cells were mainly found in the deep layers ("feedback" type projection). The pattern for the dACC was similar to that for the pgACC. Previous studies suggested that the pgACC, but not the sgACC receive projections from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). These data suggest that the sgACC plays crucial roles for emotional responses based on sensory and mnemonic inputs from the anterior temporal lobe, whereas the pgACC is more related to the cognitive control of emotion.

4.
Conscious Cogn ; 71: 86-91, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978617

RESUMO

Pitch classes (e.g., do, re, and mi) in music evoke color sensations in pitch class-color synesthesia, which is a recently described form of synesthesia in musicians. The synesthetic color sensations were confirmed to be consistent over an extended time interval, fulfilling a widely-accepted criterion for the authenticity of synesthesia. However, it remains unclear whether the color sensations occurred automatically (i.e., without voluntary effort), which is another defining property of synesthesia. We utilized the Stroop paradigm to investigate this issue in 10 pitch class-color synesthetes. Participants were visually presented with pitch class names in font colors that were either congruent or incongruent with the participants' own color sensations. The speed for reporting the font color was slower when it was incongruent with the synesthetic sensation than when it was congruent. The finding verifies the authenticity of pitch class-color synesthesia by demonstrating that the color sensations occur automatically, even when unnecessary.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Música , Percepção da Altura Sonora/fisiologia , Sinestesia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
5.
Neurosci Lett ; 681: 93-99, 2018 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803854

RESUMO

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is crucial for emotional processing, and its abnormal activities contributes to mood disorders. The ACC is divided into three subregions: the dorsal ACC (dACC), perigenual ACC (pgACC), and subgenual ACC (sgACC). Although these regions have been implicated in emotional processing, the dACC is more involved in cognitive functions, while the other two regions are important in the pathophysiology underlying mood disorders. Recent studies have suggested that the sgACC and pgACC exhibit opposite emotion-related activity patterns and that an interaction of the ACC with the amygdala is crucial for emotion-related ACC functions. Here, we injected neuronal tracers into the sgACC, pgACC, and dACC of macaques and quantitatively compared the distributions of the retrogradely labeled neurons in the amygdalar nuclei. For both the dACC and pgACC, about 90% of the labeled neurons were found in the basal nucleus, about 10% were in the accessory basal nucleus, and the lateral nucleus had almost no neuronal labeling. However, after sgACC injections, nearly half of the labeled neurons were found in the accessory basal nucleus, and a moderate number of labeled neurons were found in the lateral nucleus. These differences in amygdalar inputs might underlie the functional differences in the sgACC and pgACC. Moreover, after tracer injections in the sgACC, labeled neurons were observed in the pgACC and not the dACC, suggesting that the pgACC directly influences the activity of the sgACC.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Vias Aferentes/química , Vias Aferentes/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/química , Animais , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/química , Macaca , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/química , Córtex Pré-Frontal/química , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17781, 2017 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29259260

RESUMO

Synesthesia, an anomalous blending of senses in which stimulation of one sensory modality produces sensation in a different modality, provides a unique opportunity to study how multimodal information is represented in the human brain. We investigated how pitch classes (do, re, mi, etc.) are associated with the three dimensions of color (hue, saturation, and value/brightness) in 15 subjects who possessed "pitch class-color synesthesia". Across-subject averaging of reported colors revealed that pitch classes have rainbow hues, beginning with do-red, re-yellow, and so forth, ending with si-violet, accompanied by a decrease in saturation. Enharmonic pitch classes that referred to the same pitch class with a different name produced color sensations according to the name of the base pitch class, e.g., a reddish color for do-sharp and a yellowish color for re-flat. Thus the main factor producing color sensations was the name, not the sound, of the note; behavioral experiments corroborated this interpretation. Pitch class-color synesthesia represents a newly described type of synesthesia that is distinct from the well-known crossmodal association between pitch height and value/brightness. Findings suggest that the two dimensions of musical pitch, pitch class and pitch height, are mapped to the hue-saturation plane and the value/brightness dimension of color, respectively.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Transtornos da Percepção/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Som , Sinestesia , Adulto Jovem
7.
eNeuro ; 4(5)2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085907

RESUMO

The neural processes underlying self-initiated behavior (behavior that is initiated without an external stimulus trigger) are not well understood. This event-related fMRI study investigated the neural origins of self-initiated behaviors in humans, by identifying brain regions that increased in neural activities several seconds prior to self-initiated movements. Subjects performed a hand grasping task under two conditions: a free-timing and cued timing condition. The supplementary motor area (SMA) began to activate several seconds prior to self-initiated movement (accounting for hemodynamic delay), representing a potential blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal correlate of the readiness potential (RP) on electroencephalogram (EEG), referred to here as "readiness BOLD signals." Significant readiness BOLD signals were also observed in the right frontoparietal areas, precuneus, and insula, all of which are known to contribute to internally-generated behaviors, but with no prior evidence for such early and slow accumulation of neural activities. Moreover, visual and auditory cortices also exhibited clear readiness BOLD signals with similar early onsets, even absent external stimulation. Slow accumulation of neural activities throughout distributed cortical areas, including sensory, association, and motor cortices, underlies the generation of self-initiated behaviors. These findings warrant reconsideration of the prevailing view that the SMA or some other specific locus in frontoparietal cortex serves as the ultimate neural origin of self-initiated movement.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Mãos/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Oxigênio/sangue , Adulto Jovem
8.
Eur J Neurosci ; 36(12): 3653-64, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23013365

RESUMO

Localised brain tissue damage activates surrounding astrocytes, which significantly influences subsequent long-term pathological processes. Most existing focal brain injury models in rodents employ craniotomy to localise mechanical insults. However, the craniotomy procedure itself induces gliosis. To investigate perilesional astrocyte activation under conditions in which the skull is intact, we created focal brain injuries using light exposure through a cranial window made by thinning the skull without inducing gliosis. The lesion size was maximal at ~ 12 h and showed substantial recovery over the subsequent 30 days. Two distinct types of perilesional reactive astrocyte, identified by GFAP upregulation and hypertrophy, were found. In proximal regions the reactive astrocytes proliferated and expressed nestin, whereas in regions distal to the injury core the astrocytes showed increased GFAP expression but did not proliferate, lacked nestin expression, and displayed different morphology. Simply making the window did not induce any of these changes. There were also significant numbers of neurons in the recovering cortical tissue. In the recovery region, reactive astrocytes radially extended processes which appeared to influence the shapes of neuronal nuclei. The proximal reactive astrocytes also formed a cell layer which appeared to serve as a protective barrier, blocking the spread of IgG deposition and migration of microglia from the lesion core to surrounding tissue. The recovery was preceded by perilesional accumulation of leukocytes expressing vascular endothelial growth factor. These results suggest that, under intact skull conditions, focal brain injury is followed by perilesional reactive astrocyte activities that foster cortical tissue protection and recovery.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Cicatrização , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida , Gliose/patologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/genética , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Leucócitos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Nestina , Neurônios/patologia , Crânio/cirurgia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
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