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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238337, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249249

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236499, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153462

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

4.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614273

RESUMO

Vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) are known to serve as nitrogen reserves in many dicot plants but remain undiscovered in grasses, most widely grown group of crops globally. We identified and characterized a VSP in maize and demonstrated that its overexpression improved drought tolerance. Nitrogen supplementation selectively induced a mesophyll lipoxygenase (ZmLOX6), which was targeted to chloroplasts by a novel N-terminal transit peptide of 62 amino acids. When ectopically expressed under the control of various tissue specific promoters, it accumulated to a five-fold higher level upon expression in the mesophyll cells than the wildtype plants. Constitutive expression or targeted expression specifically to the bundle sheath cells increased its accumulation by less than two-fold. The overexpressed ZmLOX6 was remobilized from the leaves like other major proteins during grain development. Evaluated in the field over locations and years, transgenic hybrids overexpressing ZmLOX6 in the mesophyll cells significantly outyielded non-transgenic sibs under managed drought stress imposed at flowering. Additional storage of nitrogen as a VSP in maize leaves ameliorated the effect of drought on grain yield.

5.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420186

RESUMO

Allium species, belonging to Alliaceae family, are among the oldest cultivated vegetables used as food. Garlic, onions, leeks and chives, which belong to this family, have been reported to have medicinal properties. The Allium species constituents have been shown to have antibacterial and antioxidant activities, and, in addition, other biological properties. These activities are related to their rich organosulfur compounds. These organosulfur compounds are believed to prevent the development of cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, diabetes, liver diseases as well as allergy and arthritis. There have also been reports on toxicities of these compounds. The major active compounds of Allium species includes, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, diallyl sulfide, dipropyl disulfide, dipropyl trisulfide, 1-propenylpropyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide and dimethyl disulfide. The aim of this review is to focus on a variety of experimental and clinical reports on the effectiveness, toxicities and possible mechanisms of actions of the active compounds of garlic, onions, leek and chives.

6.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 263: 120156, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293668

RESUMO

The growth of tumor tissue is extremely pervasive among post-menopausal women. Commonly, from the clinical application, adjuvant selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen are prescribed for prohibiting metastatic breast cancer, while its analog, clomiphene, is used to treat infertility in women. Lately, the significance of green chemistry on our environment was through reducing the influence of hazardous chemicals. Consequently, efforts were screened to perform a fast and simple eco-friendly green method for the determination of two aromatase inhibitors. In this study, a sensitive green spectrofluorimetric approach was developed to detect and characterize tamoxifen citrate (TAM) and clomiphene citrate (CLO) via complex formation with erythrosine B. The reaction between erythrosine B dye (EB) and the two aromatase inhibitors results in quenching the fluorescence activity of the dye by the formation of ion-pair in Britton-Robinson buffer (BRB) solution (pH 4.3) at 554 nm (λex = 527 nm). The approach outcome confirmed that the solvent's inherent nature has a critical impact on the approachs' sensitivity and reproducibility. An approved linear correlation was achieved between the reduction in the emission value of EB's fluorescence and the concentration in the ranges of 40.0-600.0 ng/mL for both TAM and CLO with mean % recoveries 100.20 ± 0.93 and 100.07 ± 1.09, respectively. The approach was validated regarding ICH protocols, and the outcomes were acceptable. The changes in Gibb's free energy (ΔG°) by the obtained ion-pair between EB and TAM or CLO were -36.65 or -37.03 kJ mol-1, respectively, which indicates the reaction feasibility at ambient temperature. Commercial dosage forms for TAM and CLO were simply analyzed, and good recoveries were achieved within the range. The National Environmental Methods Index, Analytical Eco-Scale, and Green Analytical Procedure Index applications to our illustrated approach present additional eligibility to this study.


Assuntos
Clomifeno , Eritrosina , Feminino , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tamoxifeno
7.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 1101-1109, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: National cancer control strategies have been identified as essential tools for reducing and managing the growing burden of cancer in low- and middle-income countries. Cancer registration is an instrumental component of any cancer control strategy, providing the data to inform effective cancer policy. In the Middle East, North Africa, and Turkey (MENAT) region, cancer registration varies immensely and faces multifaceted challenges including protracted conflict. This study investigates and maps out the present capacities and outputs of cancer registration in the MENAT region and identifies thematic barriers facing implementation and utilization of cancer registry data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a self-administered online survey with open and close-ended questions targeting national and institutional cancer registry managers in the MENAT countries. RESULTS: Registry managers from 19 MENAT countries reported the presence of 97 population-based, 48 hospital-based, and 24 pathology-based registries. Most population-based registries were well- or partially developed. Lack of accurate death records, complete medical records, and communication between stakeholders and deficiencies in trained personnel were critical challenges that were more severe in active conflict zones and neighboring conflict-affected regions. Cancer registration challenges included weak health infrastructure, absence of legislation mandating cancer registration, and disruption of cancer registration because of active conflict and loss of funding. Refugee host countries, such as Lebanon, Turkey, and Jordan, also reported conflict-related challenges including refugee mobility and lack of accurate data on forced migrants. CONCLUSION: This study provides a much-needed understanding of the current landscape and contextual challenges affecting cancer registration in the MENAT. These data are important for identifying areas on which to focus regional capacity-strengthening initiatives.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Humanos , Jordânia , Líbano , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
8.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(9): 3497-3512, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999335

RESUMO

Targeting oxidative stress and inflammation by novel dietary compounds of natural origin convincingly appears to be one of the most important therapeutic strategies to keep inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis disease in remission. It is imperative to investigate naturally occuring plant-derived dietary phytochemicals that are receiving attention for their therapeutic benefits to overcome the debilitating conditions of IBD. In the present study, the effect of nerolidol (NRD), a monocyclic sesquiterpene found in German Chamomile tea, was investigated in acetic acid-induced colitis model in Wistar rats. NRD was orally administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day either for 3 days before or 30 min after induction of IBD for 7 days, after intrarectal administration of acetic acid. The body weight, macroscopic, and microscopic analyses of the colon in different experimental groups were observed on days 0, 2, 4, and 7. Acetic acid caused significant reduction in body weight and induced macroscopic and microscopic ulcer along with a significant decline of antioxidants, concomitant to increased malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, a marker of neutrophil activation. Treatment with NRD significantly improved IBD-induced reduction in body weight, improved histology, inhibited MDA formation, and restored antioxidants along with reduced MPO activity. Acetic acid also induced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased calprotectin, released by neutrophils under inflammatory conditions. NRD treatment significantly reduced calprotectin and pro-inflammatory cytokines. NRD treatment showed potential to improve disease activity and inhibit oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation along with histological preservation of the colon tissues.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/toxicidade , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10278, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986437

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer that causes death in women. Conventional therapies, including surgery and chemotherapy, have different therapeutic effects and are commonly associated with risks and side effects. Near infrared radiation is a technique with few side effects that is used for local hyperthermia, typically as an adjuvant to other cancer therapies. The understanding of the use of near NIR as a monotherapy, and its effects on the immune cells activation and infiltration, are limited. In this study, we investigate the effects of HT treatment using NIR on tumor regression and on the immune cells and molecules in breast tumors. Results from this study demonstrated that local HT by NIR at 43 °C reduced tumor progression and significantly increased the median survival of tumor-bearing mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significant reduction in cells proliferation in treated tumor, which was accompanied by an abundance of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). Increased numbers of activated dendritic cells were observed in the draining lymph nodes of the mice, along with infiltration of T cells, NK cells and B cells into the tumor. In contrast, tumor-infiltrated regulatory T cells were largely diminished from the tumor. In addition, higher IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion was observed in tumor of treated mice. Overall, results from this present study extends the understanding of using local HT by NIR to stimulate a favourable immune response against breast cancer.

10.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238337, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978080

RESUMO

Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Paquistão , Filogenia
11.
Appl Clin Inform ; 12(2): 355-361, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug alerts are clinical decision support tools intended to prevent medication misadministration. In teaching hospitals, residents encounter the majority of the drug alerts while learning under variable workloads and responsibilities that may have an impact on drug-alert response rates. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to explore drug-alert experience and salience among postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1), postgraduate year 2 (PGY-2), and postgraduate year 3 (PGY-3) internal medicine resident physicians at two different institutions. METHODS: Drug-alert information was queried from the electronic health record (EHR) for 47 internal medicine residents at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center (UPMC) Pinnacle in Pennsylvania, and 79 internal medicine residents at the MetroHealth System (MHS) in Ohio from December 2018 through February 2019. Salience was defined as the percentage of drug alerts resulting in removal or modification of the triggering order. Comparisons were made across institutions, residency training year, and alert burden. RESULTS: A total of 126 residents were exposed to 52,624 alerts over a 3-month period. UPMC Pinnacle had 15,574 alerts with 47 residents and MHS had 37,050 alerts with 79 residents. At MHS, salience was 8.6% which was lower than UPMC Pinnacle with 15%. The relatively lower salience (42% lower) at MHS corresponded to a greater number of alerts-per-resident (41% higher) compared with UPMC Pinnacle. Overall, salience was 11.6% for PGY-1, 10.5% for PGY-2, and 8.9% for PGY-3 residents. CONCLUSION: Our results are suggestive of long-term drug-alert desensitization during progressive residency training. A higher number of alerts-per-resident correlating with a lower salience suggests alert fatigue; however, other factors should also be considered including differences in workload and culture.

12.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825759

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
13.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236499, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729383

RESUMO

Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Assuntos
Chuva , Roedores , Agricultura , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Paquistão , Ratos , Simbiose
14.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787717

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
15.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 252: 119495, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524820

RESUMO

In the present study, different spectroscopic techniques have been used to study the binding interaction between the antidepressant drug fluvoxamine and human serum albumin under simulated physiological conditions (pH 7.4). The utilized spectroscopic techniques include fluorescence emission spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and molecular modeling methods. The obtained results revealed that the formation of a complex between human serum albumin and fluvoxamine was responsible for quenching the native fluorescence of human serum albumin. The results indicated that the quenching mechanism between human serum albumin and fluvoxamine was static. Besides, the binding constant (K), number of binding sites (n), thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG), and binding forces were calculated at three different temperatures (298, 310, and 318 K). These data proposed that hydrophobic forces were the principal intermolecular forces stabilizing the complex. From the molecular docking results, it could be deduced that fluvoxamine was inserted into sub-domain II A (site I) of human serum albumin and led to a slight change in human serum albumin conformation.


Assuntos
Fluvoxamina , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Albumina Sérica Humana , Sítios de Ligação , Dicroísmo Circular , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termodinâmica
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 18-26, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153311

RESUMO

Abstract Plant growth regulators and improved planting density are the innovative techniques in the establishment of more productive cotton crop. A field study was planned to assess the role of growth regulators in the resource utilization efficiency of cotton cultivars under different row spacing at Agronomic Research Area, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan and Usmania Agricultural Farm, Shujaabad during Kharif 2012. The study was comprised of cotton cultivars viz. CIM-573 and CIM-598, cultivated under conventional (75 cm), medium (50 cm) and improved ultra-narrow row spacing (25 cm) and foliar spray of growth regulators viz. moringa leaf extract (MLE) and mepiquat chloride (MC), either alone or in combination, distilled water as a control. The application of MLE alone and in combination (MLE + MC) showed the promoting effect on crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area index, leaf area duration, sympodial branches and number of bolls leading to higher seed cotton yield of both cotton cultivars grown under conventional row spacing. While application of MC averts the plant growth without considerably improving the productivity. MLE being rich source of growth promoting hormone and nutrients showed its potential to a far greater extent under conventional row spacing in efficient utilization of available resources compared to MC and distilled water.


Resumo Reguladores de crescimento de plantas e melhor densidade de plantio são técnicas inovadoras no estabelecimento de culturas mais produtivas de algodão. Um estudo de campo foi planejado com o objetivo de avaliar o papel dos reguladores de crescimento na eficiência de uso de recursos de cultivares de algodão sob diferentes espaçamentos na Área de Pesquisa Agronômica, da Universidade Multil de Bahauddin Zakariya, e na Fazenda Agrícola da Usmania, Shujabad, durante o Kharif 2012. O estudo foi composto de cultivares de algodão CIM-573 e CIM-598, cultivados em espaçamento de linhas convencional (75 cm), médio (50 cm) e superestreito (25 cm) e de pulverização foliar de reguladores de crescimento, a saber, extrato de folhas de moringa (MLE) e cloreto de mepiquat (MC), isoladamente ou em combinação, e água destilada como controle. A aplicação de MLE isoladamente e em combinação (MLE + MC) mostrou efeito promotor na taxa de crescimento da cultura, taxa de assimilação líquida, índice de área foliar, duração de área foliar, ramos simpodiais e número de cápsulas levando à maior produção de algodão nas cultivares com espaçamento de linha convencional. Em contrapartida, a aplicação de MC evitou o crescimento da planta sem melhorar consideravelmente a produtividade. O MLE, por ser uma rica fonte de hormônio promotor de crescimento e nutrientes, mostrou seu potencial em uma extensão muito maior sob o espaçamento convencional entre as linhas no uso eficiente dos recursos disponíveis em comparação com o MC e a água destilada.

17.
Pain ; 162(7): 1935-1956, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470748

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an interventional nonpharmacologic treatment used for chronic pain and other indications. Methods for evaluating the safety and efficacy of SCS have evolved from uncontrolled and retrospective studies to prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Although randomization overcomes certain types of bias, additional challenges to the validity of RCTs of SCS include blinding, choice of control groups, nonspecific effects of treatment variables (eg, paresthesia, device programming and recharging, psychological support, and rehabilitative techniques), and safety considerations. To address these challenges, 3 professional societies (Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials, Institute of Neuromodulation, and International Neuromodulation Society) convened a meeting to develop consensus recommendations on the design, conduct, analysis, and interpretation of RCTs of SCS for chronic pain. This article summarizes the results of this meeting. Highlights of our recommendations include disclosing all funding source and potential conflicts; incorporating mechanistic objectives when possible; avoiding noninferiority designs without internal demonstration of assay sensitivity; achieving and documenting double-blinding whenever possible; documenting investigator and site experience; keeping all information provided to patients balanced with respect to expectation of benefit; disclosing all information provided to patients, including verbal scripts; using placebo/sham controls when possible; capturing a complete set of outcome assessments; accounting for ancillary pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments in a clear manner; providing a complete description of intended and actual programming interactions; making a prospective ascertainment of SCS-specific safety outcomes; training patients and researchers on appropriate expectations, outcome assessments, and other key aspects of study performance; and providing transparent and complete reporting of results according to applicable reporting guidelines.


Assuntos
Estimulação da Medula Espinal , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Hand Surg Am ; 46(3): 250.e1-250.e5, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698979

RESUMO

This case report presents an application of peripheral nerve stimulation to the median nerve to treat a patient with intractable pain due to a lipofibromatous hamartoma of the left upper extremity. Ultra high-frequency ultrasound was used to determine the boundaries of the hamartoma. The patient then underwent an ultrasound-guided implantation of 2 stimulator electrodes distal to the elbow along the median nerve with stimulation coverage achieved at 1.2 and 1.4 mA, respectively. After an uneventful procedure, the pain score immediately decreased from 9 out of 10 to less than 6 on a numeric rating scale. Two weeks after the procedure, the patient reported substantial pain relief, with an average pain level of 5 to 6 out of 10. Twelve months after implantation, the patient maintained significant pain relief, rating her average pain level as a 4 to 6 out of 10. Placement of a percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulator was safe and effective with no adverse events being reported at the 12-month follow-up.

19.
Braz J Biol ; 81(1): 18-26, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074169

RESUMO

Plant growth regulators and improved planting density are the innovative techniques in the establishment of more productive cotton crop. A field study was planned to assess the role of growth regulators in the resource utilization efficiency of cotton cultivars under different row spacing at Agronomic Research Area, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan and Usmania Agricultural Farm, Shujaabad during Kharif 2012. The study was comprised of cotton cultivars viz. CIM-573 and CIM-598, cultivated under conventional (75 cm), medium (50 cm) and improved ultra-narrow row spacing (25 cm) and foliar spray of growth regulators viz. moringa leaf extract (MLE) and mepiquat chloride (MC), either alone or in combination, distilled water as a control. The application of MLE alone and in combination (MLE + MC) showed the promoting effect on crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area index, leaf area duration, sympodial branches and number of bolls leading to higher seed cotton yield of both cotton cultivars grown under conventional row spacing. While application of MC averts the plant growth without considerably improving the productivity. MLE being rich source of growth promoting hormone and nutrients showed its potential to a far greater extent under conventional row spacing in efficient utilization of available resources compared to MC and distilled water.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Humanos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Água
20.
J Pain ; 22(2): 127-142, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574787

RESUMO

This systematic review assessed design characteristics and reporting quality of published randomized clinical trials of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for treatment of pain in adults and adolescents. The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018090412). Relevant articles were identified by searching the following databases through December 31, 2018: MEDLINE, Embase, WikiStim, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Forty-six studies were included. Eighty-seven percent of articles identified a pain-related primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included physical functioning, health-related quality of life, and reductions in opioid use. Nineteen of the 46 studies prespecified adverse events as an outcome, with 4 assessing them as a primary outcome. Eleven studies stated that they blinded participants. Of these, only 5 were assessed as being adequately blinded. The number of participants enrolled was generally low (median 38) and study durations were short (median 12 weeks), particularly in studies of angina. Fifteen studies employed an intention-to-treat analysis, of which only seven specified a method to accommodate missing data. Review of these studies identified deficiencies in both reporting and methodology. The review's findings suggest areas for improving the design of future studies and increasing transparency of reporting. PERSPECTIVE: This article presents a systematic review of research methods and reporting quality of randomized clinical trials of SCS for the treatment of various pain complaints. The review identifies deficiencies in both methodology and reporting, which may inform the design of future studies and improve reporting standards.

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